Lexington (March 17, 1850 – July 1, 1875) was a United States Thoroughbred race horse who won six of his seven race starts. Perhaps his greatest fame, however, came as the most successful sire of the second half of the nineteenth century; he was the leading sire in North America 16 times, and broodmare sire of many notable racehorses.

Lexington, by Edward Troye
DamAlice Carneal
Foaled17 March 1850
CountryUnited States
OwnerSyndicate of Richard Li Ten Broeck, General Abe Buford, Captain Willa Viley & Junius R. Ward
2. Robert A. Alexander
TrainerJ. B. Pryor
Record7: 6 wins, 1 second
Major wins
Phoenix Hotel Handicap
Leading sire in North America 16 times
United States Racing Hall of Fame inductee (1955)
Fair Grounds Racing Hall of Fame

Background edit

Lexington was a bay colt bred by Elisha Warfield at Warfield's stud farm, The Meadows, near Lexington, Kentucky. Lexington was by the Hall of Fame inductee, Boston (by Timoleon by Sir Archy) from Alice Carneal by Sarpedon. He was inbred in the third and fourth generations (3m × 4f) to Sir Archy. Lexington stood 15.3 hands (63 inches, 160 cm) and was described as having good conformation though he had a distinctive "moose head" profile. At stud, he developed a willful and somewhat vicious temperament[1] · .[2]

Racing record edit

Under the name of "Darley" Lexington easily won his first two races for Warfield and his partner, "Burbridge's Harry", a.k.a. Harry Lewis, a former slave turned well-known horse trainer. Lewis, being black, was not allowed to enter "Darley" in races in his own name, so the horse ran in Warfield's name and colors.[3] Darley caught the eye of Richard Ten Broeck who asked Warfield to name his price. "Darley", the son of Boston, and Jarret were sold in 1853 to Ten Broeck acting on behalf of a syndicate who would rename him Lexington. Affixed to Lexington's pedigree Warfield wrote: "The colt was bred by me, as was also his dam, which I now and will ever, own...E. Warfield."

A syndicate made up of Richard Ten Broeck, General Abe Buford, Captain Willa Viley, and Junius R. Ward, bought Lexington for $2,500 between heats (or during the running of his race), so tried claiming the purse money when he won. Failing that, he tried to deduct the purse money from the sale price. But Warfield held out. His new owners immediately sent Lexington to Natchez, Mississippi to train under J. B. Pryor.

Lexington raced at age three and four and although he only competed seven times, many of his races were grueling four-mile events. Lexington won six of his seven races and finished second once. One of his wins was the Phoenix Hotel Handicap in 1853. On April 2, 1855, at the Metairie race course in New Orleans, he set a record running four miles in 7 minutes, 19 34 seconds, running against time.[4] Even with his complex and hard-fought rivalry with the horse Lecomte (also a son of Boston, both born just after Boston died), he was known as the best race horse of his day. His second match with Lecomte on April 14, 1855, was considered one of the greatest matches of the century. But Lexington had to be retired at the end of 1855 as a result of poor eyesight. His sire, Boston, had also gone blind. Conservation work in 2010 revealed that Lexington had had a massive facial infection that resulted in his going blind.[5]

Stud record edit

One of the few known photographs of Lexington

Lexington stood for a time at the Nantura Stock Farm of Uncle John Harper in Midway, Kentucky, along with the famous racer and sire, Glencoe. Sold to Robert A. Alexander for $15,000 in 1858, reportedly the then highest price ever paid for an American horse, Lexington was sent to Alexander's Woodburn Stud at Spring Station, Kentucky.

