Lemminkäinen Suite

The Lemminkäinen Suite (also named Four Legends or Four Legends from the Kalevala), Op. 22, is a four-movement symphonic poem for orchestra completed in 1895 by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. The piece was originally conceived as Veneen luominen (The Building of the Boat), an opera with a mythological setting, before the work took form as a suite. Its story is based on the heroic character Lemminkäinen from the Kalevala, a collection of Finnish folklore and mythology epic poetry. The second movement, The Swan of Tuonela, is the most popular of the four movements and is often performed on its own.

Lemminkäinen Suite
Tone poem by Jean Sibelius
Jean Sibelius, 1913.jpg
The composer in 1913
Other nameFour Legends
CatalogueOp. 22
PeriodLate-Romantic
Composed1895 (r. 1897, 1939)
Movements4
Premiere
Date13 April 1896 (1896-04-13)
LocationHelsinki, Finland
ConductorJean Sibelius

HistoryEdit

The piece was originally conceived as a mythological opera before Sibelius abandoned the idea and made it a piece consisting of four distinct movements.[citation needed] The first two though were withdrawn by the composer soon after its premiere and were neither performed, nor added to the published score of the suite until 1935. Sibelius changed the order of the movements when he made his final revisions in 1939, placing The Swan of Tuonela second, and Lemminkäinen in Tuonela third. [1][2]

Sibelius revised the score in 1897 and 1939.

MovementsEdit

  • Lemminkäinen and the Maidens of the Island is based on Canto 29 ("Conquests"[3]) of the Kalevala, where Lemminkäinen travels to an island and seduces many of the women there, before fleeing the rage of the men on the island. The movement is also known as Lemminkäinen and the Maidens of Saari, Saari being the Finnish word for island.
  • The Swan of Tuonela is the most popular of the four tone poems and often is featured alone from the suite in orchestral programs. It has a prominent cor anglais solo. The music paints a gossamer, transcendental image of a mystical swan swimming around Tuonela, the island of the dead. Lemminkäinen has been tasked with killing the sacred swan, but on the way he is shot with a poisoned arrow, and dies himself.
  • Lemminkäinen in Tuonela is based on Canto 14 ("Elk, horse, swan"[4]) and 15 ("Resurrection"[5]). Lemminkäinen is in Tuonela, the land of the dead, to shoot the Swan of Tuonela to be able to claim the daughter of Louhi, mistress of the Pohjola or Northland, in marriage. However, the blind man of the Northland kills Lemminkäinen, whose body is then tossed in the river and then dismembered. Lemminkäinen's mother learns of his death, travels to Tuonela, recovers his body parts, reassembles him and restores him to life.
  • Lemminkäinen's Return: The storyline in the score roughly parallels the end of Canto 30 ("Pakkanen"[6]), where after his adventures in battle, Lemminkäinen journeys home.

InstrumentationEdit

The suite is scored for two flutes (both doubling piccolo), two oboes (one doubling cor anglais), two clarinets in B (one doubling on bass clarinet), two bassoons, four horns (in E and F), three trumpets (in E and F), three trombones, tuba, timpani, triangle, bass drum, cymbals, tambourine, glockenspiel, harp, and strings.

RecordingsEdit

The original versions of Lemminkäinen and the Maidens of the Island and Lemminkäinen's Return have been recorded by Osmo Vänskä and the Lahti Symphony Orchestra (BIS CD-1015). Other recordings of the full published suite are by the Helsinki Radio Symphony Orchestra under Okko Kamu, the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra under Neeme Järvi, The Philadelphia Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy, the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra under Esa-Pekka Salonen, and The London Symphony Orchestra under Sir Colin Davis. The Iceland Symphony Orchestra (Petri Sakari)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Barnett, Andrew, Sibelius (2007), p.341. ISBN 978-0-300-11159-0.
  2. ^ Grimley 2011, p. 56.
  3. ^ Elias Lönnrot, The Kalevala, translated by Keith Bosley. Oxford University Press, Oxford World Classics edition (1989), pp. 401–417. ISBN 978-0-19-281700-6.
  4. ^ Lönnrot, (1989) pp. 155-167. Bosley, trans.
  5. ^ Lönnrot (1989), pp.168–186.
  6. ^ Lönnrot (1989), p. 431.

SourcesEdit

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