Lester William Polsfuss (June 9, 1915 – August 12, 2009), known as Les Paul, was an American jazz, country, and blues guitarist, songwriter, luthier, and inventor. He was one of the pioneers of the solid-body electric guitar, and his techniques served as inspiration for the Gibson Les Paul. Paul taught himself how to play guitar, and while he is mainly known for jazz and popular music, he had an early career in country music. He is credited with many recording innovations. Although he was not the first to use the technique, his early experiments with overdubbing (also known as sound on sound), delay effects such as tape delay, phasing effects and multitrack recording were among the first to attract widespread attention.
|Birth name||Lester William Polsfuss|
|Born||June 9, 1915|
Waukesha, Wisconsin, U.S.
|Died||August 12, 2009 (aged 94)|
White Plains, New York, U.S.
|Associated acts||Mary Ford|
His innovative talents extended into his playing style, including licks, trills, chording sequences, fretting techniques and timing, which set him apart from his contemporaries and inspired many guitarists of the present day. He recorded with his wife, the singer and guitarist Mary Ford, in the 1950s, and they sold millions of records.
Among his many honors, Paul is one of a handful of artists with a permanent, stand-alone exhibit in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. He is prominently named by the music museum on its website as an "architect" and a "key inductee" with Sam Phillips and Alan Freed. Les Paul is the only person to be included in both the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
Paul was born Lester William Polsfuss in Waukesha, Wisconsin, to George and Evelyn (Stutz) Polsfuss. His family was of German ancestry. Paul's mother was related to the founders of Milwaukee's Valentin Blatz Brewing Company and the makers of the Stutz automobile. His parents divorced when he was a child. His mother simplified their Prussian family name first to Polfuss, then to Polfus, although Les Paul never legally changed his name. Before taking the stage name Les Paul, he also performed as Red Hot Red and Rhubarb Red.
At the age of eight, Paul began playing the harmonica. After trying to learn the piano, he switched to the guitar. It was during this time that he invented a neck-worn harmonica holder, which allowed him to play both sides of the harmonica hands-free while accompanying himself on the guitar. It is still manufactured using his basic design. By age thirteen, Paul was performing semi-professionally as a country-music singer, guitarist, and harmonica player. While playing at the Waukesha area drive-ins and roadhouses, Paul began his first experiment with sound. Wanting to make himself heard by more people at the local venues, he wired a phonograph needle to his guitar and connected it to a radio speaker, using that to amplify his acoustic guitar. As a teen Paul experimented with sustain by using a 2-foot piece of rail from a nearby train line. At age seventeen, Paul played with Rube Tronson's Texas Cowboys, and soon after he dropped out of high school to team up with Sunny Joe Wolverton's Radio Band in St. Louis, Missouri, on KMOX.
Paul moved to Chicago in 1934, where he continued to perform on radio stations WBBM and WLS. He met pianist Art Tatum, whose playing influenced him to stick with the guitar rather than original plans of taking on the piano. His first two records were released in 1936, credited to "Rhubarb Red", Paul's hillbilly alter ego. He also served as an accompanist for a few other bands signed to Decca. During this time he began adding different sounds and adopted his stage name of Les Paul.
Paul's guitar style was strongly influenced by the music of Django Reinhardt, whom he greatly admired. Following World War II, Paul sought out and made friends with Reinhardt. When Reinhardt died in 1953, Paul paid for part of the funeral's cost. One of Paul's prized possessions was a Selmer Maccaferri acoustic guitar given to him by Reinhardt's widow.
Paul formed a trio in 1937 with rhythm guitarist Jim Atkins (older half-brother of guitarist Chet Atkins) and bassist/percussionist Ernie "Darius" Newton. They left Chicago for New York in 1938, landing a featured spot with Fred Waring's radio show. Chet Atkins later wrote that his brother, home on a family visit, presented him with an expensive Gibson archtop guitar that Les Paul had given to Jim. Chet recalled that it was the first professional-quality instrument he ever owned.
Paul was dissatisfied with acoustic-electric guitars and began experimenting at his apartment in Queens, New York with a few designs of his own. Famously, he created several versions of "The Log", which was a length of common 4x4 lumber with a bridge, neck, strings, and pickup attached. For the sake of appearance, he attached the body of an Epiphone hollow-body guitar sawn lengthwise with The Log in the middle. This solved his two main problems: feedback, as the acoustic body no longer resonated with the amplified sound, and sustain, as the energy of the strings was not dissipated in generating sound through the guitar body. These instruments were constantly being improved and modified over the years, and Paul continued to use them in his recordings long after the development of his eponymous Gibson model.
In 1945, Richard D. Bourgerie made an electric guitar pickup and amplifier for professional guitar player George Barnes. Bourgerie worked through World War II at Howard Radio Company making electronic equipment for the American military. Barnes showed the result to Les Paul, who arranged for Bourgerie to have one made for him.
