Lemmings is a puzzlestrategy video game originally developed by DMA Design and published by Psygnosis for the Amiga in 1991 and later ported for numerous other platforms. The game was programmed by Russell Kay, Mike Dailly and David Jones, and was inspired by a simple animation that Dailly created while experimenting with Deluxe Paint.

Home computer cover art by Adrian Powell[12]
DMA Design
Designer(s)David Jones
  • Gary Timmons
  • Scott Johnston
  • Mike Dailly
14 February 1991
  • Amiga
    Atari ST
    ZX Spectrum
    Amiga CDTV
    FM Towns
    PC Engine CD-ROM²
    Mega Drive
    Game Gear
    Amstrad CPC
    Master System
    • NA: November 1992
    • EU: 19 May 1993
    Commodore 64
    SAM Coupé
    Game Boy
    • EU: 1993
    • NA: August 1994
Genre(s)Puzzle, Strategy
Mode(s)Single-player, multiplayer

The objective of the game is to guide a group of anthropomorphised lemmings through a number of obstacles to a designated exit. In any given level, the player must save a specified number or percentage of the lemmings in order to advance. To this end, the player must decide how to assign limited quantities of eight different skills to individual lemmings, allowing them to alter the landscape and/or their own behaviour so that the entire group can reach the exit safely.

Lemmings was one of the best-received video games of the early 1990s. It was the second-highest-rated game in the history of Amstrad Action, and was considered the eighth-greatest game of all time by Next Generation in 1996. Lemmings is also one of the most widely ported video games, and is estimated to have sold around 20 million copies between its various ports. The popularity of the game also led to the creation of sequels, remakes and spin-offs, and has also inspired similar games. Despite its success, Lemmings lost considerable popularity by the late 1990s, which was attributed in part to the slow pace of gameplay compared to video games of later generations.[13][14]


Lemmings cross a bridge and tunnel through a rock formation in the Amiga version.

Lemmings is divided into a number of levels, grouped into four difficulty categories.[15] Each level begins with one or more trap doors opening from above, releasing a steady line of lemmings who all follow each other.[16] Levels include a variety of obstacles that prevent lemmings from reaching the exit, such as large drops, booby traps and pools of lava.[17]

The goal of each level is to guide at least a portion of the green-haired, blue-robed lemmings from the entrance to the exit by clearing or creating a safe passage through the landscape for the lemmings to use.[18][19] Unless assigned a special task, each lemming will walk in one direction ignoring any other lemming in its way (except Blockers), falling off any edges and turning around if it hits an obstacle it cannot pass.[20] A lemming can die in a number of ways: falling from too great a height, drowning or falling into lava, falling off the bottom edge of the screen, being caught in a trap or fire, or being assigned the Bomber skill. Every level has a time limit; if the timer expires, the level ends and the player is evaluated on the number of lemmings rescued.

To successfully complete the level, the player must assign specific skills to certain lemmings. Which skills and how many uses of each are available to the player varies from level to level, and the player must assign the skills carefully to successfully guide the lemmings.[19] There are eight skills that can be assigned:[18] Climbers climb vertically though fall down if they hit an overhang. Floaters use a parachute to fall safely from heights. Bombers explode after a five-second timer, destroying themselves and any destructible landscape in close proximity, though not damaging other lemmings or traps. Blockers stand still and prevent other lemmings from passing; lemmings that hit a Blocker simply reverse direction. Builders build a stairway of 12 steps. Bashers, Miners and Diggers tunnel horizontally, diagonally downwards or directly downwards respectively, but cannot break through steel barriers.[15]

While the player is able to pause the game to inspect the level and status of the lemmings, skills can only be assigned in real-time. Lemmings are initially released at a rate predetermined by the level (from 1 to 99). The player can increase the rate as desired to a maximum of 99, and later decrease it down to, but not lower than, the initial rate. The player also has the option to "nuke" all the remaining lemmings on the screen, converting them to Bombers.[15] This option can be used to abort a level when in a no-win situation, remove any Blockers that remain after the remaining lemmings have been rescued, or end a level quickly once the required percentage of saved lemmings has been reached.[18]

The four difficulty groups – "Fun", "Tricky", "Taxing" and "Mayhem" – are used to organise the levels to reflect their overall difficulty.[21] This rating reflects several factors, including the number of obstacles the player has to surpass, the limitation on the number of types of skills available to assign, the time limit, the minimum rate of lemming release, and the percentage of lemmings that must be saved.[19] Some versions have additional difficulty ratings with more levels in each.

