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Legal aid in the United States

Legal aid in the United States is different for criminal law and civil law. Criminal legal aid with legal representation is guaranteed to defendants under criminal prosecution (related to the charges) who cannot afford to hire an attorney. Civil legal aid is not guaranteed under federal law, but is provided by a variety of public interest law firms and community legal clinics for free or reduced cost.[1]Other forms of civil legal aid are available through federally funded legal services, pro bono lawyers, and private volunteers.[2][3]

Criminal legal aidEdit

In 1942, the Supreme Court ruled in Betts v Brady that courts were to assign legal aid on a case by case basis.[4] In overturning this case, the court held in Gideon v Wainwright that the average citizen "lacks both the skill and knowledge adequately to prepare his defense, even though he have a perfect one. He requires the guiding hand of counsel at every step in the proceedings against him."[5] Later, the court expanded the right to include misdemeanors, and capital offenses.[6][7] The federal government and some states have offices of public defenders who assist indigent defendants, while other states have systems for outsourcing the work to private lawyers. Although public defenders are required to be provided at the trial level, free attorney services for appeals and appeals court are often not available. Funding for criminal aid come from both U.S. States and the U.S. federal government.[8]

Civil legal aidEdit

Critically, the court did not extend this guarantee of legal aid to civil matters in Lassiter v Department of Social Services, holding that the provision was less necessary in matters where liberty was not at stake.[9] A concerted movement towards substantive Civil Legal Aid in the United States didn't develop until the mid 1900s. The earliest developments trace back to 1876, with the first known legal aid society, the German Immigrants' Society being founded in New York.[10] By 1965, there were around 157 legal aid organizations across the country, serving almost every major city.[10] The landmark Supreme Court decision Gideon v. Wainwright guaranteed the right to counsel in criminal matters, but left the issue of civil aid unresolved. The movement towards extending Gideon to civil matters continues to gain momentum, even as States such as New York and California lead the way in establishing more substantive legal aid systems.

Legal aid for civil cases is currently provided by a variety of public interest law firms and community legal clinics, who often have "legal aid" or "legal services" in their names. Public interest practice emerged from the goal of promoting access to equal justice for the poor and this was inspired from the legal services disparity amongst European immigrants.[11] Such firms may impose income and resource ceilings as well as restrictions on the types of cases they will take, because there are always too many potential clients and not enough money to go around. Common types of cases include: denial or deprivation of government benefits, evictions, domestic violence, immigration status, and discrimination. In 2006, the American Bar Association adopted a resolution that defined such issues as "basic human needs," and urged the Federal government to provide legal services in such instances.[12] Some legal aid organizations serve as outside counsel to small nonprofit organizations that lack in-house counsel.

Most typical legal aid work involves counseling, informal negotiation, and appearances in administrative hearings, as opposed to formal litigation in the courts. However, the discovery of severe or recurring injustice with a large number of victims will sometimes justify the cost of large-scale impact litigation. Education and law reform activities are also sometimes undertaken.

Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO)Edit

The first legal aid program to exist at the federal level was implemented though the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), founded in 1965.[13] the OEO was established through the Economic Opportunity Act as part of the Johnson administration's War on Poverty.[14] The first director of OEO, Sargent Shriver, moved the organization towards the provision of legal aid. In an interview in which Shriver was asked which program from the War on Poverty he most preferred, he replied that "I am proudest of Legal Services because I recognized that it had the greatest potential for changing the system under which people’s lives were being exploited.”[15]

