Lataif-e-Sitta

(Redirected from Lataif-e-sitta)

Lataif-e-sitta (Arabic: اللطائف الستة) are special organs of perception in Sufi spiritual psychology, subtle human capacities for experience or action. Depending on context, the lataif are also understood to be the qualities (or forms) of consciousness[1] corresponding to those experiences or actions.

The underlying Arabic word latifa (singular) means "subtlety" and the phrase Lataif-e-sitta means "six subtleties" (although the number of lataif can differ depending on the specific Sufi tradition).

When realized (or activated or awakened or illuminated (tajalli)),[2] the lataif are understood to be part of Man's spiritual "Organ of Evolution",[3] known as Qalb (Heart) (See Disambiguation: Qalb (Heart) or latifa).

This integration of the lataif into Qalb is considered by some Sufi orders to be a central part of the comprehensive spiritual development that produces the Sufi ideal of a Complete Man (Al-Insān al-Kāmil).

Different understandings of the lataif

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Not all Sufi orders teach about the lataif. Of those which do, descriptions and understandings can differ depending on the specific Sufi tradition and exponent representing it.

In addition, individual Sufi teachers (see Sheikh (Sufism)) sometimes understand aspects of lataif theory and practice according to how the lataif have been uniquely revealed to them.[4]

In general, there are at least three major historical understandings of the lataif:

  • that derived from the Kubrāwī order, described in the writings of Ala ud-Daula Simnani (Semnani) (1261–1336), which views the Lataif as potential psychospiritual organs/capacities that can be realized as progressive stages in those undergoing spiritual development;
  • that derived from the Mujaddidiyya branch of the Naqshbandi order, described in the writings of Ahmad Sirhindi (1564–1624), which views the Lataif as psychospiritual organs/capacities that are potential receptors of Divine energy[4] when activated in those undergoing spiritual development;
  • that derived from the Punjab tradition within the Naqshbandi order, described in the writings of Ikbal Ali Shah (1894–1969) and Idries Shah (1924–1996), which views the Lataif as actual human psychospiritual organs/capacities that are implicit in everyday life and made explicit in those undergoing spiritual development.

Kubrāwī lataif

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According to the view of the Kubrawi order there are seven lataif. They are understood cosmologically as "descending" levels through which reality is created and structured.[5][6]

In the process of spiritual development, the individual Sufi is understood to "ascend" back through these levels progressively (see ontological Arcs of Descent and Ascent in Sufism).

The attainment of each level is a stage associated with the activation/realization of a corresponding spiritual organ/capacity, interpreted symbolically through Islamic cosmology and the prophets and messengers in Islam.[7]

In ascending order they are:

  • Latifa Qalabiya (associated with an experience of the color black) represents the acquisition of a new organ, an embryonic subtle body. It is understood symbolically as "the Adam of one's being", since Adam was the first human being.
  • Latifa Nafsiya (color blue) is an organ that corresponds to the animal soul and is a testing ground for struggle with desires and passions. It is understood symbolically as "the Noah of one's being", since Noah faced the same situation in dealing with the hostility of his people.
  • Latifa Qalbiya (color red) is the organ that will develop to become the True Ego, the real personal individuality. It is understood symbolically as "the Abraham of one's being", since the prophet Abraham historically represents the establishment of real religion.
  • Latifa Sirriya (color white) is an organ of superconsciousness. It is understood symbolically as "the Moses of one's being", since the prophet Moses participated in spiritual communication with God through this consciousness.
  • Latifa Ruhiya (color yellow) is an organ through which an individual becomes capable of acting as vice-regent of God. It is understood symbolically as "the David of one's being", since the prophet David fulfilled that role.
  • Latifa Khafiya (color black) is the subtle organ that receives spiritual inspiration. It is understood symbolically as "the Jesus of one's being", since the prophet Jesus was characteristic of such inspiration.
  • Latifa Haqqiya (color green) is the subtle organ that is the final achievement of spiritual development: the True Ego. It is understood symbolically as "the Mohammed of one's being", since Mohammed was the final prophet.

Naqshbandi lataif (Mujaddidiyya)

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According to the view of the Mujaddidiyya branch of the Naqshbandi order there are five lataif.[8] The reception of each latifa's spiritual energy from its corresponding cosmic realm is interpreted symbolically through the prophets and messengers in Islam, similar to the interpretation of the Kubrawi order:

  • Qalb (color yellow; located below left breast) (Adam)
  • Ruh (color red; located below right breast) (Abraham/Noah)
  • Sirr (color white; located above left breast) (Moses)
  • Khafi (color black; located above right breast) (Jesus)
  • Ikhfa (color green; located at sternum) (Mohammed)

In this understanding, the lataif all have their physical association in the chest and so are said to be "of the Heart" (Qalb, the potential human "Organ of Evolution" (see: Disambiguation: Qalb (Heart) or latifa).

