Lampropeltini is a tribe of colubrid snake endemic to North America. These include the kingsnakes, milk snake, corn snake, gopher snakes, pine snakes, and bullsnakes. At least 51 species have been recognized and the group have been heavily studied for biogeography, morphology, ecology, and phylogenetics.[1][2] The internal relationships among the genera has been disputed, but generally the most supported placement of the genera are as follows:

Lampropeltini
Temporal range: Early Miocene – present, 23–0 Ma
[1]
Red Milk Snake (Lampropeltis triangulum syspila) (14521230074).jpg
Milk snake, Lampropeltis triangulum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Colubridae
Subfamily: Colubrinae
Tribe: Lampropeltini
Dowling, 1975
Genera

Pyron and Burbink (2009) phylogeny of the tribe using 31 species using 7 loci (1 nDNA and 6 mtDNA), as well as incorporating the fossil record:[1]

Lampropeltini

Senticolis

Pituophis

Pantherophis

Bogertophis

Pseudelaphe

Rhinocheilus

Arizona

Cemophora

Lampropeltis

Lampropeltini section from Pryon et al. (2013) in their large scale squamate phylogeny using 4,161 species on 12,896 base pairs from 12 loci (7 nDNA and 5 mtDNA):[3]

Lampropeltini

Senticolis

Pituophis

Pantherophis

Bogertophis

Rhinocheilus

Arizona

Pseudelaphe

Cemophora

Lampropeltis

Lampropeltini section from Figueroa et al. (2016) in their large scale snake phylogeny using 1,745 species on 9,523 base pairs from 10 loci (5 nDNA and 5 mtDNA):[4]

Lampropeltini

Senticolis

Rhinocheilus

Arizona

Pseudelaphe

Pantherophis (=Scotophis)

Pantherophis sensu stricto

Pituophis

Bogertophis

Cemophora

Lampropeltis

Dahn et al. (2018) use 20 out of the 51 known species using 14 loci:[2]

Lampropeltini

Senticolis

Pituophis

Pantherophis

Bogertophis

Pseudelaphe

Arizona

Rhinocheilus

Cemophora

Lampropeltis

Some species are among the longest species (Pantherophis obsoletus)[5] and largest species (Pituophis catenifer)[6][7][8][9][10] in North America. A lot of species also have evolved to predate and consume other species of snakes, most notably among the species in the genus Lampropeltis.[11] All species kill their prey through constriction. Many species are in captivity such as kingsnakes and corn snakes.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Pyron, R. A.; Burbrink, F. T. (2009). "Neogene diversification and taxonomic stability in the snake tribe Lampropeltini (Serpentes: Colubridae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 52 (2): 524–529. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.02.008. PMID 19236930.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Dahn, H. A.; Strickland, J. L.; Osorio, A.; Colston, T. J.; Parkinson, C. L. (2018). "Hidden diversity within the depauperate genera of the snake tribe Lampropeltini (Serpentes, Colubridae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 129: 214–225. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.08.018. PMID 30189319.
  3. ^ a b c d e Pyron; Burbrink; Wiens (2013). "A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 13: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-93. PMC 3682911. PMID 23627680.
  4. ^ a b c d e Figueroa, A.; McKelvy, A. D.; Grismer, L. L.; Bell, C. D.; Lailvaux, S. P. (2016). "A species-level phylogeny of extant snakes with description of a new colubrid subfamily and genus". PLoS ONE. 11: e0161070. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161070. PMC 5014348. PMID 27603205.
  5. ^ Species profile: Minnesota DNR. Dnr.state.mn.us. Retrieved on 2012-12-19.
  6. ^ Roots, Clive (2006). Hibernation. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-313-33544-0.
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ Ernst, Carl; Ernst, Evelyn (2003). Snakes of the United States and Canada. Washington, District of Columbia: Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1588340198
  9. ^ Sterner, RT; Petersen, BE; Shumake, SA; Gaddis, SE; Bourassa, JB; Felix, TA; Ames, AD (2002). "Movements of a bullsnake (Pituophis catenifer) following predation of a radio-collared northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides)". Western North American Naturalist. 62 (2): 240–242.
  10. ^ Kaufman, GA; Gibbons, JW (1975). "Weight-Length Relationships in Thirteen Species of Snakes in the Southeastern United States". Herpetologica. 31 (1): 31–37.
  11. ^ Conant, R. (1975). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 429 pp.
    ISBN 0-395-19977-8 (paperback). (Genus Lampropeltis, p. 201.)