He stood for a price of $100 until 1861, when he first led the sire list, and it was increased to $200.[4] He stood for a limited public fee of $500, the highest in the country and comparable to the leading English stallions, in 1865 and 1866 before being restricted to private stud duties only.[4]

Called "The Blind Hero of Woodburn", Lexington became the leading sire in North America sixteen times, from 1861 through 1874, and then again in 1876 and 1878.[6] Lexington was the sire of the undefeated Asteroid and Norfolk.[7] Nine of the first fifteen Travers Stakes were won by one of his sons or daughters. Among his noted progeny are:

Foaled Name Sex Major Wins/Achievements
1857[8] Idlewild Mare[9] Notable racer
1860[8] Cincinnati Stallion General Ulysses S. Grant's favorite horse. He was depicted in numerous statues of Grant that remain to this day.
1861 Asteroid Stallion Undefeated
1861 Kentucky Stallion Travers Stakes (1864), US Racing Hall of Fame inductee
1861[8] Norfolk Stallion Undefeated, Jersey Derby (1864)
1864[8] Hira Mare Dam of Himyar
1865 General Duke Stallion Belmont Stakes (1868), American Champion Two-Year-Old Colt
1867 Kingfisher Stallion Belmont Stakes (1870)
1867 Preakness Stallion Namesake of the Preakness Stakes, Manhattan Stakes (1873), US Racing Hall of Fame inductee
1868 Harry Bassett Stallion Belmont Stakes (1871), US Racing Hall of Fame inductee
1868[8] Monarchist Stallion Grand National Handicap (1871),
1870[8] Tom Bowling Stallion Travers Stakes (1873), US Racing Hall of Fame inductee
1872 Tom Ochiltree Stallion Preakness Stakes (1875), US Racing Hall of Fame inductee
1873[8] Neecy Hale Mare Kentucky Oaks (1876)
1873 Shirley Gelding Preakness Stakes (1876)
1873[8] Sultana Mare Travers Stakes (1876), Retrospective Champion Three-Year-Old Filly (1876)
1875 Belle of Nelson Mare Kentucky Oaks (1878)
1875 Duke of Magenta Stallion Preakness Stakes (1878), Belmont Stakes (1878), Travers Stakes (1878), US Racing Hall of Fame inductee

[10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]

Lexington's three Preakness Stakes winners equaled the record of another great sire, Broomstick.

In all Lexington sired 236 winners who won 1,176 races, ran second 348 times and third 42 times for $1,159,321 in prize money.[17]

During the American Civil War, horses were forcibly conscripted from the Kentucky farms to serve as mounts in the bloody fray. Lexington, 15 years old and blind, had to be hidden away to save him from such a fate. He was sent to Illinois for this purpose.[4]

Lexington died at Woodburn on July 1, 1875, and was buried in a casket in front of the stables. A few years later, in 1878, his owner, through the auspices of J.M. Toner, donated the horse's bones to the U.S. National Museum (the Smithsonian Institution).[18] The pioneering taxidermist Henry Augustus Ward of Ward's Natural Science in Rochester, New York, was called in to supervise the disinterment and preparation of the skeleton. For many years the specimen was exhibited in the Osteology Hall of the National Museum of Natural History. In 1999, Lexington was part of the exhibition "On Time", at the National Museum of American History, where he helped illustrate the history of the first mass-produced stopwatch that split time into fractions of seconds—which was supposedly developed to document Lexington's feats on the race course. In 2010, Smithsonian conservators prepared the skeleton for loan to the International Museum of the Horse in Lexington, Kentucky, in time for the World Equestrian Games in Kentucky, the first time these games had been held outside of Europe.[19]

Lexington's dominance in the pedigrees of American-bred Thoroughbreds, and the fact that the British Thoroughbred breeders considered him not a purebred, was a large factor in the so-called Jersey Act of 1913, in which the British Jockey Club limited the registration of horses not traced completely to horses in the General Stud Book.[20]

Summary of Stud Career[4]
Year Rank in Sire List Starters Races Won Money Won
1859 7th 7 10 $6,700
1860 2nd 12 37 $22,295
1861 1st 13 27 $22,245
1862 1st 5 14 $9,700
1863 1st 10 25 $14,235
1864 1st 13 38 $28,440
1865 1st 31 87 $58,750
1866 1st 34 112 $92,795
1867 1st 33 86 $54,030
1868 1st 36 92 $68,340
1869 1st 36 81 $56,375
1870 1st 35 82 $120,360
1871 1st 40 102 $109,095
1872 1st 28 82 $71,515
1873 1st 23 71 $71,565
1874 1st 23 70 $51,899
1875 3rd 30 33 $32,245
1876 1st 21 34 $90,570
1877 2nd 20 29 $32,815
1878 1st 16 36 $60,195
1879 7th 15 19 $17,439.50
1880 17th 9 12 $9,297.50
1881 17th 6 7 $1,055
1882 17th 3 1 $255
Totals 499 1,187 $1,102,211