While experimenting in his apartment in 1941, Paul nearly succumbed to electrocution. During two years of recuperation, he moved to Hollywood, supporting himself by producing radio music and forming a new trio. During this time, he was remembered by factory workers as a frequent visitor to the Electro String Instrument Corp. shop on Western Avenue in Los Angeles, where he observed production of Rickenbacker brand guitars and amplifiers.
As a last-minute replacement for Oscar Moore, Paul played with Nat King Cole and other artists in the inaugural Jazz at the Philharmonic concert in Los Angeles, California, on July 2, 1944. His solo on "Body and Soul" is a demonstration both of his admiration for and emulation of the playing of Django Reinhardt, as well as his development of original lines.
Also that year, Paul's trio appeared on Bing Crosby's radio show. Crosby sponsored Paul's recordings. They recorded together several times, including "It's Been a Long, Long Time", which was a No. 1 hit in 1945. Paul recorded a few albums for Decca Records in the 1940s. He was enamoured by the Andrews Sisters, who hired his trio to open for them during a tour in 1946. Their manager, Lou Levy, said watching Paul's fingers while he played guitar was like watching a train go by. Their conductor, Vic Schoen, said his playing was always original. Maxine Andrews said, "He'd tune into the passages we were singing and lightly play the melody, sometimes in harmony. We'd sing these fancy licks and he'd keep up with us note for note in exactly the same rhythm...almost contributing a fourth voice. But he never once took the attention away from what we were doing. He did everything he could to make us sound better." In the 1950s, when he recorded Mary Paul's vocals on multiple tracks, he created music that sounded like the Andrews Sisters.
In January 1948, Paul shattered his right arm and elbow in a near-fatal automobile accident on an icy Route 66 west of Davenport, Oklahoma. Mary Ford was driving the Buick convertible, which plunged off the side of a railroad overpass and dropped twenty feet into a ravine; they were returning from Wisconsin to Los Angeles after visiting family. Doctors at Oklahoma City's Wesley Presbyterian Hospital told Paul that they could not rebuild his elbow. Their other option was amputation. Paul was flown to Los Angeles, where his arm was set at an angle—just under 90 degrees—that allowed him to cradle and pick the guitar. It took him nearly a year and a half to recover.
In 1940, Les Paul created a prototype instrument, a one-off solid-body electric guitar known as "The Log", which he fashioned from a four-foot wooden board. The Log was built after-hours by Paul at the Epiphone guitar factory, and is one of the first solid-body electric guitars. Earlier solid-body electric guitars include Paul Tutmarc’s Audiovox electric bass in 1936 and Rickenbacker’s guitars of the 1930s. In 1948 Paul A. Bigsby built a custom solid-body electric guitar for Merle Travis, and c. 1949 he built one for Les Paul (though Les kept this a secret for many years) In 1948 Leo Fender created his own Fender "Esquire".
Although Paul had approached the Gibson Guitar Corporation with his idea of a solid-body electric guitar in 1941, it showed no interest until Fender began marketing its Esquire and Broadcaster guitars in 1950 (The Broadcaster was renamed the Telecaster in 1952).
Gibson’s Ted McCarty was the chief designer of the guitar later dubbed the Gibson Les Paul, and entered into a promotional and financial arrangement with Les Paul, paying him a royalty on sales. Paul made design suggestions such as a change to the tailpiece. The guitar went on sale in 1952.
Problems with the strength of the body and neck made Paul dissatisfied with the new Gibson guitar. This, and a pending divorce from Mary Ford, led to Paul ending his endorsement and use of his name on Gibson guitars until 1966, by which time his divorce was completed.
Paul continued to seek technical improvements, although they were not always successful commercially. For example, in 1962, Paul was issued US Patent No. 3,018,680, for a pickup in which the coil was physically attached to the strings. One of Paul's innovations became somewhat successful; unfortunately, it was not to his benefit. In the mid-1940s, he introduced an aluminum guitar with the tuning mechanisms below the bridge. As it had no headstock, only string attachments at the nut, it was the first "headless" guitar. Unfortunately, Paul's guitar was so sensitive to the heat from stage lights that it would not keep tune. This style was further developed by others, most successfully Ned Steinberger.
In the 1940s, Paul was unhappy with the way his records sounded. He felt that his sound was not different from anyone else's. This thought struck him when his mother complimented him on a song she had heard on the radio, when in fact she had heard George Barnes, not Paul. During the 1930s and 1940s, Paul experimented with techniques in private for many years before demonstrating them for others. He put his sound into a Bing Crosby song, "It's Been a Long, Long Time," which was a number-one single in 1945.
