Levko Hryhorovych Lukyanenko (Ukrainian: Левко́ Григо́рович Лук'я́ненко, sometimes written as Levko Lukianenko, 24 August 1928 – 7 July 2018) was a Ukrainian politician, and Soviet dissident and Hero of Ukraine. He was one of the founders of Ukrainian Helsinki Group in 1976 and was elected a leader of the revived Ukrainian Helsinki Group, Ukrainian Helsinki Association, in 1988.
Levko Lukyanenko in 2016
|1st Ukraine Ambassador to Canada|
14 May 1992 – 15 October 1993
|Preceded by||post created|
|Succeeded by||Viktor Batyuk|
|People's Deputy of Ukraine|
15 May 1990 – 18 June 1992
|Constituency||Ukrainian Republican Party, Zaliznychyi district No.196 (People's Movement of Ukraine)|
9 February 1995 – 12 May 1998
|Constituency||Ukrainian Republican Party, Novovolynsk No.68|
14 May 2002 – 25 May 2006
|Constituency||Ukrainian Republican Party "Sobor", Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc No.5|
25 May 2006 – 15 June 2007
|Constituency||Independent, Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc No.6|
Levko Hryhorovych Lukyanenko
24 August 1928
Khrypivka, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union
|Died||7 July 2018 (aged 89)|
|Spouse(s)||Nadiya Lukyanenko (nèè Bugaevsky)|
|Alma mater||Moscow State University|
|Occupation||jurist, politician, writer|
Lukyanenko was born on 24 August 1928 in the Khrypivka village of Horodnia Raion, in the USSR. During World War II in 1944 he was recruited in the Soviet Army at age of 15 as he could prove that he was underage (in order to get drafted he lied that he was born in 1927) and served in Austria and then in Caucasus region (cities Ordzhonikidze and Nakhichevan). While being in Austria he observed the arrival of Ukrainian wheat in Baden bei Wien, this reminded him of the removal of grain from Ukraine whilst he was almost starving in the 1930s (during Holodomor). This event made Lukyanenko to "follow Severyn Nalyvaiko's path - I would fight for an independent Ukraine."
In 1953 Lukyanenko enrolled in the Law Department of Moscow State University and joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). (Later Lukyanenko claimed he only joined the CPSU "to do the highest for Ukraine.") In this university, Lukyanenko later claimed, he was name called Khokhol. Soon after graduation in 1958, Lukianenko was directed as a propagandist to the Radekhiv Raion Communist Party committee. Lukyanenko claimed that after the 1956 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union "I stopped pretending I was a party member."
In 1959 in the time of the Khrushchev Thaw, he organized a dissident movement in Hlyniany called the Ukrainian Workers and Peasants Union along with Ivan Kandyba and others; Lukianenko defended the right of secession of Ukraine from the rest of Soviet Union, a right theoretically granted by the 1936 Soviet Constitution (Articles 17 and 125). In May 1961 he was expelled from the party, arrested, tried, and sentenced by the Lviv Oblast Court to death for idea of separatism and for "undermining the credibility of the CPSU, and defaming the theory of Marxism-Leninism." After 72 days his sentence was later commuted to 15 years in a prison camp. Lukianenko served his sentence at first in Mordovia (Dubravlag, OLP #10, in Sosnovka, Zubovo-Polyansky District) and then in Vladimir (infamous Vladimir Central). Soon after his release in 1976 he moved to Chernihiv and became a founding member of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group. In 1977 he was arrested again and was sentenced by Chernihiv Oblast Court to 10 years in a camp and 5 years of internal exile for "Anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda".
In 1988 Lukyanenko was released in the wave of Gorbachev's perestroika (in total he had spent 27 years in prisons). After having refused to emigrate as a condition for his release he was released in November 1988. Lukyanenko was elected a member of Ukrainian parliament in March 1990, and became the head of the newly founded Ukrainian Republican Party the following month. He was the co-author of Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine and the author of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine adopted in 1991. In the 1991 Ukrainian presidential election Lukyanenko finished third with 4.5% of the vote.
