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Liberal government, 1905–1915

  (Redirected from Liberal Government 1905–1915)
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was Prime Minister from 1905–1908 and was succeeded by H. H. Asquith.
Asquith led the Government from 1908. He formed a coalition ministry in 1915 in response to the outbreak of the First World War.

The Liberal government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that began in 1905 and ended in 1915 consisted of two ministries: the Campbell-Bannerman ministry (from 1905 to 1908) and then the first Asquith ministry (from 1908 onwards).

Contents

FormationEdit

With the fall of Arthur Balfour's Conservative government in the United Kingdom in December 1905, the Liberals under Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman were called in to form a government. In the subsequent election, the Liberals won an enormous majority.[1] Campbell-Bannerman was succeeded as prime minister by H. H. Asquith in 1908.[2]

PoliciesEdit

The Liberal government was supported by 29 Labour Party MPs. Chancellor David Lloyd George crafted the People's Budget and introduced a great deal of social legislation,[3] such as old age pensions and unemployment insurance for a significant part of the working population. For many working people, for whom in old age the threat of the workhouse was very real, these represented a very significant change. Equally groundbreaking was the Parliament Act 1911 which:

  • Removed the law-making veto from the House of Lords thus rendering it constitutionally most expedient to run any future government from the House of Commons
  • Enshrined into law the previous convention, which the Lords had broken in 1909, that the Lords may not reject Money Bills
  • Cut the length of Parliaments from seven years to five

Many of the members of Asquith's cabinet, however, opposed the social measures promulgated by leading figures such as Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George. This resistance was arguably a reflection of the extent to which many Liberals still adhered to the Party's Gladstonian, classical liberal tradition in spite of the growth of the "New Liberalism". Morley was opposed to both old-age pensions and the provisions of the Trade Boards Act of 1909, while Runciman was against the eight-hour day for miners and compensation for workers. Burns, Bryce, Loreburn, and W.S. Robson were opposed to land reform, insurance, and the feeding of schoolchildren,[4] while several cabinet members[5] (such as Crewe,[6] Fitzmaurice,[7] Harcourt,[8] and McKenna[9]) were critical of Lloyd George's progressive "People's Budget." Nevertheless, according to Neil Smith, the majority of the members of the Edwardian Liberal Cabinets were supportive of social reform and social progress.[10] As noted by one study,

They (the Liberal Cabinet members) sought to respond to the discontent of the electorate by using the existing structure of government to correct the ills of society through innovative legislation. Two-thirds of the Liberal candidates, including Edwin Montagu, had pledged support for such measures during the campaign. While their support was often expressed in general terms, their intent was clear: Social and economic reform must be the first order of the new government.[11]

FateEdit

Although the government lost a great deal of support by the two general elections of 1910, they managed to hold on by dint of support from the Irish Parliamentary Party. After early mismanagement during the First World War, particularly the failure of the Dardanelles Campaign, Asquith was forced to bring the Unionists into the government in a coalition.[12]

CabinetsEdit

Campbell-Bannerman ministryEdit

Campbell-Bannerman ministry
1905–1908
 
Date formed 5 December 1905 (1905-12-05)
Date dissolved 7 April 1908 (1908-04-07)
People and organisations
Head of state Edward VII
Head of government Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Member party Liberal Party
Status in legislature
Opposition party Conservative Party
Opposition leaders
History
Election(s) 1906 general election
Legislature term(s)
Predecessor Balfour ministry
Successor First Asquith ministry