After a recording session, Crosby suggested that Paul build a recording studio so he could produce the sound he wanted. Paul started his studio in the garage of his home on North Curson Street in Hollywood. The studio drew many vocalists and musicians who wanted the benefit of his expertise. His experiments included microphone placement, track speed, and recording overdubs. These methods resulted in a clarity previously unheard in this type of multitrack recording. People started to consider his recording techniques as instruments—as important to production as a guitar, bass, or drums. (The house and studio still stand but were moved to Pasadena some time after Paul sold the house.)
In 1949, Crosby gave him one of the first Ampex Model 200A reel to reel tape recorders. Capitol Records released "Lover (When You're Near Me)", which had begun as an experiment in the garage with Paul playing eight different parts on electric guitar, some recorded at half-speed, hence "double-fast" when played back at normal speed for the master. This was the first time he used multitracking in a recording, though he had been shopping his multitracking technique unsuccessfully since the 1930s. His early multitrack recordings were made with acetate discs. He recorded a track onto a disk, then recorded himself playing another part with the first. He built the multitrack recording with overlaid tracks rather than parallel ones as he did later. By the time he had a result that satisfied him, he had discarded some five hundred recording disks.
He built a disc-cutter assembly based on automobile parts. He favored the flywheel from a Cadillac for its weight and flatness. He used the acetate disc setup to record parts at different speeds and with delay, resulting in his signature sound with echoes and birdsong-like guitar riffs. When he used magnetic tape, he could take his recording equipment on tour, making episodes for his fifteen-minute radio show in his hotel room. He worked with Ross Snyder on the design of the first eight-track recording deck built for him by Ampex for his home studio.
Paul invented Sound on Sound recording using this machine by placing an additional playback head, located before the conventional erase/record/playback heads. This allowed Paul to play along with a previously recorded track, both of which were mixed together on to a new track. This was a mono tape recorder with just one track across the entire width of quarter-inch tape; thus, the recording was "destructive" in the sense that the original recording was permanently replaced with the new, mixed recording. He eventually enhanced this by using one tape machine to play back the original recording and a second to record the combined track. This preserved the original recording.
Paul bought the first Ampex 8-track recorder in 1957. Rein Narma built a custom 8-channel mixing console for him. The mixing board included in-line equalization and vibrato effects. He named the recorder "The Octopus" and the mixing console "The Monster". The name "octopus" was inspired by comedian W. C. Fields who was the first person Paul played his multi-tracked guitar experiments to. "He came to my garage to make a little record (in 1946)," Les recalled. "I played him the acetate of 'Lover' that I'd done. When he heard it, he said, 'My boy, you sound like an octopus.'"
Les Paul and Mary FordEdit
In the summer of 1945, Paul met country-western singer Iris Colleen Summers. They began working together in 1948, when she adopted the stage name Mary Ford. They married in 1949.
Their hits included "How High the Moon", "Bye Bye Blues", "Song in Blue", "Don'cha Hear Them Bells", "The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise", and "Vaya con Dios". The songs were recorded with multiple tracks where Ford harmonized with herself and Paul played several guitars.
Like Crosby, they used the recording technique known as close miking where the microphone is less than 6 inches (15 cm) from the singer's mouth. This produces a more intimate, less reverberant sound than when a singer is 1 foot (30 cm) or more from the microphone. When using a pressure-gradient (uni- or bi-directional) microphone, it emphasizes low-frequency sounds in the voice due to the microphone's proximity effect and gives a more relaxed feel because the performer is not working as hard. The result is a singing style which diverged from the unamplified theater style of the musical comedies of the 1930s and 1940s.
Radio and television programsEdit
Paul had hosted a 15-minute radio program, The Les Paul Show, on NBC Radio in 1950, featuring his trio (himself, Ford and rhythm player Eddie Stapleton) and his electronics, recorded from their home and with gentle humor between Paul and Ford bridging musical selections, some of which had already been successful on records, some of which anticipated the couple's recordings, and many of which presented re-interpretations of such jazz and pop selections as "In the Mood", "Little Rock Getaway", "Brazil", and "Tiger Rag". Over ten of these shows survive among old-time radio collectors today.
The show also appeared on television a few years later with the same format, but excluding the trio and retitled The Les Paul & Mary Ford Show (also known as Les Paul & Mary Ford at Home) with "Vaya Con Dios" as the theme song. Sponsored by Warner–Lambert's Listerine mouthwash, it was aired on NBC television during 1954–1955, and then syndicated until 1960. The show aired five times a day, five days a week for only five minutes (one or two songs) long, and therefore was used as a brief interlude or fill-in in programming schedules. Since Paul created the entire show himself, including audio and video, he maintained the original recordings and was in the process of restoring them to current quality standards until his death.
During his radio shows, Paul introduced the fictional "Les Paulverizer" device, which multiplies anything fed into it, such as a guitar sound or a voice. It was Paul's way of explaining how his single guitar could be multiplied to become a group of guitars. The device even became the subject of comedy, with Ford multiplying herself and her vacuum cleaner with it so she could finish the housework faster. Later, Paul created a real Les Paulverizer that he attached to his guitar. The invention allowed Paul to access pre-recorded layers of songs during live performances so he could replicate his recorded sound on stage.