Legal Services Corporation (LSC)Edit

Civil legal aid appeared as early as the 1870s.[16] In the early 1960s a new model for legal services emerged. Foundations, particularly the Ford Foundation, began to fund legal services programs located in multi-service social agencies, based on a philosophy that legal services should be a component of an overall anti-poverty effort. In 1974, Congress created the Legal Services Corporation (LSC) to provide federal funding for civil (non-criminal) legal aid services. By 1975, the Legal Service Corporation had taken over the function of OEO, leaving it's organizational structure largely unchanged.[17] Funding usually comes from the federal government Legal Services Corporation (LSC), Interest on Lawyer Trust Accounts, charities, private donors, and some state and local governments. Legal aid organizations that take LSC money tend to have more staff and services and can help more clients, but must also conform to strict government regulations that require careful timekeeping and prohibit lobbying and class actions. Organizations that receive LSC funding cannot take funding from non LSC sources to pursue legislative efforts that contradict LSC regulations.[18] In addition to lobbying and class actions, LSC organizations cannot purse abortion related litigation and cannot advance certain state or federal welfare challenges.[19] LSC organizations are not able to conduct workshops related to political activities and advocacy as well.[20]Many legal aid organizations refuse to take LSC money, and can continue to file class actions and directly lobby legislatures on behalf of the poor. Many organizations that provide civil legal services are heavily dependent on Interest on Lawyer Trust Accounts for funding. Some civil aid organizations accept private donations and grants if they refuse LSC funding.[21]

However, even with supplemental funding from LSC, the total amount of legal aid available for civil cases is still grossly inadequate. Demand for legal services remains high. In 2017, an estimated 60.3 million Americans were eligible for LSC programs.[22] According to LSC's first annual Justice Gap report, initiated by LSC president Helaine M. Barnett in 2005, all legal aid offices nationwide, LSC-funded or not, are together able to meet only about 20 percent of the estimated legal needs of low-income people in the United States.[23] The widely released 2005 report, "Documenting the Justice Gap in America: The Current Unmet Civil Legal Needs of Low-Income Americans," concludes that 86% of civil legal problems facing Americans have received inadequate or no legal assistance in the past year.[24] The report also finds that 71% of low-income households were at some point in need of civil legal services within the year. The report states that “in 2017, low-income Americans approached LSC-funded legal aid organizations for support with an estimated 1.7 million problems. They will receive only limited or no legal help for more than half of these problems due to a lack of resources."[24]

The StatesEdit

The provision of legal services on a federal level through the LSC is largely inadequate, and leaves a large volume of unmet demand. In the absence of a major decision from the Supreme Court affirming the right to civil counsel, as came to pass with criminal matters through Gideon v. Wainwright, States have been left to their own devices in order to fulfill the high demand for legal services.

New YorkEdit

Historically, civil legal aid in the United States began in New York with the founding of the Legal Aid Society of New York in 1876.[25] In 2017, New York City became the first place in the US to guarantee legal services to all tenants facing eviction with the passage of the "Right to Counsel Law". The bill was originally introduced in 2014 by Mark Levine and Vanessa Gibson before being expanded into its current form. Funding for legal services centered around eviction and housing will increase over the course of five years, reaching $155 million by 2022.[26] The services are to be implemented by the Office of Civil Justice (OCJ) to households making no more than 200% of the federal poverty line.

The legislation includes a provision for OCJ to provide annual reports in order to monitor the progress and effectiveness of the services being provided. The 2017 reports finds that evictions have declined by 27% since 2013, and that "over the four-year period of 2014 through 2017, an estimated 70,000 New Yorkers remained in their homes as a result of the decreased evictions."[26]

CaliforniaEdit

The 2009 Sargent Shriver Civil Counsel Act created a number of pilot programs that advanced representation in civil aid cases regarding basic human needs in order to assess the benefits of civil legal aid, and the logistics of wider implementation. A 2017 study examined 10 of these legal aid programs, and found that recipients of aid had greatly improved prospects in eviction cases. 67% of cases settled, an increase of 33% compared to self pro se (self represented) cases.[27]Critically, the study found that, "while all Shriver clients received eviction notices, only 6% were ultimately evicted from their homes."[27] If income requirements are not met, Legal Services Corporation funded legal aid organizations in California cannot provide services to constituents and this disproportionally affects latinos living in California.[28]

The San Francisco City Counsel passed an ordinance in 2012 declaring its intention to make San Francisco the first city to guarantee a right to counsel.[29] In June 2018, San Francisco implemented a "Right to Counsel" program guaranteeing legal representation to tenants facing eviction.[30]

The East Bay Community Law Center provides free legal services to Alameda County residents. There are a variety of legal clinics from Berkeley Boalt Law School and legal divisions within the EBCLC and each has its own criteria establishing potential clients' eligibility for receiving their services. The EBCLC has two locations in Berkeley with one location on University Ave and one on Adeline Street. The EBCLC provides Clean Slate Services, Community Economic Justice Clinic Services, Consumer Justice and General Clinic Services, Education Defense and Justice for Youth Services, Health and Welfare Services, Housing Services, and Immigration services.[31]

