Letalnica bratov Gorišek

Letalnica bratov Gorišek (English: Flying hill of Gorišek brothers) is one of the two largest ski flying hills in the world and the biggest of eight hills located at the Planica Nordic Centre in Planica, Slovenia.[2] It was built in 1969 and is named after the original constructors and brothers Vlado and Janez Gorišek. Since its opening, a total of 28 world records were set at the venue.

Letalnica bratov Gorišek
Slovenska vojska je tudi letos podprla Smučarsko zvezo Slovenije pri izvedbi zaključka svetovnega pokala v smučarskih poletih v Planici 7.jpg
Letalnica bratov Gorišek in 2016
Constructor(s)Janez Gorišek (planning)
Vlado Gorišek (execution)
LocationPlanica, Slovenia
OperatorZŠRS Planica
Opened6 March 1969 (test)
21 March 1969 (official)
Renovated1984, 1990s, 2009–2010, 2013–2015
Expanded1979, 1985, 1994, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2010, 2015[1]
Size
K–point200 metres (660 ft)
Hill size240 metres (790 ft)
Longest jump
(unofficial / fall)
253.5 metres (832 ft)
Gregor Schlierenzauer
(22 March 2018)
Hill record252 metres (827 ft)
Ryoyu Kobayashi
(24 March 2019)
Top events
Ski Flying World Championships1972, 1979, 1985, 1994, 2004, 2010, 2020
World Cup1987, 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999–2003, 2005–2009, 2011–2013, 2015–2019

Yugoslav ski jumper Miro Oman made the inaugural test jump of 135 metres (443 ft) on 6 March 1969. The first FIS Ski Flying World Championships were organized on the hill in 1972. After Matti Nykänen set a world record jump of 191 metres (627 ft) at the 1985 FIS Ski Flying World Championships, a new rule was instituted by the International Ski Federation that awarded no additional points for jumps over this distance due to safety reasons. The rule was abolished in 1994, and on 17 March 1994 Andreas Goldberger touched the snow with his hand at 202 metres (663 ft) for the first, albeit disqualified, over 200-metre jump. Just a few minutes later Toni Nieminen landed on his feet at 203 metres (666 ft) and officially became the first man in history to jump over 200 metres.

Letalnica bratov Gorišek is a regular venue of the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup, and has hosted the FIS Ski Flying World Championships on seven occasions, most recently in 2020.[3][4] Since 2012, it also hosts the Red Bull 400 world series, the world's steepest 400-metre race.[5] The world's steepest zip line with an average incline of 38 degrees opened at the hill in September 2015.[6]

During the Ski Flying World Championships in 1985, the venue's highest all-time attendance was recorded when a total of 150,000 people gathered over three days.

HistoryEdit

Janez (left) and Vlado (right) Gorišek in 1969

1969–1972: Opening and the first World ChampionshipsEdit

Velikanka bratov Gorišek (original name) was planned, constructed and developed by Slovenian constructors, engineers and brothers, Vlado and Janez Gorišek. At the time, a lead engineer of Planica was Stano Pelan, who proposed to enlarge Bloudkova velikanka; however, Vlado Gorišek suggested to build a completely new venue instead.[7] In the mid-1960s, Janez Gorišek was working as an engineer in Libya, where he prepared a plan and profile for a new hill.[7] Construction began in 1967 and was completed by the end of 1968.[8] During the construction, Janez was still working in Libya, so his older brother Vlado was fully in charge of the construction site. Initially, the construction point was at K153 with a 145-metre long inrun.[9]

On 6 March 1969, two weeks before the competition, a hill test with trial jumper was made. Miro Oman made an inaugural jump and landed at 135 metres (443 ft).[10][11] On 21 March 1969, the first day of the KOP Ski Flying Week competition, the venue was officially opened with the first world record distance, set at 156 metres (512 ft) by Bjørn Wirkola.[12][13] The next day, the world record was tied and improved three times, by Jiří Raška (156 and 164 metres) and Bjørn Wirkola (160 metres).[14][15] On the final day of competition, in front of 45,000 spectators, Manfred Wolf set the world record at 165 metres (541 ft) in the last round. Jiří Raška won the three-day event.[16]

In 1972, the hill hosted the first FIS Ski Flying World Championships. Swiss ski jumper Walter Steiner became the first ski flying world champion in a three-day competition, which attracted around 110,000 spectators.[17][18][19]