Two-player mode

In two-player mode, each player can only control lemmings of their own colour but attempt to guide any lemming to their own goal.

The original Lemmings also has 20 two-player levels. This took advantage of the Amiga's ability to support two mice simultaneously, and the Atari's ability to support a mouse and a joystick simultaneously.[22] Each player is presented with their own view of the same map (on a vertically split screen), can only give orders to their own lemmings (green or blue), and has their own base. The goal is to get more lemmings (regardless of colour) into one's own base than the other player. Gameplay cycles through the 20 levels until neither player gets any lemmings home.[18]



Mike Dailly, the first employee[23] of DMA Design and one of the programmers for Lemmings, provided a detailed history of the development of the game titled "The Lemmings Story" in 2006.[22] David Jones, founder of DMA Design, has also commented on the development and success of Lemmings.[23]

Gary Timmons improved Mike Dailly's lemming walking animation (left) to make it appear less stiff.

The inspiration for gameplay came as a result of a simple animated character sprite in an 8×8 pixel box created by Dailly using Deluxe Paint[23] as part of development for Walker, then envisioned as a sequel to Blood Money.[22] Dailly was able to quickly produce an animated graphic showing his creations moving endlessly, with additional graphical improvements made by Gary Timmons and other members of the DMA Design team to help remove the stiffness in the animation. One member, Russell Kay, observed that "There's a game in that!", and later coined the term "lemmings" for these creations, according to Dailly. Allowing the creatures to move across the landscape was based on a Salamander weapon concept for Blood Money and demonstrated with the animations.[22]

Levels were designed based on a Deluxe Paint interface, which allowed several of the members to design levels, resulting in "hundreds of levels".[23] There were several internal iterations of the levels, each designer challenging the others. Dailly pointed out that David Jones "used to try and beat us, and after proudly stabbing a finger at the screen and saying 'There! Beat that!', we'd calmly point out a totally new way of getting around all his traps, and doing it in a much simpler method. 'Oh...', he'd mutter, and scramble off to try and fix it." They also sent internally tested levels to Psygnosis, getting back the results of their testing via fax. While most were solved quickly, Dailly commented that "Every now and again though, the fax would be covered in scribbles with the time and comments crossed out again and again; this is what we were striving for while we were designing the levels, and it gave us all a warm fuzzy feeling inside."[22]

Each of the designers had a somewhat different style in their levels: Dailly's levels often had titles containing clues to what to do (such as "It's Hero Time", suggesting that one lemming had to be separated from the crowd) and generally required the player to perform several actions at once; Gary Timmons's levels were minimalistic, with popular culture references in the titles; and Scott Johnston's (whose mother was the first voice of the lemmings) levels were generally tightly packed. Dailly was also responsible for the "custom" levels based on other Psygnosis and Reflections Interactive Amiga games, including Shadow of the Beast, Menace, Awesome and Shadow of the Beast II. These "crossover" levels also used music from those games, though in ports these levels have been removed or altered to remove such references. After they developed most of the hard levels, they then created several simple levels either by copying the existing ones or creating new layouts; as Dailly states, "This I believe is where many games fall down today, they do not spend the time making a good learning curve." Timmons is credited with the official drawings of the lemmings, as necessitated by the need of Psygnosis for box cover artwork.[22]

The two-player option was inspired by then-current games Populous and Stunt Car Racer. DMA Design initially wanted to use a null-modem connection between two machines to allow competitive play, but ended up using the ability of the Amiga to have two mouse pointer devices usable at the same time and thus created the split-screen mode.[22]



Music was originally created by Brian Johnston (Scott's younger brother), who sampled bits of copyrighted music. This had been common practice, but at that point there was a growing awareness of music copyright. Psygnosis therefore asked Tim Wright to replace the offending tracks; he often used arrangements and reworkings of classical and traditional music to avoid copyright problems.[22]

Music tracks in the game include:

Ports and sequels


The popularity of the game on the Amiga led to its rapid porting to many other platforms, and it is regarded as one of the most widely ported video games.[23][24] Within a year of its release, the game had been ported to Atari ST, Sinclair Spectrum, PC and SNES.[23] David Jones stated that after porting the game to 20 systems, he stopped keeping count of additional ports.[23] Other commercial ports of the original game include 3DO, Acorn Archimedes, Apple IIGS, Macintosh, CDTV, Commodore 64, Nintendo Entertainment System, Master System, Mega Drive, PC Engine, CD-i, and X68000.[16]