ChangesEdit

Asquith ministryEdit

First Asquith ministry
1908–1915
 
Asquith (1908)
Date formed 7 April 1908 (1908-04-07)
Date dissolved 25 May 1915 (1915-05-25)
People and organisations
Head of state
Head of government H. H. Asquith
Head of government's history 1908–1916
Member party Liberal Party
Status in legislature
Opposition party Conservative Party
Opposition leaders
History
Election(s)
Legislature term(s)
Budget(s) People's Budget
Predecessor Campbell-Bannerman ministry
Successor Asquith coalition ministry
Office Name Term
Prime Minister
First Lord of the Treasury
H. H. Asquith May 1908 – May 1915
Lord Chancellor The Lord Loreburn[16] April 1908 – June 1912
  The Viscount Haldane June 1912 – May 1915
Lord President of the Council The Lord Tweedmouth April–September 1908
  The Viscount Wolverhampton September 1908 – June 1910
  The Earl Beauchamp June–November 1910
  The Viscount Morley of Blackburn November 1910 – August 1914
  The Earl Beauchamp August 1914 – May 1915
Lord Privy Seal The Marquess of Ripon May–October 1908
  The Earl of Crewe[17] October 1908 – October 1911
  The Earl Carrington October 1911 – February 1912
  The Marquess of Crewe February 1912 – May 1915
Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George May 1908 – May 1915
Home Secretary Herbert Gladstone May 1908 – February 1910
  Winston Churchill February 1910 – October 1911
  Reginald McKenna October 1911 – May 1915
Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey, Bt May 1908 – May 1915
Secretary of State for the Colonies The Earl of Crewe May 1908 – November 1910
  Lewis Harcourt November 1910 – May 1915
Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane[18] May 1908 – June 1912
  John Seely June 1912 – March 1914
  H. H. Asquith March–August 1914
  The Earl Kitchener August 1914 – May 1915
Secretary of State for India The Viscount Morley of Blackburn May 1908 – November 1910
  The Earl of Crewe November 1910 – May 1915
First Lord of the Admiralty Reginald McKenna May 1908 – October 1911
  Winston Churchill October 1911 – May 1915
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster The Viscount Wolverhampton May–September 1908
  The Lord FitzMaurice September 1908 – June 1909
  Herbert Samuel June 1909 – May 1910
  Joseph Pease May 1910 – October 1911
  Charles Hobhouse October 1911 – February 1914
  Charles Masterman February 1914 – January 1915
  Edwin Samuel Montagu January–May 1915
President of the Board of Trade Winston Churchill May 1908 – February 1910
  Sydney Buxton February 1910 – February 1914
  John Burns February–August 1914
  Walter Runciman August 1914 – May 1915
Secretary for Scotland John Sinclair[19] May 1908 – February 1912
  Thomas McKinnon Wood February 1912 – May 1915
Chief Secretary for Ireland Augustine Birrell May 1908 – May 1915
President of the Local Government Board John Burns May 1908 – February 1914
  Herbert Samuel February 1914 – May 1915`
President of the Board of Agriculture The Earl Carrington May 1908 – October 1911
  Walter Runciman October 1911 – August 1914
  The Lord Lucas August 1914 – May 1915
President of the Board of Education Walter Runciman May 1908 – October 1911
  Joseph Pease October 1911 – May 1915
Postmaster General Sydney Buxton May 1908 – February 1910
  Herbert Samuel February 1910 – February 1914
  Charles Hobhouse February 1914 – May 1915
First Commissioner of Works Lewis Harcourt May 1908 – November 1910
  The Earl Beauchamp November 1910 – August 1914
  The Lord Emmott August 1914 – May 1915
Attorney General Sir Rufus Isaacs[20] June 1912 – October 1913
  Sir John Simon October 1913 – May 1915

ChangesEdit

List of MinistersEdit

Members of the cabinet are in bold face.