 
Inaugural event in 1969

1974–1979: Steiner, Norčič and World ChampionshipsEdit

On 15 March 1974, the second KOP Ski Flying Week competition started. The day started with a tied world record at 169 metres (554 ft), set by Walter Steiner in the trial round. In the first round, which was interrupted twice, Steiner crashed at 177 metres (581 ft), a new world record distance.[20] In the last day of competition, Steiner confirmed his domination through the whole weekend and won in Planica for the second consecutive time.[21]

In 1977, the third KOP Ski Flying Week competition was held. During the trial round, Bogdan Norčič touched the ground at 181 metres (594 ft), which would have been a new world record, and the first jump over 180 metres in history. Reinhold Bachler from Austria won the three-day competition with the best round from each day counted into the final result.[22]

In 1979, Letalnica bratov Gorišek hosted the fifth ski flying World Championships. Axel Zitzmann crashed at a world record distance of 179 metres (587 ft), while the second round was cancelled and repeated.[23][24] Klaus Ostwald tied the world record at 176 metres (577 ft),[25] and Armin Kogler became world champion.[26]

1985–1987: Record-breaking attendance with NykänenEdit

In 1984, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Planica, the organizing committee decided to modernize the hill. Major renovation works were carried out in the summer and autumn of 1984, with the Yugoslav Army personnel, volunteers and different working organizations helping at the construction site under the command of Gorišek brothers. 1,500 cubic metres of material was excavated and filled into the landing zone. They also excavated 300 cubic metres of material from the inrun. The old wooden tower was replaced by a steel one, and the take-off table was pushed back for five metres.[27]

In 1985, the eighth ski flying World Championships were held in Planica, with the venue's highest all-time total attendance record of 150,000 people, and the single-event record of 80,000 people.[28] Three world records were set during the event, by Mike Holland (186 metres) and Matti Nykänen (187 and 191 metres). Nykänen has also won the World Championship.[29] In 1986, a new rule was instituted by the International Ski Federation that awarded no additional points for jumps over 191 metres due to safety reasons.[30]

In the 1987 season, Letalnica bratov Gorišek hosted the World Cup event for the first time. On the first day, during a training session, Andreas Felder touched the ground at a world record distance of 192 metres (630 ft).[31][32] The next day, Polish ski jumper Piotr Fijas set the last parallel style world record on the first day of competition when he jumped 194 metres (636 ft) in the third round, which was cancelled and repeated right after his jump.[33][34] His world record was officially recognized seven years later.[35]

1991: Kiessewetter with the all-time longest parallel jumpEdit

On 23 March 1991, during the second round, André Kiesewetter touched the ground at a world record distance of 196 metres (643 ft), the all-time longest parallel style ski jump in history. In the third round, Stephan Zünd and Kiesewetter landed at 191 metres (627 ft).[36] The next day, Ralph Gebstedt landed at 190 metres (620 ft) in the third round and won the competition.[37][38]

1994: First jump over 200 metresEdit

 
In 1994, Andreas Goldberger became the first competitor to jump over 200 metres; however, his attempt was considered invalid.

On 17 March 1994, during the 1994 Ski Flying World Championships, Martin Höllwarth set a new world record at 196 metres (643 ft) as a test jumper. Austrian ski jumper Andreas Goldberger landed at 202 metres (663 ft), making the first jump over 200 metres; however, he touched the snow with his hands, and the jump was counted as invalid. Just a few minutes later, Finnish ski jumper Toni Nieminen landed on his feet at 203 metres (666 ft) and officially became the first man in history who jumped over 200 metres.[39]

It continued with Christof Duffner the next day who crashed from a huge height at 207 metres (679 ft). Later that day, Espen Bredesen set the third world record of the year at 209 metres (686 ft).[40]

1997–2003: Peterka, ski jumping hysteria in Slovenia and more world recordsEdit

In 1997, ski jumping hysteria spread all over Slovenia due to Primož Peterka,[41] who was battling with Dieter Thoma for the first Slovenian overall title. Over 120,000 people gathered in three days, with over 60,000 people alone on the decisive Saturday when two world records (210 and 212 metres) were set by Espen Bredesen and Lasse Ottesen, respectively.[42][43] Peterka won the overall title.[44][45]

