In Latvian folk culture a Lietuvēns is thought to be a soul of a killed (strangled, drowned or hanged) person which attacks both people and domestic animals. Sleep paralysis is thought to be torture or strangling by a Lietuvēns. When under attack, one must move the toe of the left foot to get rid of the attacker.
- P. Šmits. "Latviešu tautas ticējumi". Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (in Latvian). Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science University of Latvia. Retrieved 21 February 2013.