Office Name Date
Prime Minister,
First Lord of the Treasury
and Leader of the House of Commons
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman 5 December 1905
H. H. Asquith 5 April 1908 –
 25 May 1915
Chancellor of the Exchequer H. H. Asquith 10 December 1905
David Lloyd George 12 April 1908
Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury
and Government Chief Whip in the House of Commons
George Whiteley 12 December 1905
Jack Pease 3 June 1908
The Master of Elibank 14 February 1910
Percy Illingworth 7 August 1912
John Gulland 24 January 1915
Financial Secretary to the Treasury Reginald McKenna 12 December 1905
Walter Runciman 29 January 1907
Charles Hobhouse 12 April 1908
Thomas McKinnon Wood 23 October 1911
Charles Masterman 13 February 1912
Edwin Montagu 11 February 1914
Francis Dyke Acland 3 February 1915
Junior Lords of the Treasury Herbert Lewis 18 December 1905 –
 7 July 1909
Jack Pease 18 December 1905 –
 3 June 1908
Freeman Freeman-Thomas 21 December 1905 –
 2 February 1906
Cecil Norton 21 December 1905 –
 7 July 1909
John Fuller 2 February 1906 –
 27 February 1907
John Henry Whitley 27 February 1907 –
 20 February 1910
Oswald Partington 7 July 1909 –
 19 January 1911
John Gulland 7 July 1909 –
 24 January 1915
William Wedgwood Benn 20 February 1910 –
 25 May 1915
Ernest Soares 20 February 1910 –
 16 April 1911
Percy Illingworth 28 February 1910 –
 7 August 1912
William Jones 19 January 1911 –
 25 May 1915
Freddie Guest 16 April 1911 –
 21 February 1912
Sir Arthur Haworth 23 February 1912 –
 16 April 1912
Henry Webb 16 April 1912 –
 25 May 1915
Cecil Beck 3 February 1915 –
 25 May 1915
Walter Rea 3 February 1915 –
 25 May 1915
Lord Chancellor The Lord Loreburn[a] 10 December 1905
The Viscount Haldane 10 June 1912
Lord President of the Council The Earl of Crewe 10 December 1905
The Lord Tweedmouth 12 April 1908
The Viscount Wolverhampton 13 October 1908
The Earl Beauchamp 16 June 1910
The Viscount Morley of Blackburn 3 November 1910
The Earl Beauchamp 5 August 1914
Lord Privy Seal The Marquess of Ripon[b] 10 December 1905
The Earl of Crewe[c] 9 October 1908
The Earl Carrington 23 October 1911
The Marquess of Crewe[d] 13 February 1912
Secretary of State for the Home Department Herbert Gladstone 10 December 1905
Winston Churchill 14 February 1910
Reginald McKenna 23 October 1911
Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department Herbert Samuel 12 December 1905
Charles Masterman 7 July 1909
Ellis Ellis-Griffith 19 February 1912
Cecil Harmsworth 4 February 1915
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Sir Edward Grey 10 December 1905
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice[e] 18 December 1905
Thomas McKinnon Wood 19 October 1908
Francis Dyke Acland 23 October 1911
Neil Primrose 4 February 1915
Secretary of State for the Colonies The Earl of Elgin 10 December 1905
The Earl of Crewe[f] 12 April 1908
Lewis Harcourt 3 November 1910
Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies Winston Churchill 12 December 1905
J. E. B. Seely 12 April 1908
The Lord Lucas of Crudwell 23 March 1911
The Lord Emmott 23 October 1911
The Lord Islington 10 August 1915
Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane[g] 10 December 1905
J. E. B. Seely 12 June 1912
H. H. Asquith[h] 30 March 1914
The Earl Kitchener 5 August 1914
Under-Secretary of State for War The Earl of Portsmouth 12 December 1905
The Lord Lucas of Crudwell 12 April 1908
J. E. B. Seely 23 March 1911
Harold Tennant 14 June 1912
Financial Secretary to the War Office Thomas Buchanan 14 December 1905
Francis Dyke Acland 12 April 1908
Charles Mallet 4 March 1910
Francis Dyke Acland 31 January 1911
Harold Tennant 25 October 1911
Harold Baker 14 June 1912
Secretary of State for India John Morley[i] 10 December 1905
The Earl of Crewe[j] 3 November 1910
The Viscount Morley of Blackburn 7 March 1911
The Earl of Crewe[k] 25 May 1911
Under-Secretary of State for India John Ellis 12 December 1905
Charles Hobhouse 29 January 1907
Thomas Buchanan 12 April 1908
The Master of Elibank 5 June 1909
Edwin Montagu 20 February 1910
Charles Roberts 17 February 1914
First Lord of the Admiralty The Lord Tweedmouth 10 December 1905
Reginald McKenna 12 April 1908
Winston Churchill 23 October 1911
Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty Edmund Robertson 12 December 1905
Thomas Macnamara 13 April 1908
Civil Lord of the Admiralty George Lambert 18 December 1905
President of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries The Earl Carrington 10 December 1905