In 1999, the four-day event was attended by over 80,000 people.[46][47] Two world records were broken during the competition, set at 214.5 metres (704 ft) by Martin Schmitt and 219.5 metres (720 ft) by Tommy Ingebrigtsen.[48][49]

On 16 March 2000, during the official training session, Austrian ski jumper Thomas Hörl set a world record at 224.5 metres (737 ft).[50] Two days later the first ski flying team event was held with another world record set by Andreas Goldberger, who landed at 225 metres (738 ft).[51][52]

In 2003, four world records were set. Adam Małysz tied the record at 225 metres (738 ft) and Matti Hautamäki broke the record three times (227.5, 228 and 231 metres). Over 120,000 visitors gathered in four days.[53]

2005–2010: Four world records in one day and adjustmentsEdit

 
Letalnica in 2008

On 20 March 2005, four world records were set during the final round: Tommy Ingebrigtsen with 231 metres (758 ft), Matti Hautamäki with 235.5 metres (773 ft), and Bjørn Einar Romøren twice, with 234.5 metres (769 ft) and 239 metres (784 ft). Janne Ahonen also crashed at 240 metres (790 ft) and was slightly injured.[42][54]

In 2010, Letalnica got the new chairlift, renovated judge tower, landing zone widened, profile adjusted, and take-off angle lowered to keep competitors closer to the ground. All this was needed to fulfill the International Ski Federation requirements to host the 2010 Ski Flying World Championships where Simon Ammann became world champion.[55][56]

2015–present: Renovations, Prevc's record-breaking season and a new hill recordEdit

Between 2013 and 2015, the hill underwent a major renovation.[57] A new profile was drawn by Janez Gorišek with the help of his son Sebastjan Gorišek, who is also a constructor.[58] The hill's new construction point was at K200 and the hill size at HS225.[59] They built a completely new concrete inrun, replacing the old steel construction.[59] The take-off table was moved five metres higher and pushed back for twelve metres compared to the old one.[59][60]

 
New inrun in 2015

The battle for the 2014–15 World Cup overall title between Severin Freund and Peter Prevc lasted until the last jump of the season, which concluded at the newly renovated venue in March 2015. Freund took the overall title since he had more wins during the season, although they had the same number of points.[61]

In 2016, Prevc took the overall title in a record-breaking season in which he accumulated 15 wins, with a total of 111,000 people gathering in five days.[62] During the test event, Tilen Bartol crashed at 252 metres (827 ft), the second longest flight in the history of ski jumping at the time, and half a metre longer than the official world record.[63]

On 22 March 2018, in the qualification round, Gregor Schlierenzauer touched the ground at 253.5 metres (832 ft) and tied the world record distance.[64]

On 24 March 2019, Ryoyu Kobayashi set the hill record at 252 metres (827 ft) and won the first overall title for Japan.[65]

In 2020, the 26th FIS Ski Flying World Championships at Letalnica were originally scheduled for March, but the event was postponed to December due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[66]