In 1965, Paul went into semi-retirement, although he did return to the studio occasionally. He and Ford had divorced at the end of 1964 after she got tired of touring. Paul's most recognizable recordings from then through the mid-1970s were an album for London Records/Phase 4 Stereo, Les Paul Now (1968), on which he updated some of his earlier hits; and two albums comprising a meld of jazz and country improvisation with guitar virtuoso Chet Atkins, backed by some of Nashville's celebrated studio musicians, Chester and Lester (1976) and Guitar Monsters (1978), for RCA Victor.
He played at slower tempos with a large pick that was easier to hold. In 2006, at the age of 90, he won two Grammy Awards at the 48th Annual Grammy Awards for his album Les Paul & Friends: American Made World Played. He also performed every Monday night with guitarist Lou Pallo, bassist Paul Nowinski (and later, Nicki Parrott), and guitarist Frank Vignola and for a few years, pianist John Colaianni. Paul, Pallo, and Nowinski performed at Fat Tuesdays and at the Iridium Jazz Club on Broadway. In 1997, Chuck Mangione did a session with Les Paul. Mangione is told of how he beat out Les for Album of the Year.
Composer Richard Stein sued Paul for plagiarism, charging that Paul's "Johnny (is the Boy for Me)" was taken from Stein's 1937 song "Sanie cu zurgălăi" (Romanian for "Sleigh with Bells"). In 2000, a cover version of "Johnny" by Belgian musical group Vaya Con Dios that credited Paul prompted another action by the Romanian Musical Performing and Mechanical Rights Society.
Les Paul married Virginia Webb in 1937. They had two children, Russell (Rusty) (1941–2015), and Gene (Les Paul, Jr. born in 1944), who was named after actor-songwriter Gene Lockhart. After getting divorced in 1949, he married Mary Ford (born Iris Colleen Summers). The best man and matron of honor were the parents of guitarist Steve Miller, whose family was from Milwaukee. Paul was Miller's godfather and his first guitar teacher. They adopted a girl, Colleen, in 1958, and their son, Robert (Bobby), was born the following year. On November 30, 1954, they lost a daughter who was born prematurely and died when she was four days old. They divorced in December 1964.
In 1995, Paul established the Les Paul Foundation, which was designed to remain dormant until his death. The mission of the Foundation is to honor and share the life, spirit and legacy of Les Paul by supporting music education, engineering, and innovation as well as medical research.
On August 12, 2009, Paul died of complications from pneumonia at White Plains Hospital in White Plains, New York. After hearing about his death, many musicians commented on his importance. Slash called him "vibrant and full of positive energy", while Richie Sambora called him a "revolutionary in the music business". The Edge said, "His legacy as a musician and inventor will live on and his influence on rock and roll will never be forgotten." On August 21, 2009, he was buried in Prairie Home Cemetery, Waukesha, Wisconsin.
Awards and honorsEdit
He was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame (2005) for his development of the solid-body electric guitar. He was also inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame (2005), the Big Band & Jazz Hall of Fame (1990), the New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame (1996), and the New Jersey Hall of Fame (2010). In 1988, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame by guitarist Jeff Beck, who said, "I've copied more licks from Les Paul than I'd like to admit."
Two of his songs were entered into the Grammy Hall of Fame: "How High the Moon" and "Vaya Con Dios". In 1976, he and Chet Atkins received the Grammy Award for Best Country Instrumental. In 2005, he won Best Pop Instrumental for "Caravan" and Best Rock Instrumental for "69 Freedom Special."
In 1983, he received a Grammy Trustees Award for lifetime achievement. In 2001, he was honored with the Special Merit/Technical Grammy Award, which recognizes "individuals or institutions that have set the highest standards of excellence in the creative application of audio technology," a select award given to masters of audio innovation including Thomas Alva Edison, Leo Fender, and Beatles recording engineer Geoff Emerick. In 2004, he received an Emmy Lifetime Achievement Award in Engineering and a Lifetime Achievement in Music Education from the Wisconsin Foundation for School Music.
In 2009, he was named one of the top ten electric guitarists of all time by Time magazine and two years later the eighteenth greatest guitarist of all time by Rolling Stone magazine. During the same year, his name was added to the Nashville Walk of Fame.
Concerts and exhibitionsEdit
In July 2005, a 90th-birthday tribute concert was held at Carnegie Hall in New York City. After performances by Steve Miller, Peter Frampton, Jose Feliciano and a number of others, Paul was presented with a commemorative guitar from the Gibson Guitar Corporation. Three years later, at a tribute concert at the State Theater in Cleveland, Ohio, he received the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's American Music Masters Award. On June 9, 2015, a yearlong celebration of Paul's 100th birthday kicked off in Times Square with performances by musicians including Steve Miller, Jose Feliciano, and Neal Schon, a memorabilia exhibition, and a proclamation from the Les Paul Foundation declaring June 9 as Les Paul Day.