Walter Runciman 23 October 1911
The Lord Lucas of Crudwell 6 August 1914
Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries Sir Edward Strachey 20 December 1909
The Lord Lucas 23 October 1911
Sir Harry Verney 10 August 1914
President of the Board of Education Augustine Birrell 10 December 1905
Reginald McKenna 23 January 1907
Walter Runciman 12 April 1908
Jack Pease 23 October 1911
Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Education Thomas Lough 18 December 1905
Thomas McKinnon Wood 13 April 1908
Sir Charles Trevelyan 19 October 1908
Christopher Addison 10 August 1914
Chief Secretary for Ireland James Bryce 10 December 1905
Augustine Birrell 23 January 1907
Vice President of the Department of Agriculture for Ireland Sir Horace Plunkett 12 December 1905
Thomas Russell 21 May 1907
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Sir Henry Fowler[l] 10 December 1905
The Lord Fitzmaurice 13 October 1908
Herbert Samuel 25 June 1909
Jack Pease 14 February 1910
Charles Hobhouse 23 October 1911
Charles Masterman 11 February 1914
Edwin Montagu 3 February 1915
President of the Local Government Board John Burns 10 December 1905
Herbert Samuel 11 February 1914
Parliamentary Secretary to the Local Government Board Walter Runciman 18 December 1905
Thomas Macnamara 29 January 1907
Charles Masterman 12 April 1908
Herbert Lewis 7 July 1909
Paymaster-General Richard Causton 12 December 1905
Ivor Guest[m] 23 February 1910
The Lord Strachie 23 May 1912
Postmaster-General Sydney Buxton 10 December 1905
Herbert Samuel 14 February 1910
Charles Hobhouse 11 February 1914
Assistant Postmaster-General Sir Henry Norman 3 January 1910
Cecil Norton 20 February 1910
Secretary for Scotland John Sinclair[n] 12 April 1908
Thomas McKinnon Wood 13 February 1912
President of the Board of Trade David Lloyd George 10 December 1905
Winston Churchill 12 April 1908
Sydney Buxton 14 February 1910
John Burns 11 February 1914
Walter Runciman 5 August 1914
Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade Hudson Kearley[o] 18 December 1905
Harold Tennant 10 January 1909
J. M. Robertson 25 October 1911
First Commissioner of Works Lewis Harcourt[p] 10 December 1905
The Earl Beauchamp 3 November 1910
The Lord Emmott 6 August 1914
Attorney General Sir John Lawson Walton 12 December 1905
Sir William Robson 28 January 1908
Sir Rufus Isaacs[q] 7 October 1910
Sir John Simon 19 October 1913
Solicitor General Sir William Robson 12 December 1905
Sir Samuel Thomas Evans 28 January 1908
Sir Rufus Isaacs 6 March 1910
Sir John Simon 7 October 1910
Sir Stanley Buckmaster 19 October 1913
Lord Advocate Thomas Shaw 12 December 1905
Alexander Ure 14 February 1909
Robert Munro 30 October 1913
Solicitor General for Scotland Alexander Ure 18 December 1905
Arthur Dewar 18 February 1909
William Hunter 18 April 1910
Andrew Anderson 3 December 1911
Thomas Morison 30 October 1913
Attorney General for Ireland Richard Cherry 20 December 1905
Redmond Barry 2 December 1909
Charles O'Connor 26 September 1911
Ignatius O'Brien 24 June 1912
Thomas Molony 10 April 1913
John Moriarty 20 June 1913
Jonathan Pim 1 July 1914
Solicitor General for Ireland Redmond Barry 20 December 1905
Charles O'Connor 2 December 1909
Ignatius O'Brien 19 October 1911
Thomas Molony 24 June 1912
John Moriarty 25 April 1913
Jonathan Pim 20 June 1913
James O'Connor 1 July 1914
Lord Steward of the Household The Lord Hawkesbury[r] 18 December 1905
The Earl Beauchamp 31 July 1907
The Earl of Chesterfield 22 June 1910
Lord Chamberlain of the Household The Viscount Althorp[s] 18 December 1905
The Lord Sandhurst 14 February 1912
Vice-Chamberlain of the Household Wentworth Beaumont[t] 18 December 1905
John Fuller[u] 27 February 1907
Geoffrey Howard 6 February 1911
Master of the Horse The Earl of Sefton 18 December 1905
The Earl of Granard 6 September 1907
Treasurer of the Household Sir Edward Strachey 18 December 1905
William Dudley Ward 20 December 1909
Freddie Guest 21 February 1912
Comptroller of the Household The Master of Elibank 18 December 1905
The Earl of Liverpool 12 July 1909
The Lord Saye and Sele 1 November 1912
Government Chief Whip in the House of Lords The Lord Ribblesdale 18 December 1905
The Lord Denman 29 May 1907
The Lord Colebrooke 15 March 1911
Captain of the Gentlemen-at-Arms The Earl Beauchamp 18 December 1905
The Lord Denman 31 July 1907
The Lord Colebrooke 26 June 1911
Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard The Duke of Manchester 18 December 1905