EventsEdit

Year Date Event Hillsize Winner Second place Third place
1969 21–23 March   KOP K153   Jiří Raška   Bjørn Wirkola   Manfred Wolf
1972 25 March   SFWC K165   Walter Steiner   Heinz Wosipiwo   Jiří Raška
1974 15–17 March   KOP K165   Walter Steiner   Esko Rautionaho   Dag Fossum
1977 18–20 March   KOP K165   Reinhold Bachler   Thomas Meisinger   Ladislav Jirásko
1979 17–18 March   SFWC K165   Armin Kogler   Axel Zitzmann   Piotr Fijas
1985 16–17 March   SFWC K185   Matti Nykänen   Jens Weißflog   Pavel Ploc
1987 14 March   WC K185   Andreas Felder   Ole Gunnar Fidjestøl   Thomas Klauser
15 March   WC K185   Ole Gunnar Fidjestøl   Matjaž Zupan   Piotr Fijas
1991 23 March   WC K185   Staffan Tällberg   Stephan Zünd   André Kiesewetter
24 March   WC K185   Ralph Gebstedt   Stefan Horngacher   Dieter Thoma
1994 19 March   SFWC(1); WC K185 strong wind; first day of World Championships & World Cup event at the same time
20 March   SFWC(2); WC K185   Jaroslav Sakala   Espen Bredesen   Roberto Cecon
SFWC final result (20 March)
1997 22 March   WC K185   Takanobu Okabe   Kazuyoshi Funaki   Jani Soininen
23 March   WC K185   Akira Higashi   Primož Peterka   Lasse Ottesen
1999 19 March   WC K185   Martin Schmitt   Kazuyoshi Funaki   Christof Duffner
20 March   WC K185   Hideharu Miyahira   Martin Schmitt   Noriaki Kasai
21 March   WC K185   Noriaki Kasai   Hideharu Miyahira   Martin Schmitt
2000 18 March   WC
Team event
K185   Germany   Finland   Japan
19 March   WC K185   Sven Hannawald   Janne Ahonen   Andreas Goldberger
2001 17 March   WC
Team event
K185   Finland   Austria   Japan
18 March   WC K185   Martin Schmitt   Risto Jussilainen   Tommy Ingebrigtsen
2002 23 March   WC
Team event
K185   Finland   Germany   Austria
24 March   WC K185 strong wind; individual event
2003 21 March   WC
Team event
K185   Finland   Norway   Austria
22 March   WC K185   Matti Hautamäki   Adam Małysz   Martin Höllwarth
23 March   WC K185   Matti Hautamäki   Sven Hannawald   Hideharu Miyahira
2004 20–21 February   SFWC K185   Roar Ljøkelsøy   Janne Ahonen   Tami Kiuru
22 February   SFWC
Team event
K185   Norway   Finland   Austria
2005 19 March   WC HS215   Matti Hautamäki   Andreas Widhölzl   Bjørn Einar Romøren
20 March   WC HS215   Bjørn Einar Romøren   Roar Ljøkelsøy   Andreas Widhölzl
2006 18 March   WC HS215   Bjørn Einar Romøren   Roar Ljøkelsøy   Martin Koch
19 March   WC HS215   Janne Happonen   Martin Koch   Robert Kranjec
2007 23 March   WC HS215   Adam Małysz   Simon Ammann   Jernej Damjan
24 March   WC HS215   Adam Małysz   Anders Jacobsen   Martin Koch
25 March   WC HS215   Adam Małysz   Simon Ammann   Martin Koch
2008 14 March   WC HS215   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Janne Ahonen   Bjørn Einar Romøren
15 March   WC
Team event
HS215   Norway   Finland   Austria
16 March   WC HS215   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Martin Koch   Janne Happonen
2009 20 March   WC HS215   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Adam Małysz   Dimitry Vassiliev
21 March   WC
Team event
HS215   Norway   Poland   Russia
22 March   WC HS215   Harri Olli   Adam Małysz   Simon Ammann
  Robert Kranjec
2010 19–20 March   SFWC HS215   Simon Ammann   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Anders Jacobsen
21 March   SFWC
Team event
HS215   Austria   Norway   Finland
2011 18 March   WC HS215   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Thomas Morgenstern   Martin Koch
19 March   WC
Team event
HS215   Austria   Norway   Slovenia
20 March   WC HS215   Kamil Stoch   Robert Kranjec   Adam Małysz
2012 16 March   WC HS215   Robert Kranjec   Simon Ammann   Martin Koch
17 March   WC
Team event
HS215   Austria   Norway   Germany
18 March   WC HS215   Martin Koch   Simon Ammann   Robert Kranjec
2013 22 March   WC HS215   Gregor Schlierenzauer   Peter Prevc   Piotr Żyła
23 March   WC
Team event
HS215   Slovenia   Norway   Austria
24 March   WC HS215   Jurij Tepeš   Rune Velta   Peter Prevc
2015 20 March   WC HS225   Peter Prevc   Jurij Tepeš   Stefan Kraft
21 March   WC
Team event
HS225   Slovenia   Austria   Norway
22 March   WC HS225   Jurij Tepeš   Peter Prevc   Rune Velta
2016 17 March   WC HS225   Peter Prevc   Johann André Forfang   Robert Kranjec
18 March   WC HS225   Robert Kranjec   Peter Prevc   Johann André Forfang
19 March   WC
Team event
HS225   Norway   Slovenia   Austria
20 March   WC HS225   Peter Prevc   Robert Kranjec   Johann André Forfang
2017 24 March   WC HS225   Stefan Kraft   Andreas Wellinger   Markus Eisenbichler
25 March   WC
Team event
HS225   Norway   Germany   Poland
26 March   WC HS225   Stefan Kraft   Andreas Wellinger   Noriaki Kasai
2018 23 March   WC HS240   Kamil Stoch   Johann André Forfang   Stefan Kraft
24 March   WC
Team event
HS240   Norway   Germany   Slovenia
25 March   WC HS240   Kamil Stoch   Stefan Kraft   Daniel-André Tande
2019 22 March   WC HS240   Markus Eisenbichler   Ryoyu Kobayashi   Piotr Żyła
23 March   WC
Team event
HS240   Poland   Germany   Slovenia
24 March   WC HS240   Ryoyu Kobayashi   Domen Prevc   Markus Eisenbichler
2020 11–12 December   SFWC HS240   Karl Geiger   Halvor Egner Granerud   Markus Eisenbichler
13 December   SFWC
Team event
HS240   Norway   Germany   Poland
2021 26 March   WC HS240
27 March   WC
Team event
HS240
28 March   WC HS240