Currently, the Los Angeles City Counsel is considering "Right To Counsel" legislation that may look very similar to those being enacted in New York and San Francisco.[32]

Pro bonoEdit

The problem of chronic underfunding of legal aid traps the lower middle class in no-man's-land: too rich to qualify for legal aid, too poor to pay an attorney in private practice. To remedy the ongoing shortage of legal aid services, some commentators have suggested that mandatory pro bono obligations ought to be required of all lawyers, just as physicians working in emergency rooms are required to treat all patients regardless of ability to pay.[33] Such proposals have been mostly fought off by bar associations successfully. The American Bar Association claims it is a lawyer's professional duty to perform 50 hours of legal pro bono work for poor people annually.[34] 1/3 of Latino lawyers perform pro-bono work and 49% of latino lawyers report to meet this 50 hour annual quota with 8.3% report to providing 200 hours or more.[35] Pro bono services are sometimes awarded by Courts in cases related to employment, sex discrimination, consumer credit and fraud amongst others.[36] A notable exception is the Orange County Bar Association in Orlando, Florida, which requires all bar members to participate in its Legal Aid Society, by either serving in a pro bono capacity or donating a fee in lieu of service. Even where mandatory pro bono exists, however, funding for legal aid remains severely insufficient to provide assistance to a majority of those in need.

Administrative legal aidEdit

A few states (e.g., California) have also guaranteed the right to counsel for indigent defendants in "quasi-criminal" or administrative law cases like involuntary terminations of parental rights[37] and paternity actions.[38][39]

ImpactEdit

In 2003, a study was published that linked civil legal aid to a marked decline in rates of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV).[40] Programs funded by the LSC closed 120,944 cases involving domestic violence in 2017 alone.[41] In the decade following this study, a considerable body of research began to take shape investigating the positive impact of civil legal aid. Studies have established legal aid as providing such benefits as decreasing homelessness as well as the need for emergency shelters through reducing evictions. Over the last two decades, civil legal aid services have shown to save the homes of more than 6000 tenants in New York according to the 1996 study by the Association of the Bar of the City of New York.[42] Because of the fragmented nature of civil legal aid in the US, cost benefit analyses are often specific to a given State. A 2010 article that gathered multiple other studies found that the benefits go beyond reducing domestic violence rates, finding that access to aid also brings more funds into a state by helping individuals receive federal benefits, protecting children, and aiding select groups such as seniors and veterans who are often exploited.[43] A report from the ABA Day in Washington lists a State by State cost benefit analysis, finding a return on investment as high as 9:1 in Alabama in 2015.[44]

Civil legal aid impact in the latino communityEdit

Legal services available for Latino and Hispanic clients vary.[45] This clientele can include Spanish speaking and undocumented clients.[46] Latinos often mistake notaries as legal organizations and they turn to notaries for legal advice that they are unqualified to give.[47]

Limitations of civil legal aid for the latino communityEdit

The relationship between the Hispanic community and legal aid services can be described as low in confidence.[48] 44% of Hispanics say they have little confidence courts will treat them fairly and 49% believe they will be treated fairly.[49] 19% of Latinos say they or an immediate family member have attended court or have been involved in a criminal matter with brief attorney services.[50] Institutional limitations such as income cut off quotas are a main deterrence in obtaining certain legal aid services for Latinos. [51] For many Hispanic clients, poverty, family composition, and demographics determine social and legal aid needs. [52] Non-legal issues such as stalking, domestic abuse, visa expiration, and language barrier can also affect latino client's ability to access legal aid.[53] Lack of diverse racial consciousness can prevent lawyers from providing adequate services for latino clients. [54] At the criminal level, Public defenders often times do not speak Spanish and they tend to recommend plea-bargaining over trials for latino clients.