In 2007, the biographical film Les Paul Chasing Sound was aired on the public television series American Masters. The film contained interviews with Les Paul, performances by his trio on his 90th birthday, and interview commentary and performances by other musicians.
In June 2008, an exhibit showcasing his legacy and featuring items from his personal collection opened at Discovery World in Milwaukee. The exhibit was facilitated by a group of local musicians under the name Partnership for the Arts and Creative Excellence (PACE). Paul played a concert in Milwaukee to coincide with the opening of the exhibit. Paul's hometown of Waukesha, Wisconsin, opened a permanent exhibit titled "The Les Paul Experience" at the Waukesha County Museum in June 2013. The exhibit features artifacts on loan from the Les Paul Foundation. A self-guided tour of Les Paul's Waukesha was created by the Les Paul Foundation.
|1945||"It's Been a Long, Long Time" (with Bing Crosby)||1|
|1946||"Rumors Are Flying" (with The Andrews Sisters)||4|
|"What Is This Thing Called Love?"||11|
|"Little Rock Getaway"||18|
|1951||"Jazz Me Blues"||23|
|"Mockin' Bird Hill"(gold record)||2||7|
|"How High the Moon"(gold record)A||1|
|"I Wish I Had Never Seen Sunshine"||18|
|"The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise"(gold record)||2|
|"Just One More Chance"||5|
|"In the Good Old Summertime"||15|
|"Meet Mister Callaghan"||5||4|
|"Take Me in Your Arms and Hold Me"||15||22|
|"Lady of Spain"||8|
|"My Baby's Comin' Home"||7||11|
|1953||"Bye Bye Blues"||5||14|
|"I'm Sittin' On Top of the World"||10||8|
|"Vaya Con Dios"(gold record)||1||1||7|
|"Don'cha Hear Them Bells"||13||28|
|1954||"I Really Don't Want To Know"||11||33|
|"I'm a Fool To Care"||6||13|
|"Whither Thou Goest"||10||12|
|1955||"Song in Blue"||17|
|"No Letter Today"||27|
|"Cimarron (Roll On)"||48|
|1958||"Put a Ring on My Finger"||32||43|
|"It's Been a Long Long Time"||105|
- A peaked at #2 on Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs charts
- Feedback (1944) – compilation
- Les Paul Trio (1946) – compilation
- Hawaiian Paradise (1949)
- The New Sound (1950)
- Les Paul's New Sound, Volume 2 (1951)
- Bye Bye Blues! (1952)
- Gallopin' Guitars (1952) – compilation
- The Hit Makers! (1953)
- Les and Mary (1955)
- Time to Dream (1957)
- Lover's Luau (1959)
- The Hits of Les and Mary (1960) – compilation
- Bouquet of Roses (1962)
- Warm and Wonderful (1962)
- Swingin' South (1963)
- Fabulous Les Paul and Mary Ford (1965)
- Les Paul Now! (1968)
- Guitar Tapestry
- The Guitar Artistry of Les Paul (1971)
- The World is Still Waiting for the Sunrise (1974) – compilation
- The Best of Les Paul with Mary Ford (1974) – compilation
- Chester and Lester (1976) – with Chet Atkins
- Guitar Monsters (1978) – with Chet Atkins
- Les Paul and Mary Ford (1978) – compilation
- Multi Trackin' (1979)
- All-Time Greatest Hits (1983) – compilation
- The Very Best of Les Paul with Mary Ford
- Famille Nombreuse (1992) – compilation
- The World Is Waiting (1992) – compilation
- The Best of the Capitol Masters: Selections from "The Legend and the Legacy" Box Set (1992) – compilation
- All-Time Greatest Hits (1992) – compilation
- Their All-Time Greatest Hits (1995) – compilation
- Les Paul: The Legend and the Legacy (1996)
- 16 Most Requested Songs (1996) – compilation
- The Complete Decca Trios – Plus (1936–1947) (1997) – compilation
- California Melodies (2003)
- Les Paul – The Legendary Fred Waring Broadcasts (2004)
- Les Paul & Friends: American Made World Played (2005)
- Les Paul and Friends: A Tribute to a Legend (2008)
- "It's Been a Long, Long Time"—Bing Crosby with Les Paul & His Trio (1945), #1 on Billboard Pop singles chart, 1 week, December 8
- "Rumors Are Flying"—The Andrews Sisters with Les Paul and Vic Schoen & His Orchestra (1946)
- "This Can't Be Love"//"Up And At 'Em"—The Les Paul Trio (1946), V-Disc 664A
- "Guitar Boogie" (1947)
- "Lover (When You're Near Me)" (1948)
- "Brazil" (1948)
- "What Is This Thing Called Love?" (1948)
- "Suspicion"—as Rhubarb Red with Fos Carling (1948)
- "Nola" (1950)
- "Goofus" (1950)
- "Dry My Tears"/"Cryin'" (1950)
- "Little Rock Getaway" (1950/1951)
- "Tennessee Waltz"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1950/1951), #1, Cashbox
- "Mockin' Bird Hill"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1951), #1, Cashbox
- "How High The Moon"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1951), #1, Billboard Pop singles chart, 9 weeks, April 21 – June 16; #1, Cashbox, 2 weeks; #2, R&B chart
- "I Wish I Had Never Seen Sunshine"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1951)
- "The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1951), #2, Billboard; #3, Cashbox
- "Just One More Chance"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1951)
- "Jazz Me Blues" (1951)
- "Josephine" (1951)
- "Whispering" (1951)
