Languages of Andorra

The historic and official language is Catalan, a Romance language. Because of immigration, historical links, and close geographic proximity, Spanish, Portuguese and French are commonly spoken. Most Andorran residents can speak one or more of these, in addition to Catalan. Spanish is the most common mother tongue in Andorra according to mother tongue percentage statistics by the Andorran Government released in 2018:

Languages of Andorra
OfficialCatalan
ForeignSpanish, French and Portuguese
SignedFrench Sign Language, Catalan Sign Language
Keyboard layout
Catalan QWERTY
KB Spanish.svg
Language At home Outside home[1]
Spanish 43,8% 37,1%
Catalan 39,5% 55,2%
Portuguese 18,6% 3,8%
French 9,7% 2,2%
Others 9% 1,5% - 10%
Coneixements i Usos Lingüístics de la Població d'Andorra: Situació actual i evolució (1995–2018)[2][3]

CatalanEdit

 
Most signage in Andorra is monolingual in Catalan

Catalan is the only official language of Andorra.[4] It is also the historical and traditional language of the country used by government, television, radio, and other national media and is the main language of all the people living in the territory of Andorran nationality, who constitute 33% of the total population.[citation needed] The local dialect is Northwestern Catalan.

Recently the Government of Andorra is enforcing the learning and use of the language within the immigrant labor force as a means to fully apply the constitution and overcome the issue of people living in a country without knowing its only native language. Despite vast incoming tourism from Spanish-speakers from Spain, both public and private signage in Andorra is mostly monolingual in Catalan.[5]

Andorra is the only country in which Catalan is the sole official language[6] and the only country in which Catalan has official status in all of its territory.

Spanish and GalicianEdit

Spanish is the most important language in Andorra after Catalan. It is the main language of about 70% of Spanish national immigrants (an additional 5% speak Galician). Most came to the country between 1955 and 1985.

The low degree of development of Andorra, the limited education in the immigrants' homelands, and the fear of an invasion by Francoist Spain made it more difficult for the immigrants to integrate fully until 1993, when the constitution of the country was approved.[citation needed] Since then, Spanish has become the second most used language of the population living in the country,[7] and moreover is the dominant language of communication amongst people of different linguistic backgrounds, thus triggering recent government efforts to promote more general and universal use of Catalan.[5]

Since Andorra also shares both Catalan and French education systems, children can learn Spanish if parents choose the Catalan option.

PortugueseEdit

The traditional economic situation in Northern Portugal (Norte) prompted a large migration flux to the country between 1960 and 1980, increasing the Portuguese population to 11% of the total, which added to a small community of Brazilians which migrated to Andorra in the 1990s has led to a present-day lusophone population of about 13% of the country's total.[citation needed]

FrenchEdit

The nearby border with France, the reduced tax-free cost of living, and job opportunities in the thriving tourist industry have resulted in 7% of the country's total population being French nationals, mainly immigrants from Francophone Africa.[8][full citation needed] It is the main language of communication next to Catalan in Pas de la Casa on the French border.[5]

As with Spanish, children can be taught at school in the French language, if parents so choose.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "L'ús del català es posiciona per davant les altres llengües". www.govern.ad (in Catalan). Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  2. ^ "La llengua a Andorra". www.cultura.ad. Retrieved 2021-04-14.
  3. ^ "Coneixements I Usos Lingüístics de la Població d'Andorra: Situació actual i evolució (1995–2018)" (PDF). Government of Andorra. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  4. ^ "Constitution of Andorra (Article 2.1)".
  5. ^ a b c Molla, Guillem (2003). "El català a Andorra: tota una lluita" (PDF). Ianua: revista philologica romanica (in Italian). 4: 73–90. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-22.
  6. ^ Farràs, Jaume (2003). "The sociolinguistic situation in Andorra: results of differents studies" (PDF). Noves SL, Revista de Sociolingüística. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  7. ^ "Tractaments protocul-laris". Estudi sociolingüístic del 2004 (in Catalan). Principality of Andorra. Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2010-04-01.
  8. ^ "Departament d'Estadistica" (in Catalan). Principality of Andorra.

External linksEdit