Levente (organization)

Levente Associations (Hungarian: Leventeszervezetek) or simply "levente"[5] were paramilitary youth organizations in Hungary in the interwar period and during the Second World War. It was established in 1921 with the declared purpose of physical and health training.[1] Since mid-1930s they have de facto become an attempt to circumvent the ban for conscription imposed by the Treaty of Trianon and over the time it had openly become a pre-military organization under the leadership of veterans.[6][7] Since 1939, by the Act of Defense, all boys of ages 12–21 were required to take part in levente.[7]

Levente Associations
Insignia Hungary Political History Levente.svg
The symbol of the Levente Associations
Active31 December 1921[1] – 17 March 1945[2]
Disbanded17 March 1945[2]
Allegiance Kingdom of Hungary
Size1,300,000 (in January 1944)[3]
Garrison/HQBudapest, Hungary
MarchSalus Hungaria[4]
EngagementsWorld War II
Alajos Béldy
Pennant of the Levente Headquarters of Miklósvár District (Háromszék County, Kingdom of Hungary) from 1940 to 1944

It is usually compared to Hitler Jugend of Nazi Germany and Opera Nazionale Balilla of Italy. While having a common trait of military training with the latter two, levente was neither openly fascist nor particularly politicized, although it was not isolated of political influences of the time.[7]

Levente had also a smaller female branch, Leventelányok ("Levente Girls") initiated as a voluntary association in June 1942. Under the rule of Ferenc Szálasi installed by Nazis in Hungary in October 1944 obligatory levente duties were imposed unto girls of ages 12–19 despite the strong opposition of the Catholic Church. However the latter was not actually implemented because of the advance of the Red Army.[7]

By the end of World War II Levente members had to actually serve in auxiliary forces.

During the Soviet occupation many levente activists were tried by Soviet tribunals, convicted of "anti-Soviet activities" and deported to the Soviet Union for penal labor.



  1. ^ a b "1921. évi LIII. törvénycikk a testnevelésről: kihirdettetett az Országos Törvénytárban 1921. évi december hó 31. napján". Országos Törvénytár. 53. 1921.
  2. ^ a b "Az Ideiglenes Nemzeti Kormány 529/1945. M.E. számu rendelete a fasiszta politikai és katonai jellegü szervezetek feloszlatásáról". Magyar Közlöny. 1 (9): 3. 1945.
  3. ^ Kerepeszky, Róbert (2010). "A leventemozgalom". Rubicon. 20 (205–206): 111.
  4. ^ Salus Hungaria (Magyar Levente Induló)
  5. ^ "Levente" is an Old Hungarian word for "knight; see also "Levente"
  6. ^ Ernst Christian Helmreich (1957) "Hungary", Praeger, p. 45
  7. ^ a b c d Attila Horvath, "War and Peace: the Effects of the World War II on Hungarian Education" in: Roy Lowe (ed.) (1992) "Education & the Second World War: Studies in Schooling & Social Change", ISBN 0-7507-0054-8

See alsoEdit