List of world recordsEdit

A total of 28 official world records have been set at the hill. The longest ever, but invalid jump at the hill was set by Gregor Schlierenzauer in 2018 when he touched the ground at 253.5 metres (832 ft).[67][68]

«I was very surprised and didn't expect such a great jump. I didn't really aim for a world record at all. I just wanted to make a good jump. I had no expectations, didn't care at all and that's probably why I set a world record.»

Toni Nieminen; after 203 metres world record in 1994.[69]

«Without any doubt this is my greatest career and life achievement. Nothing can be compared with this world record. Not even my gold medal at the Olympics or the World Championships. Now I know how birds feel when they fly in the air.»

Espen Bredesen; after 209 metres world record in 1994.[70]

Date Athlete Length
21 March 1969   Bjørn Wirkola 156 metres (512 ft)  
22 March 1969   Jiří Raška 156 metres (512 ft)  
22 March 1969   Bjørn Wirkola 160 metres (520 ft)  
22 March 1969   Jiří Raška 164 metres (538 ft)  
23 March 1969   Manfred Wolf 165 metres (541 ft)  
15 March 1974   Walter Steiner 169 metres (554 ft)  
18 March 1979   Klaus Ostwald 176 metres (577 ft)  
15 March 1985   Mike Holland 186 metres (610 ft)  
15 March 1985   Matti Nykänen 187 metres (614 ft)  
15 March 1985   Matti Nykänen 191 metres (627 ft)  
14 March 1987   Piotr Fijas 194 metres (636 ft)  
17 March 1994   Martin Höllwarth 196 metres (643 ft)  
17 March 1994   Toni Nieminen 203 metres (666 ft)  
18 March 1994   Espen Bredesen 209 metres (686 ft)  
Date Athlete Length
22 March 1997   Espen Bredesen 210 metres (690 ft)  
22 March 1997   Lasse Ottesen 212 metres (696 ft)  
19 March 1999   Martin Schmitt 214.5 metres (704 ft)  
20 March 1999   Tommy Ingebrigtsen 219.5 metres (720 ft)  
16 March 2000   Thomas Hörl 224.5 metres (737 ft)  
18 March 2000   Andreas Goldberger 225 metres (738 ft)  
20 March 2003   Adam Małysz 225 metres (738 ft)  
20 March 2003   Matti Hautamäki 227.5 metres (746 ft)  
22 March 2003   Matti Hautamäki 228.5 metres (750 ft)  
23 March 2003   Matti Hautamäki 231 metres (758 ft)  
20 March 2005   Tommy Ingebrigtsen 231 metres (758 ft)  
20 March 2005   Bjørn Einar Romøren 234.5 metres (769 ft)  
20 March 2005   Matti Hautamäki 235.5 metres (773 ft)  
20 March 2005   Bjørn Einar Romøren 239 metres (784 ft)  

Construction progressEdit

Technical dataEdit

Specifications:[71][72]

  • K-point – 200 m
  • hillsize – 240 m
  • inrun angle – 35.1°
  • inrun length – 133.8 m
  • takeoff table height – 2.93 m
  • landing zone angle – 30.6° to 35.6°
  • takeoff table to bottom height – 135 m

In popular cultureEdit

Letalnica bratov Gorišek appeared as the main location of The Great Ecstasy of Woodcarver Steiner, a German film directed by Werner Herzog which portrayed ski jumper Walter Steiner during the second KOP Ski Flying Week, held at Letalnica in 1974.[73][74]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

Coordinates: 46°28′35″N 13°43′16″E / 46.47639°N 13.72111°E / 46.47639; 13.72111