During the 1998 parliamentary election his Ukrainian Republican Party was part (together with Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists & Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party) of the Election Bloc "National Front" and he headed the electoral list of this alliance. But since it did not overcame the 4 percent election barrier he was not elected to parliament.
Also in 2005, he participated in a conference entitled "Zionism As the Biggest Threat to Modern Civilization," which was controversial for its anti-Semitic tone and its invitation of former Grand Wizard David Duke. Lukyanenko sat next to Duke and gave him a standing ovation. Presenting his own paper, Lukyanenko argued that the Holodomor was carried out by a satanic government controlled by the Jews. According to Lukyanenko, 95% of Soviet people's commissars were Jewish, most military and judicial commissars were Jewish, Lenin and Stalin were Jewish, and "thus… of the most important administrative positions… 80% were Jews."
Lukyanenko has argued that there is no anti-Semitism in Ukraine, since he has "not met a single Ukrainian, who is a opposed to all Semitic people." According to Lukyanenko, Ukrainians base their attitudes of other ethnic groups upon "their attitudes towards us."
In 2006 Lukyanenko was again elected as a member of Ukrainian parliament, elected with the Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko. He was again re-elected for this bloc/alliance in the 2007 parliamentary elections but on 15 June 2007 he resigned his mandate at his own request.
In a 2008 article for Personal-Plus magazine Lukyanenko argued that Ukrainians as "a white race" should not mix with other races; he suggested that if a Ukrainian wanted to marry a person of a different race they should leave Ukraine and renounce their Ukrainian citizenship.
Lukyanenko died in a Kiev hospital on 7 July 2018. He was buried in Kiev's Baikove Cemetery on 10 July 2018. Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko attended his funeral in Kiev's St Volodymyr's Cathedral, the funeral service was led by the head of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate Patriarch Filaret.
- "People's Deputy of Ukraine of the I convocation". Official portal (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- "People's Deputy of Ukraine of the II convocation". Official portal (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- "People's Deputy of Ukraine of the IV convocation". Official portal (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- "People's Deputy of Ukraine of the V convocation". Official portal (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) Presidential decree awarding title Hero of Ukraine, Official Verkhovna Rada website
- Ukrainian dissident Levko Lukianenko dies, UNIAN (7 July 2018)
Помер Левко Лук’яненко. Радіо Свобода (in Ukrainian). 7 July 2018. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
- ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) Levko Lukyanenko. Eternal revolutionary, Ukrayinska Pravda (7 July 2018)
- dissident and Ukrainian politician Levko Lukyanenko dies at 89, Kyiv Post (8 July 2018)
- Human Rights on Trial (Contd.), TIME Magazine, 31 July 1978
- Biographical Dictionary of Central and Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century by Jan Kofman, Routledge, ISBN 0765610272
- ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)/(website has automatic Google Translate option) Short bio, LIGA
- ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) Українська республіканська партія „Собор“, Database DATA
- David Duke participates in anti-Semitic conference in the Ukraine Archived 2012-05-15 at the Wayback Machine
- Rudling, Per Anders (2006). "Organized Anti-Semitism in Contemporary Ukraine: Structure, Influence and Ideology". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 48 (2): 91.
- Levko Lukianenko, "Do Evreis'koho pytannia, abo Chy isnuie v Ukraini anti-Semitism?" Personal Plius 73.26 (2004): 4-5.
- Lukyanenko was elected leader of Ukrainian Republican Party, Kyiv Post (25 November 2010)
- ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) Левко Лук'яненко знову очолив партію, Ukrayinska Pravda (25 November 2010)
- ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) "Moscow kites condemned him to death": Poroshenko said goodbye to Levko Lukyanenko (video), UNIAN (10 July 2018)
- ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) Ukraine farewell to Levko Lukyanenko, Ukrinform (10 July 2018)
‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) With the Hero of Ukraine Levko Lukyanenko bid farewell to Khotov in the Kyiv region (video), UNIAN (9 July 2018)
- ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) On Baykovyi cemetery, farewell to dissident Levko Lukyanenko (video), UNIAN (9 July 2018)