- "Jingle Bells" (1951)
- "Tiger Rag"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1952), #2, Billboard; #8, Cashbox
- "I'm Confessin' (That I Love You)"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1952)
- "Carioca" (1952)
- "In the Good Old Summertime"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1952)
- "Smoke Rings"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1952)
- "Meet Mister Callaghan" (1952), #5, Billboard
- "Take Me in Your Arms and Hold Me"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1952)
- "Lady of Spain" (1952)
- "My Baby's Coming Home"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1952)
- "Bye Bye Blues"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1953)
- "I'm Sitting on Top of the World"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1953)
- "Sleep" (Fred Waring's theme song) (1953)
- "Vaya Con Dios"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1953), #1, Billboard Pop singles chart, 11 weeks, August 8 – October 3, November 7–14; #1, Cashbox, 5 weeks
- "Johnny (Is The Boy for Me)"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1953), #15, Billboard; #25, Cashbox
- "Don'cha Hear Them Bells"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1953), #13, Billboard; #28, Cashbox
- "The Kangaroo" (1953), #25, Billboard; #23, Cashbox
- "I Really Don't Want To Know"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1954)
- "I'm A Fool To Care"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1954)
- "Whither Thou Goest"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1954)
- "Mandolino"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1954), #19, Billboard
- "Song in Blue"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1954), #17, Cashbox
- "Hummingbird"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1955)
- "Amukiriki (The Lord Willing)"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1955)
- "Magic Melody"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1955)
- "Texas Lady"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1956)
- "Moritat" (Theme from "Three Penny Opera") (1956)
- "Nuevo Laredo"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1956)
- "Cinco Robles (Five Oaks)"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1957)
- "Put a Ring on My Finger"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1958)
- "All I Need Is You"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1959)
- "Jura (I Swear I Love You)"—Les Paul & Mary Ford (1961)
- "Love Sneakin' Up on You"—Les Paul, Joss Stone & Sting (2005)
Paul was also a prolific composer. Some of the songs he wrote were "Song in Blue", "Cryin'", "Hip-Billy Boogie", "Suspicion", "Mandolino", "Magic Melody", "Don'cha Hear Them Bells", "The Kangaroo", "Big-Eyed Gal", "Deep in the Blues", "All I Need is You", "Take a Warning", "Mammy's Boogie", "Up And At 'Em", "Pacific Breeze", "Golden Sands", "Hawaiian Charms", "Mountain Railroad", "Move Along, Baby (Don't Waste My Time)", "Dry My Tears", "I Don't Want You No More", "Doing the Town", "Les' Blues", "No Strings Attached", "Subterfuge", "Lament For Strings", "Five Alarm Fire", "You Can't Be Fit as a Fiddle (When You're Tight as a Drum)", and "Walkin' and Whistlin' Blues".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Les Paul.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lester William Polsfuss.|
- "Voices from the Smithsonian Associates. Les Paul, Musician and Inventor". Archived from the original on October 20, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2007.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- Guitarist and recording pioneer Les Paul dies, aged 94. The List. August 13, 2009.
- "The Wizard of Waukesha". Pbs.org.
- Houston, Frank (July 8, 1999). "Father of invention". Salon.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
- Staff writer (October 12, 2005). "Les Paul, 90, Releases Tribute Album". CBC. Accessed August 24, 2009. Archived January 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Swing Licks for C6th Lap Steel. The Steel Guitar Forum.
- Benson, John (November 12, 2008). Rock hall to honor Les Paul. Vindy.com.
- "Exhibits | The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum". Rockhall.com. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "The Architects of Rock and Roll featuring Les Paul, Alan Freed and Sam Phillips | The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum". Rockhall.com. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
- "Les Paul Foundation Website". Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Farber, Jim (August 13, 2009). "Electric Guitar Hero Les Paul Dead at 94: Hit-Maker, Musical Designer, Pioneer". Daily News). Accessed August 24, 2009.
- Robb Lawrence (2008). The Early Years of the Les Paul Legacy, 1915–1963. New York: Hal Leonard Books. p. 2.