The license to the Lemmings intellectual property had remained with Psygnosis, which became part of Sony Computer Entertainment in 1993 but ultimately folded in 2012, leaving Lemmings as a Sony property. Sony has used that to craft more modern remakes.[25] In early 2006, Sony released a remake of Lemmings for the PlayStation Portable, developed by Team17. It features all 120 levels from the original game, 36 brand-new levels as well as DataPack support (similar to the Extra Track system featured in Wipeout Pure), and a user-level editor. Every level in the game is a pre-rendered 3D landscape, although their gameplay is still 2D and remains faithful to the original game. User levels can be constructed from pre-rendered objects and distributed by uploading them to a PlayStation-specific Lemmings online community.[21][26] The soundtrack also marks the final video game score created by longtime composer Tim Follin after he announced his retirement from the industry in mid-2005.[27] In October 2006 the game was ported by developer Rusty Nutz for the PlayStation 2 with use of the EyeToy.[28] The basic change in the concept is that the player must stretch and use their limbs in the recorded picture to aid the lemmings.[29]

Platform Released Developer Publisher Note
Atari ST 1991 DMA Design Psygnosis
MS-DOS 1991 DMA Design Psygnosis
ZX Spectrum 1991 DMA Design Psygnosis
PC-98 1991 DMA Design Imagineer
Macintosh 1991 Presage, Inc Psygnosis
SNES 1991 Sunsoft[30] Psygnosis
Commodore 64 1992 E&E Software
CDTV 1992 DMA Design Psygnosis
FM Towns 1992 4000Do Inc. Imagineer
Sharp X68000 1992 BANDIT Inc. Imagineer
NES 1992 Ocean Software Sunsoft
Game Gear 1992 Probe Sega
Master System 1992 Probe Sega
Amstrad CPC 1992 DMA Design Psygnosis
Mega Drive 1992 Sunsoft SunsoftNA/JP
PC Engine 1992 Sunsoft Sunsoft
3DO 1993 DMA Design PsygnosisNA
Electronic Arts VictorJP
Atari Lynx 1993 DMA Design Atari Corporation
Philips CD-i 1993 DMA Design Philips
SAM Coupé 1993 Chris White[31] Fred Publishing
Game Boy 1993 Ocean Software Imagineer
Amiga CD32 1994 DMA Design Psygnosis
Windows 95 1995 Visual Sciences Psygnosis Included with Oh No! More Lemmings
OS/2 1995[32] Focus Studios Demo only
Apple IIGS 1997 Brutal Deluxe[33] Unofficial
MSX2 1997 N.I. N.I.[34]
PlayStation 1998 Psygnosis Psygnosis[35] Included with Oh No! More Lemmings
Game Boy Color 2000 J-Wing Take-Two[36] Included with Oh No! More Lemmings
J2ME 2005 iFone
Commodore Plus/4 2023 TCFS (Tamás Sasvári)[37] Commodore Plus/4 World Unofficial; Left unfinished in 1993.[38]
A floppy disk containing Christmas Lemmings (1991) for the Amiga



Lemmings received some expansion packs following its launch. Oh No! More Lemmings, originally released for the Amiga in 1991 both as a data disk or standalone game, added five varying difficulties – Tame, Crazy, Wild, Wicked and Havoc – each with 20 new levels.[39] The game also features enhanced graphics and altered sound effects.[40] The expansion was also ported to Acorn Archimedes, Atari ST, DOS, Macintosh, and SAM Coupé, and the levels were made available with the Game Boy Color, Microsoft Windows, PlayStation and Sega Mega Drive versions of Lemmings.[41][10] Oh No! More Lemmings received generally positive reviews. Dan Slingsby of CU Amiga found the game addictive, calling the puzzles "ingenious",[39] and Peter Lee of Amiga Action praised the quality and difficulty of the levels;[42] Stuart Campbell of Amiga Power was disappointed by the lack of fixes from the original game, and Ed Ricketts of ST Format criticised the difficulty gradient of the levels and the price of the expansion, but both ultimately gave positive reviews nonetheless.[40][43]

Christmas Lemmings, also known as Holiday Lemmings, was also released as a series of short games released between 1991 and 1994. The gameplay remains unchanged from the base game, which is not required. First released as Xmas Lemmings as two four-level demos in 1991 and 1992, there were two later full retail releases on the Amiga and Atari ST in 1993 and 1994, both with an additional 32 levels.[44] The games were well-received; Rob Mead of Amiga Format described it as "funny, frustrating and incredibly addictive", despite being disappointed by the number of levels,[45] and Will Greenwald of PC Magazine ranked it among the best Christmas video games in 2014.[46]