Serving latino and hispanic clientsEdit

When latino clients have negative encounters with the criminal justice system in their latin country, they struggle to understand the legal system of the United States.[55] When providing legal services for Latino clients, legal practitioners should ask what nationality or ethnic group the client is from. [56] Attorneys and legal aid providers should not assume Latino or Hispanic clients speak Spanish and they should ask to confirm what languages they do speak.[57] It is recommended that legal organizations have Spanish translated documents about legal proceedings so that Spanish speaking clients can understand legal terminology.[58] Undocumented latinos can suffer additional immigration consequences because the legal representation received by latino clients in this field of law lack cultural and immigration background.[59]

Latino lawyersEdit

Latino lawyers serve as resources for advocacy and leadership in the latino community.[60] They are more likely to be a part of a small firm or work in the field of public service and non profit legal services.[61] Latinos make up 3% of lawyers and they are inadequately represented as partners or associates of large law firms, prosecutors, and defense attorney's.[62]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ George, James P. "Access to Justice, Costs, and Legal Aid," American Journal of Comparative Law vol. 54, no. Supplement Issue (Fall 2006): p. 293-316. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/amcomp54&i=1219.
  2. ^ George, James P. "Access to Justice, Costs, and Legal Aid," American Journal of Comparative Law vol. 54, no. Supplement Issue (Fall 2006): p. 293-316. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/amcomp54&i=1219.
  3. ^ Headworth, Spencer, and Shaun Ossei-Owusu. “The Accused Poor.” UC Berkeley Library Proxy Login, 1 Apr. 2017, libproxy.berkeley.edu/login?qurl=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.ebscohost.com%2Flogin.aspx%3Fdirect%3Dtrue%26db%3Deue%26AN%3D129436819%26site%3Deds-live.
  4. ^ Betts v. Brady, 316 U.S. 455 (1942)
  5. ^ Gideon, 372 U.S. at 345
  6. ^ Argersinger v. Hamlin, 407 U.S. 25 (1972)
  7. ^ Powell v. Alabama, 287 U.S. 45 (1932)
  8. ^ George, James P. "Access to Justice, Costs, and Legal Aid," American Journal of Comparative Law vol. 54, no. Supplement Issue (Fall 2006): p. 293-316. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/amcomp54&i=1219.
  9. ^ Lassiter v. Department of Social Services, 452 U.S. 18 (1981)
  10. ^ a b Houseman, Alan W., and Linda E. Perle. Securing equal justice for all: A brief history of civil legal assistance in the United States. Center for Law and Social Policy, 2007.[1]
  11. ^ Cummings, Scott L. "The Internationalization of Public Interest Law," Duke Law Journal vol. 57, no. 4 (February 2008): p. 891-1036. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/duklr57&i=922.
  12. ^ American Bar Association, Resolution 112A (August 2006). https://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/administrative/legal_aid_indigent_defendants/ls_sclaid_resolution_06a112a.authcheckdam.pdf
  13. ^ Houseman, Alan W. "The Future Of Civil Legal Aid: A National Perspective." UDC/DCSL L. Rev. 10 (2007): 35.
  14. ^ Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, Pub. L. No. 88-452, 78 Stat. 508
  15. ^ "Civil legal assistance saves money and helps people escape poverty - Talk Poverty". Talk Poverty. 2015-01-27. Retrieved 2018-10-30.
  16. ^ NLADA: About NLADA - History of Civil Legal Aid
  17. ^ Houseman, Alan W. "The Future Of Civil Legal Aid: A National Perspective." UDC/DCSL L. Rev. 10 (2007): 35.
  18. ^ Houseman, Alan W. "Civil Legal Assistance for Low-Income Persons: Looking Back and Looking Forward," Fordham Urban Law Journal vol. 29, no. 3 (February 2002): p. 1213-1244. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/frdurb29&i=1229.
  19. ^ Houseman, Alan W. "Civil Legal Assistance for Low-Income Persons: Looking Back and Looking Forward," Fordham Urban Law Journal vol. 29, no. 3 (February 2002): p. 1213-1244. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/frdurb29&i=1229.