Lexington did additionally have one foal start in 1858 as a two-year-old, finishing second in a single start.[4]

Honors edit

Lexington was part of the first group of horses inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1955. The Belmont Lexington Stakes runs every year at Belmont Park in honor of Lexington, as does the Lexington Stakes at Keeneland Race Course.

On Tuesday, August 31, 2010 the Smithsonian loaned Lexington's skeleton to the International Museum of the Horse at the Kentucky Horse Park, to be exhibited there through August 2013.[21][19]

Lexington served as the model for the top of the Woodlawn Vase, given to the winner of the Preakness Stakes at Pimlico.[22]

Lexington was exhibited at the 1859 Great St. Louis Fair.[4]

Legacy edit

Lexington was the leading sire in North America a record 16 times. His sire line originally flourished, especially through Norfolk (who in turn produced champions Emperor of Norfolk and El Rio Rey), but then faced increasing competition from European imports. His last known male progeny was Conquering Elk (b. 1987).[23][24] However, his influence on the pedigrees of the modern Thoroughbred can still be felt through his daughters, who produced winners Spendthrift, Himyar, Hanover, and Bramble.[25][26] Himyar in turn established a sire line that has survived into the 21st century through Holy Bull,[27] who sired both 2005 Kentucky Derby winner Giacomo and 2000 Breeders' Cup Juvenile winner Mucho Uno. In turn, Mucho Uno sired 2013 Breeders' Cup Classic winner Mucho Macho Man, the sire of 2020 Pegasus World Cup winner Mucho Gusto.[28][29] Likewise, the Spendthrift line has survived into the 21st century through Tiznow, who won the Breeders Cup Classic in consecutive years (2000, 2001); he in turn produced 2008 Belmont Stakes winner Da' Tara, and 2008 Santa Anita Derby and Travers Stakes winner Colonel John.

Lexington is the subject of the best selling novel Horse by Geraldine Brooks, published in 2022. [30][31]