After releasing the Lemmings remake for the PSP, Team17 produced a sequel, bearing the same name, for the PlayStation 3 for download through PlayStation Network. The game features 40 levels,[47] and has similar graphical improvements to those of the PSP remake, as well as online scoreboards and artwork developed for a high-definition display, but lacks the ability to create and share levels that the PSP title offers.[48] Another sequel, Lemmings Touch, was released for PlayStation Vita on 27 May 2014, developed by D3T Ltd.[49] Exient studio Sad Puppy released a mobile-friendly iteration of Lemmings for iOS and Android in December 2018.[50]



The original sales for Lemmings on the Amiga topped 55,000 copies on the first day of sales; in comparison, Menace sold 20,000 copies and Blood Money sold 40,000 copies cumulatively. With all ports included, Mike Dailly estimated that 15 million copies of Lemmings were sold between 1991 and 2006.[76] In 2011, Luke Plunkett from Kotaku placed the figure at over 20 million,[77] a figure which has been quoted as far back as 1997.[78][79]

At the time of its first release, Lemmings received several high scores from gaming magazines, with only the level of graphics and sound receiving some small amount of criticism.[80] David Sears of Compute!, in his review of Lemmings for the PC, stated that "perhaps Psygnosis has tapped into the human instinct for survival in formulating this perfect blend of puzzle, strategy, and action."[81] Amiga Computing stated that "Lemmings is absolutely brilliant. Psygnosis have managed to produce a game that is not only totally original, but also features the kind of addictive gameplay that will keep you coming back for more time and time again."[82] A review from the Australian Commodore and Amiga Review (ACAR) stated that "above all, the concept is simple, and the game is a lot of fun."[83] Computer Gaming World stated that "Not since Tetris has this reviewer been so addicted to, or completely fascinated with, a series of challenging puzzles ... follow the crowd and get Lemmings".[84] In 1992 the magazine named it its Action Game of the Year.[85] The game was reviewed in 1991 in Dragon by Hartley, Patricia, and Kirk Lesser in "The Role of Computers" column. The reviewers gave the game 5 out of 5 stars.[86] The Lessers reviewed the Macintosh version of the game in 1993 in Dragon, also giving that version 5 stars.[87]

In the Finnish magazine Mikrobitti, Jukka Tapanimäki gave the Amiga and DOS versions of Lemmings 84 points of 100. He praised the game's originality but expressed criticism for it being repetitive.[62][63][64]

In 1994 Electronic Gaming Monthly complimented the Lynx version's large number of options and password feature, and remarked, "Lemmings has always been a good strategy game, and the Lynx version continues the tradition."[54] The following year they reviewed the CD-i version, criticising that it has nothing but the obligatory full-motion video intro to set it apart from the numerous ports of the game that had already been released over the past four years.[55] GamePro made the same criticisms, commenting that "this former 16-bit puzzler isn't going anywhere new on the CD-i."[88]

Next Generation's review of the 3DO version assessed that "If you've played any version, you've played this one, too, but if you haven't tried it, this is one of the better ones, and it's still one game that's addictive as hell."[65]

In 1996, Computer Gaming World declared Lemmings the 12th-best computer game ever released,[89] and that same year, Next Generation declared it the 8th-greatest game of all time, and "second only to Tetris" in the puzzle genre.[72] In 2004, readers of Retro Gamer voted Lemmings as the 21st-top retro game, with the editors calling it "perhaps Psygnosis' finest hour and a turning point in the puzzle genre."[90] In 1991, PC Format named Lemmings one of the 50 best computer games ever. The editors wrote, "Yes, we know it sounds stupid, but you will like it – everyone else has."[91] In 1994, PC Gamer US named Lemmings the 30th-best computer game ever. The editors called it "one of the biggest puzzlers ever released for PC" and "cleaner and less complicated" than its sequel.[92] That same year, PC Gamer UK named it the 25th-best computer game of all time, calling it "a seminal title."[93]

In 1998, PC Gamer declared it the 21st-best computer game ever released, and the editors called it "as fresh and addictive today as it was when it was first released".[94] In 2018, Complex listed the game 70th on its "The Best Super Nintendo Games of All Time".[95] In 1995, Total! ranked the game 81st on their Top 100 SNES Games summarizing: "The game that spawned a dozen imitators is still one of the best platform puzzlers available."[96]