Naqshbandi lataif (Punjab tradition)

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According to the Punjab tradition within the Naqshbandi order there are five lataif:[2]

  • Qalb (color yellow; experienced in left side of the body)
  • Ruh (color red; experienced in right side of the body)
  • Sirr (color white; experienced in solar plexus)
  • Khafi (color black; experienced in forehead)
  • Ikhfa (color green; experienced in center of chest)

In the view of Naqshbandi author Idries Shah (1924–1996), who emphasizes the modern-day psychological aspects of Sufism,[9] the lataif are understood to be spiritual organs/capacities that also underlie ordinary forms of human consciousness.[10]

As such, they are ordinarily only known indirectly through the equivalents (or their distortions) that they pattern on the conventional mental/emotional/somatic level of human experience.

Shah-inspired[11] spiritual teacher Hameed Ali (A. H. Almaas) (1944–) understands some of these equivalents and conditioned distortions as follows:[12]

  • Qalb (Joy/Wanting)
  • Ruh (Strength/Anger)
  • Sirr (Will/Anxiety)
  • Khafi (Peace & Intuition/Agitation)
  • Ikhfa (Compassion/Hurt)

Comparison of understandings of the lataif

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Latifa Sufi Tradition Color Association Physical Association Note
Qalb Kubrawi (1) Red (?)
Qalb Naqshbandi (Mujaddidiyya) (1) Yellow below left breast
Qalb Naqshbandi (Punjab) (1) Yellow left side of body
Qalb Chisti (1) Red left breast
Qalb Inayati (1) Red left breast Inayati:[13]
Qalb Khwajagan (1) Red left breast Khwajagan:[14]
Ruh Kubrawi (2) Yellow (?)
Ruh Naqshbandi (Mujaddidiyya) (2) Red below right breast
Ruh Naqshbandi (Punjab) (2) Red right side of body
Ruh Chisti (2) Green center of chest
Ruh Inayati (2) White right breast
Ruh Khwajagan (2) Yellow right breast
Sirr Kubrawi (3) White (?)
Sirr Naqshbandi (Mujaddidiyya) (3) White above left breast
Sirr Naqshbandi (Punjab) (3) White solar plexus
Sirr Chisti (3) White right breast
Sirr Inayati (3) Green center of chest
Sirr Khwajagan (3) White left breast
Khafi Kubrawi (4) Black/Green (?)
Khafi Naqshbandi (Mujaddidiyya) (4) Black above right breast
Khafi Naqshbandi (Punjab) (4) Black forehead
Khafi Chisti (4) Indigo forehead
Khafi Inayati (4) Indigo forehead
Khafi Khwajagan (4) Green right breast
Ikhfa Naqshbandi (Mujaddidiyya) (5) Green sternum
Ikhfa Naqshbandi (Punjab) (5) Green center of chest
Ikhfa Chisti (5) Black top of head
Ikhfa Inayati (5) Black top of head
Ikhfa Khwajagan (5) White center of chest
Qalab Kubrawi (5) Black (?)
Qalab Chisti (6) Gray floor of pelvis
Nafs Kubrawi (6) Blue (?) See Disambiguation: Nafs (Egoic Self) or Latifa
Nafs Chisti (7) Yellow below navel "
Nafs Inayati (6) Yellow below navel "
Nafs Khwajagan (6) Blue forehead "
Nafs Naqshbandi (Mujaddidiyya) "
Nafs Naqshbandi (Punjab) "
Haqq Kubrawi (7) Green (?)