Sire line tree edit

Lexington descendants (click to expand)
  • Lexington[32][33][34][35][36][37]
    • Daniel Boone
      • Cottrill
    • Goodwood
    • Colton
      • Monday
        • Joe Hooker[38]
          • Bonanza
          • Ichi Ban
          • C H Todd
          • Surinam
          • Don Jose
          • Sorrento
          • Oregon Eclipse
          • Zaldiver
          • Yo El Rey
          • Rey Del Sierras
        • Shannon
          • Bishop
        • California
        • Mark L
        • Argyle
        • Duke of Monday
        • Guardsman
        • Peel
    • Lightning
      • D'Artagnan
    • Optomist
      • Mars
        • Jongleur
        • Promethee
      • Osman
    • Uncle Vic
      • Victory
      • Harry Edwards
      • Uncle Tom
    • Bulletin
    • Jack Malone
      • Chickamauga
      • Muggins
      • Camargo
      • Damon
      • Bazar
    • Lexington (Embry)
    • Thunder
    • Avalanche
    • Censor
    • Frank Boston
    • Harper
      • Bay Jack
    • Jim Sherwood
      • Dan Heaney
    • Lexington (Hunter)
      • Joe Johnson
      • Judge Wickliffe
    • War Dance[39][40]
      • Ramadan
        • Judge Arnett
      • Wheatly
      • St George
      • Big Fellow
      • Monmouth
      • Stampede
      • Bullion
      • Chance
    • Union Jack
    • Copec
    • Rogers
    • Asteroid[41]
      • George Wilkes
      • Harvey Villain
      • Aerolite
      • Artist
      • Asteroid
      • Astral
      • Ballinkeel
        • Blarney
      • Ceylon
      • Creedmore
    • Beacon
    • Chesapeake
    • Cincinnati[42]
    • Donerail
    • Kentucky[43][44]
      • Silk Stocking
      • Scratch
      • Bertram
    • Loadstone
    • Norfolk[45]
    • Ulverston
      • Keene Richards
    • Woodburn
      • Hardwood
    • Ansel
    • Bay Dick
    • Gilroy
    • Harry of the West
    • Luther
      • Sharpcatcher
    • Veto
    • Edinborough
    • Jonesboro
    • King Lear
    • Lee Paul
    • Lever
    • Merrill
    • Norway
    • Red Dick
    • Watson
    • Baywood
    • Concord
      • Galway
    • King Tom
      • King George
    • Marion
      • Logan
    • Newry[45]
    • Bayonet
    • Crossland
    • General Duke
      • Bonnie Duke
    • Hazard
    • Paris
    • Pat Malloy
    • Vauxhall
    • Barney Willams
    • Chillecothe
    • Foster
      • Jim Brown
    • Kingfisher
      • Turco
      • King Crab[54]
      • Prince Royal
        • Yankee Doodle
        • The Mighty
      • King Cadmus[54]
    • Pilgrim
    • Preakness[55]
      • Fiddler
        • Jummy
    • Creole Dance
    • Harry Bassett[56]
      • George McCullough
      • King Nero
    • Monarchist
      • Longfield
      • Storey
        • Fib
      • Monarch
      • Loftin
    • Pimlico
    • Wanderer
    • Tom Bowling[57][58]
      • Black Prince
      • General Monroe
      • Sligo
      • Tacoma
    • Acrobat
    • Breathitt
      • Melikoff
    • Jack Boston
    • King Bolt
    • Tom Ochiltree[59]
      • Tattler
      • Cynosure
      • Major Domo
      • Sluggard
    • Charley Howard
    • Fiddlesticks
    • Shirley
    • Brown Prince
      • Shillelagh
      • Kilsallaghan
    • Frederick the Great
    • Duke of Magenta[60]
      • Leo
      • Young Duke
      • Duke of Kent
      • Eric
    • Uncas

Pedigree edit

Some of the horses in Lexington's pedigree cannot be traced back to England's General Stud Book, a fact that can probably be attributed to the disruptions and sometimes hazardous record keeping in the period between the American Revolution and Civil War.[1] The pedigree shown on The Jockey Club's Equineline database is thus incomplete, not showing the dams of Timoleon, Florizel and the Alderman Mare.[61] The pedigree shown below fills in those gaps based on American records.

Lexington is usually said to descend from family 12-b[1] in the female line through his third dam Lady Grey. However, the mitochondrial DNA of descendants of Lady Grey is inconsistent with that of other members of family 12-b, indicating a likely mismatch.[62]

Pedigree of Lexington, bay stallion, 1850
Chestnut 1833
Chestnut 1814
Sir Archy*
Bay 1805
Saltram mare
Ch. 1801
Symme's Wildair Mare
Ball's Florizel Mare
Chestnut 1814
Ball's Florizel Diomed*
Shark Mare
Alderman Mare
Clockfast Mare
Alice Carneal
Bay 1836
Bay 1828
Emilius Orville
Icaria The Flyer
Chestnut 1826
Sumpter Sir Archy*^
Robin Redbreast Mare
Lady Grey Robin Grey
Maria (family: 12-b)

* Lexington is inbred 3S x 4D to the stallion Sir Archy, meaning that he appears third generation on the sire side of his pedigree and fourth generation on the dam side of his pedigree.