Sculpture of Lemmings in Seabraes Park, Dundee, near the original office of DMA Design

Lemmings inspired several sequels, including the Christmas Lemmings short games that were released between 1991 and 1994, and the 1991 expansion Oh No! More Lemmings. Stand-alone sequels were Lemmings 2: The Tribes (1993),[97] All New World of Lemmings (1994),[16] 3D Lemmings (1995)[98] and Lemmings Revolution (2000).[16] By mid-1995, Lemmings and its sequels had accumulated combined sales of more than 4 million units worldwide.[99] Two spin-off games were also made, both in 1996; Lemmings Paintball[98] and The Adventures of Lomax.[100] Pingus is an open source clone first released in 1998.[101]

The intellectual property (IP) of Lemmings stayed with the initial publisher Psygnosis, who were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment in 1993. Sony gained the IP for Lemmings from this acquisition, though only had two entries: the 2006 Lemmings for PlayStation consoles, and the mobile title Lemmings: The Puzzle Adventure in 2017. Sony eventually licensed the rights to Exient Entertainment,[102] who published the mobile title. Exient produced a 30th anniversary documentary of the history of Lemmings, released in February 2022.[103][104] Numerous clones of Lemmings were made. One of the first was The Humans, released for the Amiga in 1992. General game concepts have been included in the open source Pingus, where the player is required to safely guide penguins across landscapes using a similar array of tools.[105] Other similar games include Clones.[106] Yannick LeJacq of Kotaku, commenting on the 2014 game MouseCraft which incorporates elements of Lemmings and Tetris, speculated that games like Lemmings would not be very successful in the current gaming market, as the pace of the game is far too slow to satisfy most players.[107]

In 2004, Graham Cormode proved that deciding whether it is possible to complete a level of Lemmings is NP-hard.[108] Later, Giovanni Viglietta showed that the task is PSPACE-complete, even for levels where there is only one lemming to save.[109]

In 2010, it was announced that Lemmings would be ported to the iOS operating system by developer Mobile 1UP.[110] On 29 June 2010, Mobile 1UP reported that Sony Computer Entertainment Europe had presented them with a cease-and-desist letter, forcing them to halt development of the port.[111] In April 2011, Mobile 1UP has released a re-worked version of the work done in 2010 with a prehistoric setting (new artwork, sound effects, music and levels) under the name Caveman, available for the iOS and webOS platforms.[112] Brutal Deluxe, the developer who did the porting of the Apple IIGS version of Lemmings, has released the games' source code.[113]

Lemmings has also been called a predecessor of the modern real-time strategy (RTS) video game genre. A 1991 Amiga Power article claimed that Lemmings "was the first major game to introduce the 'indirect-control' concept," an element that is now common in many RTS games.[114] Blizzard Entertainment developer Bob Fitch said that part of the inspiration for the first Warcraft game, Warcraft: Orcs & Humans, was based on developing a competitive multiplayer RTS that combined elements of The Lost Vikings (which he had worked on) and Lemmings; Fitch said "We just went, 'Oh it's so cool when you see lots of Lemmings all over the place. Why don't we have lots of Vikings all over instead, and then the Vikings can fight each other."[115] Lemmings' introduction of RTS elements has been noted by fantasy author Terry Pratchett; in his novel Interesting Times, an army of golems is controlled in a fashion reminiscent of the Lemmings user interface. When readers asked if this was deliberate, Pratchett responded: "Merely because the red army can fight, dig, march and climb and is controlled by little icons? Can't imagine how anyone thought that... Not only did I wipe Lemmings from my hard disk, I overwrote it so I couldn't get it back."[116]

Lemmings was one of six games featured in a stamp series issued by the Royal Mail in 2020 to pay tribute to the United Kingdom's early video game industry.[117]


