The Liberal-Conservative Party (French: le Parti libéral-conservateur) was the formal name of the Conservative Party of Canada until 1873, and again from 1922 to 1938, although some Conservative candidates continued to run under the label as late as the 1911 election and others ran as simple Conservatives before 1873. In many of Canada's early elections, there were both "Liberal-Conservative" and "Conservative" candidates; however, these were simply different labels used by candidates of the same party. Both were part of Sir John A. Macdonald's government and official Conservative and Liberal-Conservative candidates would not, generally,[clarification needed] run against each other. It was also common for a candidate to run on one label in one election and the other in a subsequent election.
|Leader||John A. Macdonald|
|Preceded by||Parti bleu|
|Merged into||Conservative Party of Canada (historical)|
|Political position||Centre-right to right-wing|
The roots of the name are in the coalition of 1853 in which moderate Reformers and Conservatives from Canada West joined with bleus from Canada East under the dual premiership of Sir Allan MacNab and A.-N. Morin. The new ministry committed to secularizing Clergy reserves in Canada West and abolishing seigneurial tenure in Canada East. Over time, the Liberal-Conservatives evolved into the Conservative party and their opponents, the Clear Grits and the Parti rouge evolved into the Liberal Party of Canada. On October 12, 1916, the last Liberal-Conservative cabinet minister, Sam Hughes, was dismissed, making the executive all officially Conservative Party members.
- Sir John A. Macdonald
- Sir George-Étienne Cartier
- Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt
- John Carling
- Sir John Rose
- Thomas D'Arcy McGee
- Joseph Howe
- Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley
- Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott
- John Henry Pope
- Joseph-Aldric Ouimet (Liberal-Conservative MP 1873–1896, ran as Conservative and defeated in 1908)
- Sir John Sparrow David Thompson
- Sir Samuel Hughes
- Sir Hugh John Macdonald
- Archibald McLelan (Liberal-Conservative Senator, resigned and elected to the House of Commons as a Conservative after 1881)
- Joseph Godéric Blanchet (Liberal-Conservative from 1867 to 1875, Conservative 1875–1878, Liberal-Conservative 1878–1883)
- John Costigan (Liberal-Conservative 1867–1900, crossed the floor to join the Liberals in 1901)
The party resumed formally referring to itself as Liberal-Conservative from 1922 until 1938 when it officially became the National Conservative Party, however, it was commonly referred to as the Conservative Party throughout this period.
Liberal Conservative coalitionEdit
In the 1957 election, George Rolland, a watchmaker, sought election as a Liberal Conservative Coalition candidate in the Toronto riding of Eglinton. He placed last, winning only 252 votes, or 0.7% of the total. Both the Liberal and Conservative parties nominated candidates in the riding, so Rolland did not have the endorsement of either party.
- Donald Creighton, John A. Macdonald (2 vol 1955).
- J. M. S. Careless, The Union of the Canadas 1841–1857, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1967, pp. 192–197.
- Joseph Wearing, "Finding our parties' roots" in Canadian Parties in Transition, 2nd ed., Toronto: Nelson Canada, 1996, pp. 19–20
- "MEIGHEN, ARTHUR". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto/Université Laval.
- "1938 CONSERVATIVE LEADERSHIP CONVENTION". CPAC. Cable Public Access Channel.
- Creighton, Donald Grant. John A. Macdonald: The Old Chieftain. Vol. 2. (1955).
- English, John. The Decline of Politics: The Conservatives and the Party System, 1901-20 (1977)
- Gwyn, Richard J. Nation Maker: Sir John A. Macdonald: His Life, Our Times. 1867-1891. Volume Two (2011)
- Neatby, H. Blair, and John T. Saywell. "Chapleau and the Conservative Party in Quebec." Canadian Historical Review 37 (1956): 17. online
- J. H. Stewart Reid, et al., eds. A Source-book of Canadian History: Selected Documents and Personal Papers (1964). online pp 333–49