"Late capitalism" is a term used by Marxists to refer to capitalism from about 1945 onwards, with the implication that it is due to come to an end. This period includes the era termed the golden age of capitalism.
The American literary critic and cultural theorist Frederic Jameson considered Rudolf Hilferding's term latest capitalism (jüngster Kapitalismus) a more prudent and less prophetic-seeming one than late capitalism, although he repeatedly deployed the latter term in his writings. French philosopher Jacques Derrida favoured neo-capitalism over post- or late-capitalism.
History of the termEdit
The term "late capitalism" was first used by Werner Sombart in his 1902 magnum opus Der Moderne Kapitalismus; Sombart distinguished between early capitalism, the heyday of capitalism and late capitalism. The term began to be used by socialists in Europe towards the end of the 1930s and in the 1940s, when many economists believed capitalism was doomed. At the end of World War II, many economists including Joseph Schumpeter and Paul Samuelson believed the end of capitalism could well be nigh, in that the economic problems might be insurmountable.
The term was used in the 1960s particularly in Germany and Austria, among others by Western Marxists writing in the tradition of the Frankfurt School and Austromarxism. Postwar German sociologists needed a term to describe contemporary society. Theodor Adorno preferred "late capitalism" over "industrial society," which was the theme of the 16th Congress of German Sociologists in 1968. In 1971, Leo Kofler published a book called Technologische Rationalität im Spätkapitalismus (technological rationality in late capitalism). And in 1973, Jürgen Habermas published his Legitimationsprobleme im Spätkapitalismus (Legitimacy problems in late capitalism). Herbert Marcuse also accepted the term.
'Private property' is a fundamental concept within the economic system of capitalism and neoclassical economics. Vladimir Lenin famously declared that there are no "absolutely hopeless situations" for capitalism. This, however, does not deter critics[who?] of the system, who point to its relative newness, the rapid collapse of prior orders of much greater duration, the effects of modern communications on class consciousness, and a general perceived inadequacy of its ability to deal with various crises of its own making and other long term structural problems.
Others[who?] however see late capitalism in the 21st century as very much in active development; and characterised by a new mix of high-tech advances, the concentration of (speculative) financial capital, and Post-Fordism—all producing a backdrop of increasing differentiation in wealth/security between the better off and the worse off and in between.
According to the Marxist economist Ernest Mandel, who popularised the term with his 1972 PhD dissertation, late-stage capitalism will be dominated by the machinations—or perhaps better, fluidities—of financial capital; and also by the increasing commodification and industrialisation of ever more inclusive sectors of human life. Mandel was insistent that "Far from representing a 'post-industrial society', late capitalism thus constitutes generalized universal industrialization for the first time in history". Up to the mid-1960s, Mandel preferred to use the term "neo-capitalism", which was most often used by intellectuals in Belgium and France around that time, such as Leo Michielsen and Andre Gorz.
In his major work Late Capitalism, Mandel argues for three periods in the development of the capitalist mode of production. The first is freely competitive capitalism, which occurred from 1700 to 1850 and is characterized largely by the growth of industrial capital in domestic markets. Secondly there is the phase of monopoly capitalism, which lasted until approximately 1940, and is characterized by the imperialistic development of international markets as well as the exploitation of colonial territories. Finally there is the epoch of late capitalism emerging out of the Second World War, which has as its dominant features the multinational corporation, globalized markets and labor, mass consumption, and the space of liquid multinational flows of capital.
In the tradition of the classical Marxists, Mandel tried to characterize the nature of the modern epoch as a whole, with reference to the main laws of motion of capitalism specified by Marx. Mandel's aim was to explain the unexpected revival of capitalism after World War II, contrary to leftist prognostications, and the long economic boom which showed the fastest economic growth ever seen in human history. His work has produced a new interest in the theory of long waves in economic development.
Jameson uses Mandel's third stage designation as the point of departure for his widely cited Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Jameson argues that this postmodernity involves an emergence of a cultural dominant, or mode of cultural production, which differs markedly in its various manifestations (developments in literature, film, fine art, video, social theory, etc.) from those of its predecessor, referred to collectively and broadly as Modernism, particularly in its treatment of "subject position", temporality and narrative. For Jameson, "every position on postmodernism today—whether apologia or stigmatization—is also...necessarily an implicitly or explicitly political stance on the nature of multinational capitalism today". A section of Jameson's analysis has been reproduced on the Marxists Internet Archive.
Jameson (1996) saw the current, "third" moment of capitalist evolution as involving a new and previously unparalleled global reach—whether it was conceptualised as multinational or as informational capitalism; but expressed doubts as to whether it yet represented what Marx had originally foreseen as the final stage of capitalism, with the universal commodification of the world market.