  1. ^ "The Release Schedule". Computer Trade Weekly. No. 323. United Kingdom. 11 February 1991. p. 14.
  2. ^ "Lemmings ZX Spectrum Demo Archive". Lemmings ZX Spectrum Demo.
  3. ^ "Acorn Archimedes ROM Archive". Lemmings Acorn Archimedes ROM.
  4. ^ "PC-98 ROM Archive". Lemmings PC-98 ROM.
  5. ^ "FM Towns ROM Archive". Lemmings FM Towns ROM.
  6. ^ "Sharp X68000 ROM Archive". Lemmings Sharp X68000 ROM.
  7. ^ "Turbografx-CD English ROM Archive". Lemmings Turbografx-CD English ROM.
  8. ^ 死ぬ前にクリアしたい200の無理ゲー ファミコン&スーファミ [200 Unreasonable Games You Want to Clear Before Dying: Famicom and Super Famicom] (in Japanese). My Way Publishing. 10 October 2018. p. 64. ISBN 9784865119855.
  9. ^ "The Release Schedule". Computer Trade Weekly. No. 399. United Kingdom. 10 August 1992. p. 15.
  10. ^ a b "SAM Coupé ROM Archive". Lemmings SAM Coupé ROM.
  11. ^ "J2ME ROM Archive". Lemmings J2ME ROM.
  12. ^ Lukowski, Andrzej (17 February 2022). "'The sprites clearly do not look like actual lemmings': the inside story of an iconic video game". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 December 2023. Retrieved 17 December 2023.
  13. ^ "What Happened to Lemmings?". SUPERJUMP. 16 April 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2024.
  14. ^ LeJacq, Yannick (9 July 2014). "Now I Know Why Lemmings Died". Kotaku Australia. Retrieved 8 March 2024.
  15. ^ a b c d "Crash issue 94 page 15". World of Spectrum. Crash. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  16. ^ a b c d Fox, Matt (3 January 2013). The Video Games Guide: 1,000+ Arcade, Console and Computer Games, 1962-2012, 2d ed. McFarland & Company. p. 169. ISBN 978-0786472574. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  17. ^ a b "Lemmings". Your Sinclair. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  18. ^ a b c d Atari, ed. (1993). Lemmings Instruction Manual (Atari Lynx) (C398105-080 Rev. A). Atari. pp. 5–7.
  19. ^ a b c Bramwell, Tom (7 March 2006). "Lemmings". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  20. ^ Herold, Charles (29 June 2006). "Addictive as Chips, but Less Fattening". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  21. ^ a b Cocker, Guy (1 June 2006). "Lemmings Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dailly, Mike (2006). "The Complete History of Lemmings". Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Wallis, Alistair (21 December 2006). "Playing Catch Up: GTA/Lemmings' Dave Jones". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  24. ^ Lee, Don (15 June 2006). "Lemmings PSP Review". Consumer Electronics Net. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  25. ^ Purchase, Robert (20 December 2018). "Sony's just released a new Lemmings game for mobile". Eurogamer. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  26. ^ "Lemmings - PlayStation Portable - IGN". IGN. 24 April 2006. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  27. ^ Cifaldi, Frank (26 September 2005). "Playing Catch-Up: Tim Follin". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 8 May 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  28. ^ "Lemmings: PS2". IGN. Archived from the original on 24 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  29. ^ Nix (12 May 2006). "E3 2006: Lemmings". IGN. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  30. ^ "Lemmings - SNES (PAL)". THE LIFE OF A GAME DEVELOPER. 3 July 2021. Archived from the original on 8 July 2021. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  31. ^ "Lemmings | World of SAM". www.worldofsam.org.
  32. ^ "Lemmings for OS/2 - OS2World Gaming Site". www.os2world.com.
  33. ^ "Brutal Deluxe Software". Lemmings for Apple IIGS.
  34. ^ "Lemmings (1997, MSX2, N.I.)". Generation MSX.
  35. ^ "LEMMINGS & OH NO MORE LEMMINGS - (PAL)". PlayStation DataCenter.
  36. ^ "Lemmings & Oh No! More Lemmings". Nintendo Life. 19 May 2021.
  37. ^ Yarwood, Jack (18 July 2023). "30 Years Later, This Lemmings Port Finally Brings the Classic Game To The Commodore Plus/4". Time Extension. Hookshot Media. Retrieved 3 August 2023.
  38. ^ "Lemmings (C16 + Plus/4) - 1993 TCFS". Games That Weren't. 22 September 2020.
  39. ^ a b Slingsby, Dan (February 1992). James, Steve (ed.). "Oh No! More Lemmings". CU Amiga. pp. 69–70.
  40. ^ a b Ricketts, Ed (March 1992). Peers, Nick (ed.). "Oh No! More Lemmings". ST Format. No. 32. p. 88.
  41. ^ Perry, Douglass (6 October 1998). "Lemmings and Oh No! More Lemmings". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  42. ^ Lee, Peter (February 1992). White, Steve (ed.). "Oh No! More Lemmings". Amiga Action. No. 29. p. 34.
