Lansoprazole, sold under the brand name Prevacid among others, is a medication which reduces stomach acid. It is used to treat peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. Effectiveness is similar to other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is taken by mouth. Onset is over a few hours and effects last up to a couple of days.
|Trade names||Prevacid, others|
|By mouth, IV|
|Drug class||Proton pump inhibitor|
|Bioavailability||80% or more|
|Metabolism||Liver (CYP3A4- and CYP2C19-mediated)|
|Elimination half-life||1.0–1.5 hours|
|Excretion||Kidney and fecal|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||369.363 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Common side effects include constipation, abdominal pain, and nausea. Serious side effects may include osteoporosis, low blood magnesium, Clostridium difficile infection, and pneumonia. Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding is of unclear safety. It works by blocking H+/K+-ATPase in the parietal cells of the stomach.
Lansoprazole was patented in 1984 and came into medical use in 1992. It is available as a generic medication. A one month supply, in the United Kingdom, costs the NHS less than £5, as of 2019[update]. In the United States, the wholesale cost of this amount is about $5.40, as of 2019. In 2016, it was the 141st most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 4 million prescriptions.
Lansoprazole is used for treatment of:
- Ulcers of the stomach and duodenum, and NSAID-induced ulcers
- Helicobacter pylori infection, alongside antibiotics (adjunctive treatment), treatment to kill H. pylori causing ulcers or other problems involves using two other drugs besides lansoprazole known as "triple therapy", and involves taking twice daily for 10 or 14 days lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease
- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
There is no good evidence that it works better than other PPIs.
- Common: diarrhea, abdominal pain
- Infrequent: dry mouth, insomnia, drowsiness, blurred vision, rash, pruritus
- Rarely and very rarely: taste disturbance, liver dysfunction, peripheral oedema, hypersensitivity reactions (including bronchospasm, urinary, angioedema, anaphylaxis), photosensitivity, fever, sweating, depression, interstitial nephritis, blood disorders (including leukopenia, leukocytosis, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia), arthralgia, myalgia, skin reactions including (erythroderma Stevens–Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, bullous eruption)
Lansoprazole interacts with several other drugs, either due to its own nature or as a PPI.
- PPIs reduce absorption of antifungals (itraconazole and ketoconazole)  and possibly increase digoxin in plasma
- Increases plasma concentrations of cilostazol (risk of toxicity)
Lansoprazole possibly interacts with, among other drugs:
It is a racemic 1:1 mixture of the enantiomers dexlansoprazole and levolansoprazole. Dexlansoprazole is an enantiomerically pure active ingredient of a commercial drug as a result of the enantiomeric shift. Lansoprazole's plasma elimination half-life (1.5 h) is not proportional to the duration of the drug's effects to the person (i.e. gastric acid suppression).
Lansoprazole was originally synthesized at Takeda and was given the development name AG 1749. Takeda patented it in 1984 and the drug launched in 1991. In the United States, it was approved for medical use in 1995.
Society and cultureEdit
The lansoprazole molecule is off-patent and so generic drugs are available under many brand names in many countries; there are patents covering some formulations in effect as of 2015[update]. Patent protection expired on November 10, 2009.
In vitro experiments have shown that lansoprazole binds to the pathogenic form of tau protein. As of 2015[update] laboratory studies were underway on analogs of lansoprazole to explore their use as potential PET imaging agents for diagnosing tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease.
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