Activation of the lataif

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With rare exceptions, lataif are only experienced directly (and unconditionedly) in human beings who have undergone a spiritual evolution. The spiritual process of their full opening/​activation/​awakening/​illumination consists of various methods, singly or in combination, such as:

  • A specific type of dhikr ("remembrance"), the recitation of Quranic phrases accompanied by certain postures, breathing, movement, and/or bodily attention
  • A direct activation, called tawajjuh ("transmission"), of the latifa by an intentional interaction between teacher and student.[15]
  • A special kind of muraqabah (meditation), that includes having the student concentrate awareness on the part of the body that is associated with a latifa.[16]

Just as interpretations of the lataif vary depending on different Sufi traditions and teachers, so does their opening/​activation/​awakening/​illumination. For example:

Kubrawi

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In the Kubrawi tradition, Sufi Ala ud-Daula Simnani (1261–1336) described a dhikr type practice that involved certain postures, the rotation of attention and breath to different parts of the physical body, and the recitation of a Quranic credal formula.[17][18]

Khwajagan

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In the Khwajagan tradition, Rif'at Bey described a practice in which the name of Allah is imagined "written in letters of light" at the physical location associated with a latifa and repeated silently until the color associated with it is seen surrounding the letters.[14]

Naqshbandi (Mujaddidiyya)

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In the Mujaddidiyya tradition, the lataif are opened through practice one-by-one in "ascending" order, beginning with Qalb. Viewed as a progressive activation, each latifa (or progressive combination of Lataif) is considered to be a level of spiritual realization.

The method of opening each latifa typically begins with a direct transmission of Barakah (spiritual Presence[19]) by teacher to student, and can also include physical touch (except for women) and the disclosure of the specific one of the Names of God in Islam that is associated with the latifa. The student then continues the practice by silent dhikr of the Divine Name, concentrating attention on the latifa's location; sometimes a visualization of the Name, the corresponding prophet, or the teacher is also added.

Naqshbandi (Punjab)

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In the Punjab tradition, Idries Shah describes a type of muraqabah (meditation), in which the student concentrates awareness on the part of the body that is associated with a latifa.[16] This tradition also employs various indirect methods, including psychological and somatic, which free the lataif by reducing the mental/emotive/somatic distortions that "veil" (see Hijab (Sufism)) their functioning.

Different experiences of the lataif

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Experiences of the lataif can be of (at least) two different types, singly or in combination:

  • "Visual" experiences
  • "Tactile" experiences

In the Kubrawi tradition

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In Persian Sufi Illuminationism (see: Najm al-Din Kubra), all creation is a successive outflow from the original Supreme Light of Lights (Nur al-Anwar) (see: Nūr (Islam)). The cosmology of this tradition is a kind of Emanationism in which immaterial Light descends from the Light of Lights in ever-diminishing intensity. In other words, Creation at all levels of its existence—including that of the lataif—is made up of varying degrees of Light.

Accordingly, the experiences of the lataif are both an external "visual" experience of photisms ("acts of light") and a tactile inner feeling (dhawq), as described by Henry Corbin.[20]

In the Khwajagan tradition

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The lataif are experienced primarily as colors seen surrounding the name of Allah at the physical location associated with each latifa, as describd by Rifa't Bey.[14]

In the Naqshbandi (Punjab) tradition

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The experiences of the lataif are primarily localized forms of an overall "tactile" spiritual Presence ("Hudur"[19]) in the body, as described (for example) by Hameed Ali.[21]

Disambiguation of the lataif

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Different Sufi traditions often have different "maps" of reality, some of which include the lataif and some of which do not. In addition, these maps often include features or terminology, some of which are more directly related to the lataif and some of which are less directly related.

Arabic, Quranic, or Sufi meaning of lataif

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The English word lataif is the plural of the transliterated Arabic word latifa that stems from the trilateral verb la-ṭa-fa, which means "to be subtle".[22]

It assumed a spiritual meaning in the Quran where Al-Latif is the 30th of the 99 names of God in Islam, reflecting His subtle nature.[22][23]

And it was subsequently adopted by Sufism to refer to the five spiritual qualities of the World of God's Command (see Disambiguation: Ten, five, or six lataif) because they are not gross, material qualities of the physical world.[24]

Transliteration or translation or interpretation of the lataif

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English language authors use three methods when referring to the lataif:

  • a transliteration of the Arabic word
  • a translation of the Arabic word
  • an interpretation of the experience with which the Arabic word is being associated.

Laleh Bahktiar [5] uses both a transliteration and a translation:

  • Latifah ("Subtle Organ")
  • Qalabiya ("Mold")
  • Nafsiya ("Soul")
  • Qalbiya ("Heart")
  • Sirriya ("Secret")
  • Ruhiya ("Spirit")
  • Khafiya ("Inspiration")
  • Haqqiya ("Seal")

Naqshbandi Shaykh Nurjan Mirahmadi[25] uses both a transliteration and a translation:

  • Lataif ("Subtle Centers of Consciousness")
  • Qalb ("Heart")
  • Ruh ("Spirit")
  • Sirr ("Secret")
  • Khafi ("Hidden")
  • Ikhfa ("Most Hidden")