  43. ^ Campbell, Stuart (January 1992). Bielby, Matt (ed.). "Oh No! More Lemmings". Amiga Power. No. 9. pp. 34–35.
  44. ^ "The 12 Days of Last Christmas". Eurogamer. Gamer Network. 21 December 2007. Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  45. ^ Mead, Ed (January 1994). Dyson, Marcus (ed.). "Holiday Lemmings". Amiga Format. No. 55. p. 101.
  46. ^ Greenwald, Will (24 December 2014). "The Best Christmas Video Games Ever". PC Magazine. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  47. ^ published, Gary_Cutlack (10 May 2007). "Lemmings - PS3 Network review". gamesradar. Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  48. ^ Van Ord, Kevin (19 January 2007). "Lemmings for PlayStation 3 Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  49. ^ "Lemmings Touch – IP Reboot and HD Remake". D3T Ltd. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  50. ^ Hansen, Serken (20 December 2018). "Lemmings comes to mobile devices today". PlayStation Blog. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  51. ^ "Lemmings for Super Nintendo". GameRankings. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  52. ^ a b "Amstrad Action All Time Top 10 Games". Retroaction. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  53. ^ "Master System Review: Lemmings" (PDF). Computer and Video Games. No. 133 (December 1992). 15 November 1992. p. 86.
  54. ^ a b "Review Crew: Lemmings". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 56. EGM Media, LLC. March 1994. p. 42.
  55. ^ a b "Lemmings Review". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 69. EGM Media, LLC. April 1995. p. 40.
  56. ^ "週刊ファミ通クロスレビュープラチナ殿堂入りソフト一覧" [Weekly Famitsu Cross Review Platinum Hall of Fame Software List]. Geimin (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 27 October 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  57. ^ Robert A. Jung (6 July 1999). "Woohoo! Look at them little lemmings walk..." IGN Entertainment. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  58. ^ Zzap!64 review, Newsfield Publications, issue 102, page 26
  59. ^ MegaTech issue 22 (October 1993), page 100
  60. ^ Mega issue 2 (November 1992), page 62
  61. ^ "Lemmings". Commodore Force. United Kingdom: Europress Impact. November 1993. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  62. ^ a b Mikrobitti magazine #4/1991, p. 57.
  63. ^ a b Pelit autumn 1991, p. 102.
  64. ^ a b PC-pelit 1991, p. 59.
  65. ^ a b "Lemmings". Next Generation. No. 3. March 1995. p. 88.
  66. ^ "Amiga Power's All-Time Top 100 Amiga Games". Amiga Power. May 1991. p. 5. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  67. ^ Mega issue 26 (November 1994), page 74
  68. ^ "150 Best Games of All Time". CDAccess. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  69. ^ "Edge's Top 100 Games of All time". Edge. 2 July 2007. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  70. ^ "Readers' Top 100 Games of All Time". Your Sinclair. September 1993.
  71. ^ "30 najlepszych gier na Amigę". Wirtualnej Polsce (in Polish). Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  72. ^ a b "Top 100 Games of all Time". Next Generation. No. 21. September 1996. p. 68. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  73. ^ "Lemmings (NES) Review". Archived from the original on 15 November 2014.
  74. ^ "Lemmings (Game Gear) Review". Archived from the original on 15 November 2014.
  75. ^ "Lemmings (SNES) Review". Archived from the original on 15 November 2014.
  76. ^ Dailly, Mike (2006). "The Complete History of DMA Design". Mike Dailly. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  77. ^ Plunkett, Luke (12 August 2011). "What do Grand Theft Auto and Lemmings Have In Common?". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  78. ^ "NG Alphas: Gamespotting". Next Generation. No. 28. April 1997. p. 98.
  79. ^ "Britsoft giant emerges". Gremlin Interactive. Archived from the original on 29 January 1998. Retrieved 16 April 2024.
  80. ^ Douglas, Jim (April 1991), Lemmings, ACE
  81. ^ Sears, David (October 1991). "Lemmings". Compute!. p. 106. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  82. ^ Holborne, Jason (May 1991). "Lemmings". Amiga Computing. pp. 52–53.
  83. ^ Cambell, Phil (April 1991). "Lemmings". ACAR. p. 76.
  84. ^ Greenberg, Allen L. (June 1991). "Another Leap Forward". Computer Gaming World. No. 83. pp. 56, 58. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  85. ^ "CGW Salutes The Games of the Year". Computer Gaming World. November 1992. p. 110. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  86. ^ Lesser, Hartley; Lesser, Patricia; Lesser, Kirk (July 1991). "The Role of Computers". Dragon. No. 171. pp. 57–64.