- The theme of "the end of history" was developed by the German philosopher Hegel, and was rekindled in the 20th Century by Kojève in his Introduction to the Reading of Hegel. The "end of history" is discussed by Francis Fukuyama in his 1992 book of the same name which argues that history has "ended" (in the Hegelian sense) because there is no serious or viable competition to liberal democracy as a form of government and/or to capitalism as an economic system. Thus, the very concept of "late capitalism" is invalidated as there is no evidence of transformation from, or to, any alternative governmental or economic system.
- A related term is late bourgeois society as contrasted with early bourgeois society in the 17th and 18th century, and classical bourgeois society in the 19th and early 20th century.
- Marxist–Leninists prefer the concept of state monopoly capitalism.
In popular cultureEdit
- A character in Thomas Pynchon's novel Bleeding Edge states: "late capitalism is a pyramid racket on a global scale...getting the suckers to believe it's all gonna go on forever."
- According to a 2017 article in The Atlantic, the term "late capitalism" is again in vogue to describe the modern economy. The term had entered mainstream discourse in the United States, albeit with a semantic change or ironic twist. "Late capitalism", as it became commonly used, has become a catch-all term for various incidents that express capitalism's distortions, and it is often used in critique and satire. In this usage, there is also a sense that contemporary capitalism cannot go on like it does forever.
- M. Hardt/K. Weeks eds., The Jameson Reader (2000) p. 257
- Catherine Malabou/Jacques Derrida, Counterpath (2004) p. 114-5
- See, for example, Natalie Moszkowska's Zur Dynamik des Spätkapitalismus. Zurich: Verlag Der Aufbruch, 1943.
- Philip Armstrong, Andrew Glyn and John Harrison, Capitalism Since World War II: The Making and Breakup of the Great Boom. Fontana, 1984, chapter 1.
- Theodor W. Adorno (ed.) Spätkapitalismus oder Industriegesellschaft. Verhandlungen des 16. Deutschen Soziologentages. Stuttgart, 1969.
- Jürgen Habermas, Legitimationsprobleme im Spätkapitalismus Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1973.
- Herbert Marcuse, "Protosocialism and Late Capitalism: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis Based on Bahro's Analysis". International Journal of Politics, Vol. 10 No. 2/3, Summer-Fall 1980, 25-48.
- V.I. Lenin, "Report On The International Situation And The Fundamental Tasks Of The Communist International", July 19, 1920 .
- Michele Dillon, Introduction to Sociological Theory (2009) p. 39
- Harry Targ, Late Capitalism, Neoliberal Globalization, & Militarism (2006) p. 15-26
- The Jameson Reader p. 268-9
- Ernest Mandel, Late Capitalism (London: Humanities Press, 1975) p. 387
- Ernest Mandel, The economics of neocapitalism. Socialist Register 1964, pp.56-67. Leo Michielsen, Neo-kapitalisme. Brussel: Jacquemotte Stichting, 1969. André Gorz, Stratégie ouvriére et néocapitalisme, Paris: Le Seuil, 1964.
- The Jameson Reader p. 165-6
- The Jameson Reader, p. 216-7
- The Jameson Reader, p. 257
- Grace K. Hong, The Ruptures of American Capital (2006) p. 152
- The Jameson Reader, p. 190
- The Jameson Reader p. 164-171
- Thomas Pynchon, Bleeding Edge (2013) p. 163
- Annie Lowrey, "Why the Phrase 'Late Capitalism' Is Suddenly Everywhere". The Atlantic, 1 May 2017.
- Fredric Jameson, "Culture and Finance Capitalism" Critical Inquiry 24 (1997) pp. 246–65
- Immanuel Wallerstein. The Essential Wallerstein (New York: The New Press, 2000), World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction (Durham: Duke University Press, 2004).
- Jacques Derrida, Specters of Marx (1994)
- Paul Mattick : Ernest Mandel’s Late Capitalism (1972)
- Chris Harman : Mandel’s Late Capitalism (July 1978)
- Phil Graham (2005). Hypercapitalism: New Media, Language, and Social Perceptions of Value. Peter Lang International Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-0820462172.
Every day trillions of dollars circulate the globe in a digital data space and new forms of property and ownership emerge. Massive corporate entities with a global reach are formed and disappear with breathtaking speed, making and breaking personal fortunes... . Fictitious commodities abound. The genomes of entire nations have become corporately owned. Relationships have become the overt basis of economic wealth and political power. Hypercapitalism explores the problems of understanding this emergent form of global political economic organization...
- Phil Graham. "Hypercapitalism: A political economy of informational idealism" (PDF). School of Communication - Queensland University of Technology.
specific historical trajectories that are directly contingent upon the deployment and use of new media, but which are actually hidden by a focus on the purely technological. They are: the increasingly abstract and alienated nature of economic value; the subsumption of all labour - material and intellectual - under systemic capital; and the convergence of formerly distinct spheres of analysis –the spheres of production, circulation, and consumption