Idries Shah also[26] uses both a transliteration and a translation:

  • Lataif ("special Organs of Perception" and "the Five Subtleties")
  • Qalb ("Mind")
  • Ruh ("Spirit")
  • Sirr ("Consciousness")
  • Khafi ("Intuition")
  • Ikhfa ("Deep perception of Consciousness")

Hameed Ali[27] uses a transliteration and an interpretation:

  • Qalb ("Joy")
  • Ruh ("Strength")
  • Sirr ("Will")
  • Khafi ("Peace" & "Intuition")
  • Ikhfa ("Compassion")

Ten, five, or six lataif

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In the version of Sufi cosmology proposed by Ahmad Sirhindi (1564–1624),[24][28] God created the universe in three stages:

  • First came the World of God’s Command (alam al-amr), which emerged instantly when God said, "Be!" The five subtle qualities (lataif) of God's Command were: Qalb, Ruh, Sirr, Khafi, and Ikhfa.
  • Then came the World of God's Creation (alam al-khalq), which emerged through a process of evolution. The five subtle qualities (lataif) which patterned that Creation were: Consciousness (Nafs), Air (Baad), Fire (Nar), Water (Ma), and Earth (Khak).
  • Finally, God created human beings, which combined the World of God's Command with the World of God's Creation.

In this usage, then, there are ten lataif in two categories:

  • five relating to the World of God's Command and
  • five relating to the World of God's Creation.

In contrast, in most Sufi usages outside this cosmological one (including most of this webpage), there are either:

  • five lataif (from the first category alone, relating to the World of God's Command) or
  • six lataif (the five from the first category . . . plus Nafs from the second category, relating to the World of God's Creation) .

Nafs (Egoic Self) or latifa

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The Nafs in Sufism is considered to be a person's egoic consciousness[29] or egoic "Self", the subtle (latifa) quality of God's Creation that becomes individual and can undergo a spiritual development. This makes it unlike the five lataif of God's Command, which are eternal, unchanging qualities.

This egoic consciousness is said (by Idries Shah, for example[30]) to have seven stages of development, the primitive stages of which are considered to be a "barrier" or "veil" to full realization of the lataif. In most Sufi traditions, accordingly, the progressive refinement of the Nafs through the seven stages is understood to facilitate the realization of the lataif.

In the Naqshbandi tradition, however, it is the reverse: the progressive realization of the lataif is used to facilitate the refinement of the Nafs. This is why the Naqshbandi teaching method is famously known as "where others end, there marks our beginning" (indiraj al-nihayat fi’l-bidayat).[31]

Ruh (Spirit) or latifa

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The word "Ruh" is used in Sufism in two different ways, on two different levels:

  • "Ruh", as one of the lataif described in the foregoing
  • "Ruh" (Spirit), as the Divine Spirit or "essence" in human beings, created by God from his own Spirit.[32]

Qalb (Heart) or latifa

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The word "Qalb", like "Ruh", is used in Sufism in two different ways, on two different levels:

  • "Qalb", as one of the lataif described in the foregoing
  • "Qalb" (Heart), as the "Organ of Evolution" in human beings, the potential integration of Ruh (the Divine Spirit) and Nafs (the egoic Self).[33]

Sirr (Secret) or latifa

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The word "Sirr", like "Ruh" and "Qalb", is also used in Sufism in two different ways, on two different levels:

  • "Sirr", as one of the lataif described in the foregoing
  • "Sirr" (Secret), as a super-conscious state of Qalb (Heart) or Ruh (Spirit) experienced as unity with God.[34]

Hal (State), Maqam (Station), or latifa

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In addition to the lataif, some[35][36] Sufi traditions also speak about two other categories of conscious experience that can arise during spiritual practice:

  • "Hal" (State), is a temporary state of consciousness resulting from psychological or spiritual influences acting upon a student. Considered to be gifts from God that arise in experience and then disappear immediately, they include: "Nearness" (Qurb), "Ecstasy" (Wajd), "Intoxication" (Sukr), and "Intimacy" (Wudd), among others.
  • "Maqam" (Station or Stage), is a permanent stage of a Sufi's spiritual development/embodiment/transformation achieved by his own effort. Examples of a Maqam, arranged in an ascending seven-level progression, include: "Repentance" (Tawb), "Watchfulness" (Wara), "Renunciation" (Zuhd), "Poverty" (Faqr), "Patience" (Sabr), "Trust" (Tawakkul), and "Satisfaction" (Rida).