  87. ^ Lesser, Hartley; Lesser, Patricia; Lesser, Kirk (May 1993). "The Role of Computers". Dragon. No. 193. pp. 57–63.
  88. ^ "ProReview: Lemmings". GamePro. No. 70. May 1995. p. 92.
  89. ^ "150 Best (and 50 Worst) Games of All Time". Computer Gaming World. No. 148. November 1996. p. 65.
  90. ^ Retro Gamer 9, page 57.
  91. ^ "The 50 best games EVER!". PC Format. No. 1. October 1991. pp. 109–111.
  92. ^ "PC Gamer Top 40: The Best Games of All Time". PC Gamer US. No. 3. August 1994. pp. 32–42.
  93. ^ "The PC Gamer Top 50 PC Games of All Time". PC Gamer UK. No. 5. April 1994. pp. 43–56.
  94. ^ "The 50 Best Games Ever". PC Gamer US. Vol. 5, no. 10. October 1998. p. 113.
  95. ^ "The Best Super Nintendo Games of All Time". Complex. Retrieved 28 January 2022.
  96. ^ "Top 100 SNES Games". Total! (43): 47. July 1995. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  97. ^ "Lemmings 2: The Tribes - PC - IGN". IGN. 16 August 2013. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  98. ^ a b Soete, Tim (23 August 1996). "Lemmings Paintball Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  99. ^ "75 Power Players". Next Generation. No. 11. November 1995. p. 68.
  100. ^ Sterbakov, Hugh (1 December 1996). "Adventures of Lomax Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 26 January 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  101. ^ Anderson, Lee (20 December 2000). "Top 10 Linux games for the holidays". CNN. Archived from the original on 6 December 2004.
  102. ^ Forde, Matthew (13 December 2019). "UK dev Exient expands headcount as it focuses on new license deals". Pocket Gamer. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  103. ^ Paprocki, Matt (25 August 2021). "Documentary about Amiga classic Lemmings due for game's 30th anniversary". Ars Technica. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  104. ^ Nightingale, Ed (14 February 2022). "Two-hour documentary film celebrates 30th anniversary of Lemmings". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022.
  105. ^ Anderson, Lee (20 December 2000). "Top 10 Linux games for the holidays". CNN. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  106. ^ Zimmerman, Conrad (20 March 2009). "Preview: Clones". Destructoid. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  107. ^ LeJacq, Yannick (9 July 2014). "Now I Know Why Lemmings Died". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  108. ^ Cormode, Graham (2004). "The hardness of the Lemmings game, or Oh no, more NP-completeness proofs" (PDF). In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Fun with Algorithms: 65–76. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 July 2016.
  109. ^ Viglietta, Giovanni (2015). "Lemmings Is PSPACE-Complete" (PDF). Theoretical Computer Science. 586: 120–134. arXiv:1202.6581. doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2015.01.055. S2CID 1682030. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 August 2016.
  110. ^ Bell, Killian (25 June 2010). "Lemmings Coming to iPhone and iPod Touch For Free!". Cult of Mac. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  111. ^ Glasser, AJ (1 July 2010). "Lemmings iPhone port slapped with cease-and-desist letter". Macworld. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  112. ^ Caplan, Lisa (13 April 2011). "If It Walks Like A Lemming And Talks Like A Lemming It Must Be… Caveman?". AppAdvice. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  113. ^ "Download the complete source code of the award-winning game from Psygnosis". Brutal Deluxe. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
  114. ^ "Buyers Guide". Amiga Power. No. 8. December 1991. pp. 111–112. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  115. ^ Bailey, Kat (15 August 2017). "WarCraft Was Originally Conceived in Part as "Lost Vikings Meets RTS"... And Lemmings". US Gamer. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  116. ^ Breebaart, Leo (1 July 2005). "Annotated Pratchett File v 9.0 - Interesting Times". LSpace. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  117. ^ Alex, Michael; er (15 January 2020). "FEATURE: Iconic Dundee-made video game Lemmings is first class in new Royal Mail postage stamp collection". The Courier. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
Listen to this article (23 minutes)
This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 31 May 2009 (2009-05-31), and does not reflect subsequent edits.