The Lord Allendale 29 April 1907
The Earl of Craven 2 October 1911
Lords in Waiting The Lord Denman 18 December 1905 –
 31 July 1907
The Earl of Granard 18 December 1905 –
 21 August 1907
The Lord Acton 18 December 1905 –
 25 May 1915
The Earl Granville 18 December 1905 –
 25 May 1915
The Lord Hamilton of Dalzell 18 December 1905 –
 2 October 1911
The Lord Colebrooke 21 February 1906 –
 26 June 1911
The Lord Herschell 31 July 1907 –
 25 May 1915
The Lord O'Hagan 1 November 1907 –
 15 April 1910
The Lord Tweedmouth 15 April 1910 –
 4 December 1911
The Lord Willingdon 19 July 1911  –
  31 January 1913
The Viscount Allendale 2 October 1911 –
 25 May 1915
The Lord Ashby St Ledgers[v] 31 January 1913 –
 8 February 1915
The Lord Stanmore 1 May 1914 –
 25 May 1915
The Lord Ranksborough 8 February 1915 –
 25 May 1915
Notes
  1. ^ Created Earl Loreburn 4 July 1911.
  2. ^ Also Leader of the House of Lords 10 December 1905 – 14 April 1908.
  3. ^ Also Leader of the House of Lords; created Marquess of Crewe 3 July 1911.
  4. ^ Also Leader of the House of Lords.
  5. ^ Created Baron Fitzmaurice 9 January 1906.
  6. ^ Also Leader of the House of Lords.
  7. ^ Created Viscount Haldane 27 March 1911.
  8. ^ Also Prime Minister.
  9. ^ Created Viscount Morley of Blackburn 2 May 1908.
  10. ^ Also Leader of the House of Lords.
  11. ^ Also Leader of the House of Lords; created Marquess of Crewe 3 July 1911.
  12. ^ Created Viscount Wolverhampton 4 May 1908.
  13. ^ Created Lord Ashby St Ledgers 15 March 1910.
  14. ^ Created Baron Pentland 15 February 1909.
  15. ^ Created a Baronet 22 July 1908.
  16. ^ Entered cabinet 27 March 1907.
  17. ^ Entered cabinet 4 June 1912.
  18. ^ Created Earl of Liverpool 22 December 1905.
  19. ^ Succeeded as 6th Earl Spencer 13 August 1910.
  20. ^ Succeeded as 2nd Lord Allendale 13 February 1907.
  21. ^ Created a Baronet 7 July 1910.
  22. ^ Succeeded as 2nd Lord Wimborne 22 February 1914.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Tout, T. F. (1910). An advanced history of Great Britain from the earliest times to the death of Edward VII. New York: Longmans, Green. p. 740. OL 13991885M. 
  1. ^ A. K. Russell, Liberal landslide : the general election of 1906 (1973).
  2. ^ Tuchman, Barbara. The Guns of August. Ed. Margaret Macmillan. New York: Library of America, 2008. p. 66.
  3. ^ John Grigg, Lloyd George: The People's Champion, 1902–1911 (1978)
  4. ^ Tanner, Duncan (1990). "Ideas and politics, 1906-1914". Political Change and the Labour Party 1900-1918. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0521329817. 
  5. ^ Murray, Bruce (Autumn 2009). "The "People's Budget" A Century On" (PDF). Journal of Liberal History. Liberal Democrat History Group (64): 4–13. Retrieved 9 Aug 2015. 
  6. ^ Waterhouse, Michael (2013). Edwardian Requiem: A Life of Sir Edward Grey. London: Biteback Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781849545808. 
  7. ^ Murray, Bruce (1980). "The Budget in the Cabinet". The People's Budget: 1909–1910 ; Lloyd George and Liberal Politics. Clarendon Press. p. 149. 
  8. ^ Jackson, Patrick (Autumn 2003). "Biography: Lewis Harcourt" (PDF). Journal of Liberal History. Liberal Democrat History Group (40): 14–17. 
  9. ^ Campbell, John (2010). "H. H. Asquith and David Lloyd George". Pistols at Dawn: Two Hundred Years of Political Rivalry from Pitt and Fox to Blair and Brown. London: Vintage. p. 149. ISBN 9781845950910. 
  10. ^ Smith, Neil (1972). "Social reform in Edwardian liberalism: the genesis of the policies of national insurance and old age pensions, 1906–11 - Durham e-Theses". Durham E-Theses. Retrieved 9 August 2015. 
  11. ^ Naomi Levine (1991). Politics, Religion, and Love: The Story of H.H. Asquith, Venetia Stanley, and Edwin Montagu, Based on the Life and Letters of Edwin Samuel Montagu. NYU Press. pp. 82–83. 
  12. ^ Keegan, John. The First World War. New York: Vintage, 1998. p. 320.
  13. ^ All posts referenced in Cook, Chris. The Routledge Companion to Britain in the Nineteenth Century, 1815–1914. Abingdon: Routledge, 2005. p. 52.
  14. ^ Daglish, Neal. Education Policy Making in England and Wales: The Crucible Years, 1895-1911. Abingdon: Routledge, 2013. p. 315.
  15. ^ Jenkins, Roy. Churchill: A Biography. New York: MacMillan, 2001. p. 123.
  16. ^ Earl Loreburn from 1911.
  17. ^ Marquess of Crewe from 1911
  18. ^ Viscount Haldane from 1911
  19. ^ Lord Pentland from 1909
  20. ^ Lord Reading from 1913.