The number seven is used repeatedly in Islam and Sufism to enumerate concepts in various religious and spiritual categories. Sometimes the categories are legitimately inter-related, and sometimes they are not.

For example, Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1933-), an Iranian-American scholar of Sufism, characterizes the Prophets associated with Ala ud-Daula Simnani's seven ontological levels of Sufi cosmology as corresponding to "states" and virtues that a Sufi can achieve.[37] Since those seven levels are understood by Simnani to be lataif, that would imply that the lataif are "states". But there appears to be no consensus agreeing that the category lataif is related to either of the categories Hal ("State") or Maqam ("Station").

Divine Names or lataif

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The Divine Names of God in Islam are understood by Sufism to refer (in the great majority of cases) to the relational action, functioning, or appearance of Divine Attributes/Qualities in immanent, manifest reality.[38]

The lataif, in contrast, while capable of being experienced indirectly through the somatic, emotional, and mental states they pattern in conventional experience, are primarily direct transcendental experiences of Divine Attributes themselves[39] and not of functional relationships between the transcendent and the immanent.

History of the lataif

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The spiritual experiences identified by Sufism as the lataif have their immediate historical antecedents in the Emanationism of Neoplatonism,[40] which is known to have influenced the development of Sufism (see: Platonism in Islamic philosophy). The Emanations of Neoplatonism, in turn, arose from the Theory of forms of Plato.

The general concept of spiritual "subtle centers" (usually three) originated within Persian Sufism: Junayd of Baghdad (835–910), Al-Ghazali (1058–1111), and Shahab al-Din Abu Hafs Umar Suhrawardi (1145–1234).[41]

Persian and Kubrawi Sufi Najm al-Din Razi (1177–1256) proposed five "inner means of perception" (Qalb, Ruh, Sirr, Khafi, and Ikhfa) that parallel the five outer senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. It's unclear to commentators whether these inner senses were already understood as lataif at that time.[42]

The earliest systematic formulations of the lataif specifically is thought to be that of Persian/ Kubrawi Sufi Ala ud-Daula Simnani (1261–1336),[7] who proposed seven lataif, relating them to the seven ontological levels of Sufi cosmology.[43]

From the 17th to 19th centuries, the Indian Mujaddidis, beginning with Ahmad Sirhindi (1564–1624), returned to a standardized interpretation of five experiential lataif and associated their locations with parts of the physical body.[44]

The Punjab tradition within the Naqshbandi in the late 19th and 20th centuries continued with five lataif but identified the experience of their physical locations differently and viewed them as spiritual organs/capacities that also underlie ordinary forms of human consciousness.[10]

It is thought by some[45] that, just as with the nominal 99 Names of God in Islam and their underlying Divine Attributes,[46] the number of lataif and their potential realization by humanity might actually be unlimited.