*^ Lexington is inbred 4S x 4S x 5D to the stallion Diomed, meaning that he appears fourth generation twice on the sire side of his pedigree and fifth generation once (through Sir Archy)^ on the dam side of his pedigree.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c "Lexington (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  2. ^ Horse by Geraldine Brooks, 2022, afterword beginning page 549
  3. ^ The Spell of the Turf by Samuel C. Hildreth and James R. Crowell, J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1926.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Hervey, John (1944). Racing in America 1665-1865 II. New York: The Jockey Club.
  5. ^ "One hundred sixty years after his birth a racehorse's bones return to Lexington". Smithsonian Science. 2010-11-17. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  6. ^ Ahnert, Rainer L. (editor in chief), Thoroughbred Breeding of the World, Pozdun Publishing, Germany, 1970
  7. ^ Hollingsworth, Kent, The Kentucky Thoroughbred, University Press, Kentucky, 1985
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Lexington Offspring
  9. ^ "Idlewild Horse Pedigree". www.pedigreequery.com. Retrieved 2024-03-13.
  10. ^ Racing Museum HoF Archived 2010-08-08 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2010-11-11
  11. ^ Australian Stud Book: Lexington (USA) - progeny Retrieved 2010-9-30
  12. ^ "Monarchist Horse Pedigree". www.pedigreequery.com. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  13. ^ "Norfolk Horse Pedigree". www.pedigreequery.com. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  14. ^ "Asteroid Horse Pedigree". www.pedigreequery.com. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  15. ^ "Idlewild Horse Pedigree". www.pedigreequery.com. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  16. ^ "Sultana Horse Pedigree". www.pedigreequery.com. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  17. ^ Becker, Friedrich, The Breed of the Racehorse, The British Bloodstock Agency, London, c.1935
  18. ^ "Famous Horses". Encyclopedia Smithsonian. January 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  19. ^ a b "Lexington Racehorse, 1878" (Press release). Smithsonian Museum. May 3, 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  20. ^ Willett, Peter (1982). The Classic Racehorse. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. pp. 71–74. ISBN 0-8131-1477-2.
  21. ^ "Lexington has returned to Lexington"
  22. ^ Thomson, Candus (2011-05-19). "Story of Woodlawn Vase has many twists". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  23. ^ The Meaning of the death of Midnight Bourbon
  24. ^ Saudi Arabia has four horses from the nearly dead St Simon sire line
  25. ^ The Evolution of the American Classic Winner
  26. ^ "Thoroughbred Bloodlines Sire Lines Byerley Turk King Herod". www.bloodlines.net. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  28. ^ "Holy Bull (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  29. ^ "Macho Uno". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  30. ^ Brooks, Geraldine (2022). Horse. [New York, New York]. ISBN 978-0-399-56296-9. OCLC 1264176221.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  31. ^ "Best Sellers - Books - July 3, 2022 - The New York Times". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-11-27.
  32. ^ Byerley Turk Line
  33. ^ Herod Sire Line
  34. ^ Portraits: Lexington
  35. ^ Biography: Lexington
  36. ^ Hall of Fame: Lexington
  37. ^ American Classic Pedigree: Lexington
  38. ^ Portraits: Joe Hooker
  39. ^ Biography: War Dance
  40. ^ American Classic Pedigrees: War Dance
  41. ^ Studbook: Early A
  42. ^ Grant the Equestrian
  43. ^ Hall of Fame: Kentucky
  44. ^ Early Studbook: IJK
  45. ^ a b c Portraits: Norfolk
  46. ^ Portraits: Emperor of Norfolk
  47. ^ Hall of Fame: Emperor of Norfolk
  48. ^ Portraits: Americus
  49. ^ Biography: Americus
  50. ^ a b Long before Chrome, El Rio Rey brought horse racing fame to N. Nevada
  51. ^ American Classic Pedigrees: Apollo
  52. ^ American Classic Pedigrees: Lord Murphy
  53. ^ American Classic Pedigrees: Manuel
  54. ^ a b Hogan Index to Stakes Winners p. 608
  55. ^ Hall of Fame: Preakness
  56. ^ Hall of Fame: Harry Bassett
  57. ^ Hall of Fame: Tom Bowling
  58. ^ Tom Bowling, The Wild Horse
  59. ^ Hall of Fame: Tom Ochiltree
  60. ^ Hall of Fame: Duke of Magenta
  61. ^ "Equineline pedigree of Lexington". Equineline. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  62. ^ "Thoroughbred Bloodlines - Family 12-b Diana". www.bloodlines.net. Retrieved 11 October 2020.

External links edit