- Masino, Susan; Paul, Les (2003). Famous Wisconsin Musicians. Oregon, Wisconsin: Badger Books. pp. 9–11. ISBN 1-878569-88-0.
- Henry, David (August 13, 2009). "Les Paul, Pioneer of Electric Guitar, Inventor, Dies at 94". Bloomberg. Accessed August 24, 2009.
- American Masters (2007 Season)—"Les Paul: Chasing Sound"—thirteen WNET New York
- "Articles". Classic Jazz Guitar. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- (August 14, 2009).  The New York Times (website registration required).
- Ladd, Patty (October 22, 2009). "Cinemax to honor 'Edison' of music". The Vindicator. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "Les Paul: Inventor and Performer". Les Paul Foundation website. Les Paul Foundation. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "ClassicJazzGuitar.com". ClassicJazzGuitar.com. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
- Kaufman, Gil. "Paul Les". MTV News.
- Cook, Kenneth. "Book Review: "The Music of Django Reinhardt," by Benjamin Givan." ARSC Journal 42.1 (2011): 86–87.
- Balmer, Paul (2003). Stéphane Grappelli: With and Without Django. Sanctuary. ISBN 978-1860744532. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- liner notes from Chet Atkins/Jim Atkins 1963 RCA Camden LP #CAL-753, "The Guitar Genius"
- Paul, Les (2005). Les Paul: In His Own Words. New York: Gemstone Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60360-050-7.
- Atkins, Chet; Neely, Bill (1974). Country Gentleman. Chicago: H. Regnery. ISBN 978-0-8092-9051-2
- Tianen, Dave (August 26, 2009). "The Wizard of Waukesha". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.
- Sforza, John: "Swing It! The Andrews Sisters Story;" University Press of Kentucky, 2000; 289 pages.
- Fresh Air from WHYY. "Guitar Hero: Les Paul, 1915–2009". Npr.org. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "The Log". DK Images. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Epiphone: A History". Epiphone.com. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
- Lawrence, Robb (2008). The Early Years of the Les Paul Legacy: 1915–1963. Hal Leonard Corp. p. 304. ISBN 978-0634048616.
- "Interview | July 19, 1999, at the Iridium jazz club, New York City". Jinx Magazine. July 19, 1999. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Epiphone Les Paul Standard". Epiphone.com. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
- "Patents". Google. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Les Paul Guitar Innovations". Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Kane, Brian (August 2011). "Acousmatic Fabrications: Les Paul and the 'Les Paulverizer'". Journal of Visual Culture. 10 (2): 216. doi:10.1177/1470412911402892.
- Waksman, Steve (May 2010). "Les Paul: In Memoriam". Popular Music & Society. 33 (2): 271. doi:10.1080/03007761003707944.
- Waksman, Steve (May 2010). "Les Paul: In Memoriam". Popular Music & Society. 33 (2): 3. doi:10.1080/03007761003707944.
- Lawrence, Robb (2008). The Early Years of the Les Paul Legacy, 1915-1963. Hal Leonard. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-0-634-04861-6. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Sel-sync and the "Ocotpus": How Came to be the First Recorder to Minimize Successive Copying in Overdubs" (PDF). ARSC Journal. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Sel-sync and the "Octopus": How Came to be the First Recorder to Minimize Successive Copying in Overdubs" (PDF). ARSC Journal. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- Bode, Harald (October 1984). "History of Electronic Sound Modification". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society. 32 (10): 730.
- Thompson, Art (1997). Stompbox: A History of Guitar, Fuzzes, Flangers, Phasers, Echoes & Wahs. San Francisco, Calif.: Miller Freeman. p. 24. ISBN 0-87930-479-0.
- "2007 AES Report – Where Audio Comes Alive". Mix. Archived from the original on September 17, 2014.
After the event, Narma, who also designed and built Les Paul's 8-track recording console, was reacquainted with Les, as the two had not seen each other since 1973.
- Richard Buskin. "Classic Tracks: Les Paul & Mary Ford 'How High The Moon'". Sound On Sound (January 2007).
- Bill DeMain. "The Best of the Capitol Masters (90th Birthday Edition)". Puremusic.com.
- "The Les Paul Show". Archive.org. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- Cellini, Joe (n.d.). "Les Paul: Invented Here". Apple Inc. Archived from the original on February 22, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- Baker, Sue. "Les Paul Inventor and performer". Les Paul Foundation. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Les Paul Obtains Divorce", The New York Times, December 18, 1964.