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Almaas, A. H. "Essence". York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1986, p. 143.
  2. ^ a b Shah, Idries The Sufis. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1971, p. 145, 334, 340.
  3. ^ Shah, Idries The Sufis. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1971, p. 342-343.
  4. ^ a b Buehler, Arthur F. "Sufi Heirs of the Prophet: Indian Naqshbandiyya and the Rise of the Mediating Sufi Shaykh" University of South Carolina Press, 1998, p. 110.
  5. ^ a b Bakhtiar, Laleh (1976), Sufi Expressions of the Mystical Quest, New York: Thames and Hudson, p. 97
  6. ^ Elias, Jamal J. (1995). "The Throne Carrier of God". State University of New York Press. pp. 82–83.
  7. ^ a b Corbin, Henry "The Man of Light in Iranian Sufism" New Lebanon, New York: Omega Publications, 1978, p. 124-125.
  8. ^ Buehler, Arthur F. "Sufi Heirs of the Prophet: Indian Naqshbandiyya and the Rise of the Mediating Sufi Shaykh" University of South Carolina Press, 1998, p. 111.
  9. ^ Richard; Kinney, Jay (2006). Hidden Wisdom: A Guide to the Western Inner Traditions. Wheaton, IL/Chennai, India: Quest Books. p. 238
  10. ^ a b Shah, Idries, "Idries Shah - the Latifas"; see "External link".
  11. ^ See: https://diamondapproach-sacramento-folsom.com/a-h-almaas-part-1/
  12. ^ Almaas, A. H. "Essence". York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1986, p. 142.
  13. ^ Inayat-Khan, Zia , "Pir Zia Sufi Subtle Centers Lataif "; see "External link".
  14. ^ a b c Bey, Rif'at. "Sufi Spiritual Techniques". Petersham, MA: J.G. Bennett Foundation, 2008.
  15. ^ Subhan, John A. "Sufism Its Saints and Shrines". Lucknow Publishing House, Lucknow, India, 1938, p. 88.
  16. ^ a b Shah, Idries "The Sufis". Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1971, p. 332.
  17. ^ Elias, Jamal J. "The Throne Carrier of God" State University of New York Press, 1995, p. 127.
  18. ^ Corbin, Henry "The Man of Light in Iranian Sufism" New Lebanon, New York: Omega Publications, 1978, p. 74-75.
  19. ^ a b Divine Presence in Islam is known as "Hadra" and the human experience of it is known as "Hudur". Chittick, William (28 October 1995). "Presence with God" (PDF). Berkeley: The ninth annual symposium of the Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi Society in the USA, University of California. p. 17.
  20. ^ Corbin, Henry. "The Man of Light in Iranian Sufism". Shambala Publications, 1978", pages 77-78.
  21. ^ Almaas, A. H. "Essence". York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1986, pages 2-3 and 130.
  22. ^ a b "The Meaning of Allah's Name Al-Latif: The Most Subtle".
  23. ^ Bakhtiar, Laleh "Sufi Expressions of the Mystical Quest" New York, New York: Thames and Hudson, 1976, p. 96.
  24. ^ a b "Subtle Centres of Consiousness (Lata'if)". 12 June 2020.
  25. ^ Mirahmadi, Nurjan Levels of the Heart. Naqshbandi Center of Vancouver, 2017.
  26. ^ Shah, Idries The Sufis. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1971, p. 430.
  27. ^ Almaas, A. H. "Essence". York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1986, p. 142-143.
  28. ^ Hermansen, Marcia K., "Shāh Walī Allāh's Theory of the Subtle Spiritual Centers (Laṭāʾif): A Sufi Model of Personhood and Self-Transformation" Chicago, Illinois: Loyola University Chicago, 1988, p. 7.
  29. ^ Shah, Idries The Sufis. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1971, p. 445.
  30. ^ Shah, Idries The Sufis. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1971, p. 445-446.
  31. ^ "The Inclusion of the End in The Beginning (Indiraj al-Nihayat fil Bidayat)". 12 June 2020.
  32. ^ Almaas, A.H. "The Inner Journey Home". Boston, Massachussets: Shambala Publications, 2004, page 516-519
  33. ^ Almaas, A.H. "The Inner Journey Home". Boston, Massachussets: Shambala Publications, 2004, page 516-519.
  34. ^ Kamada,Shigeru. "A Study of the Term Sirr (Secret) in Sufi Lataif Theories". Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan, Vol. XIX, 1983, page 25-26. See: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/orient1960/19/0/19_0_7/_pdf/-char/en
  35. ^ Shah, Idries The Sufis. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1971, p. 305-306.
  36. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein Sufi Essays. Chicago, Illinois, New York: Kazi Publications, 1999, p. 74-77.
  37. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein Sufi Essays. Chicago, Illinois, New York: Kazi Publications, 1999, p. 77.
  38. ^ Almaas, A. H., "The Inner Journey Home". Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, 2004, p. 580-581.
  39. ^ Shah, Idries, "Sufi Thought and Action." London, England: Octagon Press, 1993, p. 24.
  40. ^ Elias, Jamal J., "The Throne Carrier of God". State University of New York Press, 1995, p. 150.
  41. ^ Buehler, Arthur F. "Sufi Heirs of the Prophet: Indian Naqshbandiyya and the Rise of the Mediating Sufi Shaykh" University of South Carolina Press, 1998, p. 106.
  42. ^ Razi, Najm al-Din (1982). "Path Of God's Bondsmen from Origin to Return". Caravan Books. pp. 134–135.
  43. ^ Razi, Najm al-Din, "Path Of God's Bondsmen from Origin to Return" Caravan Books, 1982, p. 135.
  44. ^ Buehler, Arthur F. "Sufi Heirs of the Prophet: Indian Naqshbandiyya and the Rise of the Mediating Sufi Shaykh" University of South Carolina Press, 1998, p. 109.
  45. ^ Almaas, A. H., "The Inner Journey Home". Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, 2004, p. 579.
  46. ^ Muqaddam, Faisal et al, "Physicians of the Heart: A Sufi View of the Ninety-Nine Names of Allah". San Francisco, California: Sufi Ruhaniat International, 2011, Editor's Preface.
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