Further readingEdit

  • Blewett, Neal. Peers, the Parties and the People: General Elections of 1910 (1972).
  • Brooks, David. The Age of Upheaval: Edwardian Politics, 1899-1914 (1995)
  • Butler, David and Gareth Butler. Twentieth Century British Political Facts, 1900–2000. (St. Martin's, 2000)
  • Cross, Colin. The Liberals in Power, 1905-1914 (1963) online
  • Daglish, N. D. "A ‘difficult and somewhat thankless task’: politics, religion and the Education Bill of 1908." Journal of educational administration and history 31.1 (1999): 19-35.
  • Gilbert, Bentley Brinkerhoff. "David Lloyd George: Land, The Budget, and Social Reform." American Historical Review 81.5 (1976): 1058-1066.
  • Gilbert, Bentley B. "David Lloyd George: the reform of British landholding and the budget of 1914." Historical Journal 21.1 (1978): 117-141.
  • Grigg, John. Lloyd George: The People's Champion, 1902–1911 (1978). biography
  • Halévy, Elie. History of the English People, 1905-1914 (1934), 686pp. a major political history
  • Hay, James Roy. Origins of the Liberal Welfare Reforms, 1906–14 (1975) 78pp online
  • Jenkins, Roy. Asquith: portrait of a man and an era (1964)
  • Quinault, Roland. "Asquith's Liberalism." History 77.249 (1992): 33-49.
  • Russell, A. K. Liberal landslide : the general election of 1906 (1973).
  • Searle, G. R. A New England?: peace and war, 1886–1918 (Oxford UP, 2004), wide-ranging scholarly survey, 952 pp.

Primary sources and year booksEdit

Preceded by
Balfour ministry
Government of the United Kingdom
1905–1915
Succeeded by
Asquith coalition ministry