- "Iridium Jazz Club". Iridium Jazz Club. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- Milicia, Joe (November 7, 2008). "Guitar hero Les Paul ready for Rock Hall tribute". Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
- Foster, D.R. (June 1, 2009). "Les is more: 93 years old and cooler than you—A Night with the Longstanding Guitar Great" Archived February 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. The A.V. Club. Accessed August 15, 2009
- Nicoleanu, Anca (February 2, 2007). "Zici că n-ai plagiat şi, gata, ai scăpat". Archived from the original on June 4, 2009. Retrieved June 19, 2009. (non-English language)
- "Johnny is the boy for me; musical composition with lyrics. By Paddy Roberts & Marcel Stellman, m Les Paul, pseud. of Lester W. Polfuss". www.copyrightencyclopedia.com. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
On September 3, 1981, the copyright to 'Johnny (Is the Boy for Me)' was renewed, showing Les Paul as the composer of the music. This was the mandatory 28 year renewal requirement for copyright.
- Lawrence, Robb (2008). The early years of the Les Paul legacy, 1915-1963 (1st ed.). Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-634-04861-6.
- "Les Paul's Baby Dies." New York Times (1923-Current File), Dec 01, 1954
- Steve Miller at AllMusic
- Hernandez, Raoul (July 22, 2016). "Space Cowboy Steve Miller's Not Joking". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Fredrix, Emily via Associated Press. "Guitarist Les Paul plays for hometown", USA Today, May 10, 2007. Accessed April 27, 2017. "Paul, who lives in Mahwah, N.J., has donated many artifacts and memorabilia for the planned exhibit, a $3 million project expected to open in 2010."
- "Les Paul Obituary". New York Times. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
- Newels, Eric (August 17, 2009). "Music Great Les Paul Dies at 94". idiomag. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
- Staff writer (August 13, 2009). "Les Paul Remembered: Guitar Greats on Their True Hero". Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Jack Malvern (August 13, 2009). "Musicians pay tribute to the 'original guitar hero' Les Paul". The Times. London. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Sheridan, Luke (August 14, 2009). "Les Paul, 94: Guitar legend". The Associated Press via Toronto Star. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
- Itzkoff, Dave (August 18, 2009). "Funeral Plans Announced for Les Paul". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- "Les Paul comes home to his mother". JSOnline. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Lifetime Honors – National Medal of Arts". Nea.gov. Archived from the original on August 26, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Inventor Profile, National Inventors Hall of Fame". Invent.org. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- Alloway, Kristen (May 2, 2010). "Jack Nicholson, Susan Sarandon are among 15 inducted into N.J. Hall of Fame". NJ.Com. New Jersey On-Line LLC. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Grammy Hall of Fame Database Archived July 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- "Grammy Hall of Fame Award Past Recipients". grammy.com. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
- Braunstein, Michael. "Les Paul Foundation: Les Paul's Legacy Timeline". Les Paul Foundation. Archived from the original on January 7, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- "Technical GRAMMY Award". grammy.com. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- Dave on (August 24, 2009). "Fretbase, Time Magazine Picks the 10 Best Electric Guitar Players". Fretbase.com. Archived from the original on April 2, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "100 Greatest Guitarists: Les Paul". Rolling Stone. November 23, 2011.
- Landers, Rick (July 3, 2005). "Les Paul Tribute Concert at Carnegie Hall". Modern Guitars Magazine. Archived from the original on March 19, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
- Ferris, D.X. (November 17, 2008). "Slash, Billy Gibbons Jam for Les Paul at Rock Hall's American Music Masters Concert". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Staff, Writer (June 2, 2015). "Yearlong celebration marking Les Paul's 100th birthday to kick off in Times Square next week". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- "Les Paul: Chasing Sound". American Masters. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
- Williams, Scott (April 30, 2008). "Discovery World Lands Les Paul Exhibit—Guitar Wiz Sees No Effect on Waukesha Museum" Archived June 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Accessed August 24, 2009.
- Williams, Scott (May 5, 2008). "Their Role is Instrumental—Musicians' Connections Help bring Les Paul Exhibit to Milwaukee". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on October 14, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- Tianen, Dave (June 23, 2008). "Paul Brings Bit of Manhattan to the Pabst" Archived July 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Accessed August 24, 2009.
- Farabaugh, Kane (December 27, 2007). "At 92, Music Pioneer Les Paul Still Performing". Voice of America. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- "Les Paul Foundation". Les Paul Foundation. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Les Paul Live in New York City". The Library of Congress. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
- Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 420. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
- Paul, Les. The Guitar Magic of Les Paul. 10 original guitar solos with piano and 2nd guitar accompaniment. Leeds Music Corporation, New York, 1947.
- Garrett, Charles, ed. "Paul Les [Polfuss, Lester Williams]" The Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press. 2006. Print.
- Official website The Les Paul Foundation
- Remembering Les Paul Audio interviews at WGN Radio
- The Les Paul Show, Audio archive (free mp3s) of Les Paul's radio show
- "Classic Tracks: Les Paul & Mary Ford 'How High the Moon'" at Sound on Sound
- Les Paul's final interview at Performing Musician
- NAMM Oral History Program Interview Audio interview (2001)