  20. ^ Houseman, Alan W. "Civil Legal Assistance for Low-Income Persons: Looking Back and Looking Forward," Fordham Urban Law Journal vol. 29, no. 3 (February 2002): p. 1213-1244. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/frdurb29&i=1229.
  21. ^ George, James P. "Access to Justice, Costs, and Legal Aid," American Journal of Comparative Law vol. 54, no. Supplement Issue (Fall 2006): p. 293-316. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/amcomp54&i=1219.
  22. ^ Oh, M. L. Lee, S. John. 2018. LSC by the Numbers: The Data Underlying Legal Aid Programs (2017). Legal Services Corporation, Washington, D.C.
  23. ^ Helaine M. Barnett, President, Documenting the Justice Gap in America: The Current Unmet Civil Legal Needs of Low-Income Americans, pages 4 and 9. Legal Services Corporation, September 2005.
  24. ^ a b Legal Services Corporation. 2017. The Justice Gap: Measuring the Unmet Civil Legal Needs of Low-income Americans. Prepared by NORC at the University of Chicago for Legal Services Corporation. Washington, DC.[2]
  25. ^ Houseman, Alan W. "Civil Legal Assistance for Low-Income Persons: Looking Back and Looking Forward," Fordham Urban Law Journal vol. 29, no. 3 (February 2002): p. 1213-1244. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/frdurb29&i=1229.
  26. ^ a b Office of Civil Justice Annual Report 2017
  27. ^ a b "Study: Free legal services help settle high-stakes civil cases". California Courts Newsroom. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
  28. ^ Meeker, W, John Dombrink, and K Mallett. “Access to Justice for the Poor and Moderate‐income Populations: Issues for California Latinos.” The Justice Professional13.1 (0): 91–102. Web.
  29. ^ "San Francisco enacts ordinance declaring intent to become first "right to civil counsel city"". civilrighttocounsel.org. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
  30. ^ "SF's Measure F wins, will give tax-funded legal help to tenants facing eviction". SFChronicle.com. 2018-06-06. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
  31. ^ https://ebclc.org
  32. ^ Progressive, L. A. (2018-08-11). "Proposed Los Angeles Law Would Give Tenants Access to Attorneys". Medium. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
  33. ^ Helynn Stephens, "Price of pro bono representations: examining lawyers' duties and responsibilities: for many reasons lawyers owe a duty to provide legal services to those who can't afford them, and the mandatory pro bono model is best for that goal," Defense Counsel Journal 71, no. 1 (January 2004): 71-79.
  34. ^ Reynoso, Cruz. "A Survey of Latino Lawyers in Los Angeles County - Their Professional Lives and Opinions," U.C. Davis Law Review vol. 38, no. 5 (June 2005): p. 1563-1642. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/davlr38&i=1649.
  35. ^ Reynoso, Cruz. "A Survey of Latino Lawyers in Los Angeles County - Their Professional Lives and Opinions," U.C. Davis Law Review vol. 38, no. 5 (June 2005): p. 1563-1642. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/davlr38&i=1649.
  36. ^ Sandefur, Rebecca L. "Lawyers' Pro Bono Service and American-Style Civil Legal Assistance," Law & Society Review vol. 41, no. 1 (2007): p. 79-112. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/lwsocrw41&i=93.
  37. ^ Cal. Fam. Code §§ 7860-7864.
  38. ^ Salas v. Cortez, 24 Cal.3d 22 (1979).
  39. ^ Cal. Welf. & Inst. Code § 317.
  40. ^ Farmer, Amy, and Jill Tiefenthaler. "Explaining the recent decline in domestic violence." Contemporary Economic Policy21, no. 2 (2003): 158-172.
  41. ^ Oh, M. L. Lee, S. John. 2018. LSC by the Numbers: The Data Underlying Legal Aid Programs (2017). Legal Services Corporation, Washington, D.C.
  42. ^ Abel, Laura K.; Vignola, Susan. "Economic and Other Benefits Associated with the Provision of Civil Legal Aid," Seattle Journal for Social Justice vol. 9, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 2010): p. 139-168. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/sjsj9&i=153.
  43. ^ Abel, Laura K., and Susan Vignola. "Economic and other benefits associated with the provision of civil legal aid." Seattle J. Soc. Just. 9 (2010): 139.
  44. ^ https://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/uncategorized/GAO/Benefit-Cost%20Study%20Summaries%203-8-2018-FINAL.authcheckdam.pdf
  45. ^ Martínez, Frank E. “WORKING WITH HISPANIC CLIENTS.” GPSolo, vol. 21, no. 1, 2004, pp. 34–36. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23672542.
  46. ^ Martínez, Frank E. “WORKING WITH HISPANIC CLIENTS.” GPSolo, vol. 21, no. 1, 2004, pp. 34–36. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23672542.
  47. ^ Martínez, Frank E. “WORKING WITH HISPANIC CLIENTS.” GPSolo, vol. 21, no. 1, 2004, pp. 34–36. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23672542.
  48. ^ Lopez, Mark Hugo and Gretchen Livingston. “Hispanics and the Criminal Justice System: Low Confidence, High Exposure.” Pew Hispanic Center, Washington, D.C. (April 7, 2009).
  49. ^ Lopez, Mark Hugo and Gretchen Livingston. “Hispanics and the Criminal Justice System: Low Confidence, High Exposure.” Pew Hispanic Center, Washington, D.C. (April 7, 2009).
  50. ^ Lopez, Mark Hugo and Gretchen Livingston. “Hispanics and the Criminal Justice System: Low Confidence, High Exposure.” Pew Hispanic Center, Washington, D.C. (April 7, 2009).
  51. ^ Meeker, W, John Dombrink, and K Mallett. “Access to Justice for the Poor and Moderate‐income Populations: Issues for California Latinos.” The Justice Professional13.1 (0): 91–102. Web.
  52. ^ Graciela M. Castex; Providing Services to Hispanic/Latino Populations: Profiles in Diversity, Social Work, Volume 39, Issue 3, 1 May 1994, Pages 288–296, https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/39.3.288
  53. ^ Brustin, Stacy. "Expanding Our Vision of Legal Services Representation--The Hermanas Unidas Project," American University Journal of Gender and the Law1 (1993): p. 39-60. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/ajgsp1&i=53
  54. ^ Alfieri, Anthony V. “Color/Identity/Justice: Chicano Trials.” Duke Law Journal, vol. 53, no. 5, 2004, pp. 1569–1617. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/40040447.
  55. ^ Walker, Nancy E., et al. Lost Opportunities: the Reality of Latinos in the U.S. Criminal Justice System. National Council of La Raza, 2004.
  56. ^ Graciela M. Castex; Providing Services to Hispanic/Latino Populations: Profiles in Diversity, Social Work, Volume 39, Issue 3, 1 May 1994, Pages 288–296, https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/39.3.288
  57. ^ Graciela M. Castex; Providing Services to Hispanic/Latino Populations: Profiles in Diversity, Social Work, Volume 39, Issue 3, 1 May 1994, Pages 288–296, https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/39.3.288
  58. ^ Walker, Nancy E., et al. Lost Opportunities: the Reality of Latinos in the U.S. Criminal Justice System. National Council of La Raza, 2004.
  59. ^ Walker, Nancy E., et al. Lost Opportunities: the Reality of Latinos in the U.S. Criminal Justice System. National Council of La Raza, 2004.
  60. ^ Reynoso, Cruz. "A Survey of Latino Lawyers in Los Angeles County - Their Professional Lives and Opinions," U.C. Davis Law Review vol. 38, no. 5 (June 2005): p. 1563-1642. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/davlr38&i=1649.
  61. ^ Reynoso, Cruz. "A Survey of Latino Lawyers in Los Angeles County - Their Professional Lives and Opinions," U.C. Davis Law Review vol. 38, no. 5 (June 2005): p. 1563-1642. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/davlr38&i=1649.
  62. ^ Reynoso, Cruz. "A Survey of Latino Lawyers in Los Angeles County - Their Professional Lives and Opinions," U.C. Davis Law Review vol. 38, no. 5 (June 2005): p. 1563-1642. HeinOnline, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/davlr38&i=1649.

Further readingEdit

  • Batlan, Felice. Women and Justice for the Poor: A History of Legal Aid, 1863–1945. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015) xx, 232 pp.
  • Houseman, Alan W. andLinda E. Perle. Securing Equal Justice for All (Washington, DC: CLASP, 3rd rev. ed. 2013)
  • Johnson, Earl. To Establish Justice for All: The Past and Future of Civil Legal Aid in the United States: The Past and Future of Civil Legal Aid in the United States (ABC-CLIO, 2013)
  • Spiegel, Mark. "Legal Aid 1900 to 1930: What Happened to Law Reform?." DePaul Journal for Social Justice (2015). online

External linksEdit