The Lamborghini Gallardo (//; Spanish: [ɡaˈʎaɾðo]) is a sports car built by the Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini from 2003 to 2013. It is Lamborghini's first best-selling model with 14,022 built throughout its production run. Named after a famous breed of fighting bull, the V10 powered Gallardo has been Lamborghini's sales leader and stable-mate to a succession of V12 flagship models—first to the Murciélago (4,099 built between 2001 and 2011), then to the current flagship, the Aventador. On 25 November 2013, the last Gallardo was rolled off the production line. The Gallardo was replaced by the Huracán in 2014.
Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 Edizione Technica
|Assembly||Italy: Sant'Agata Bolognese|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Sports car (S)|
|Body style||2-door coupé|
2-door convertible (Spyder)
6-speed e-gear electrohydraulic manual
|Wheelbase||2,560 mm (100.8 in)|
|Length||4,300–4,386 mm (169.3–172.7 in)|
|Width||1,900 mm (74.8 in)|
- 1 First Generation
- 1.1 2005 Coupé update
- 1.2 Lamborghini Concept S
- 1.3 Gallardo Spyder
- 1.4 Gallardo Superleggera
- 1.5 Special and limited editions
- 1.6 Motorsports
- 1.7 Recall
- 2 Facelift (2008)
- 2.1 LP 560-4
- 2.2 LP 560-4 Spyder
- 2.3 LP 570-4 Superleggera (2010–2013)
- 2.4 LP 570-4 Spyder Performante (2011)
- 2.5 LP 550-2 Coupé, LP 550–2 AD (2010–2013)
- 2.6 LP 550-2 Spyder (2011–2013)
- 2.7 Special and limited editions
- 2.7.1 Gallardo LP560-4 Polizia (2008)
- 2.7.2 LP 550-2 Valentino Balboni
- 2.7.3 Gallardo LP 560-4 Gold Edition (2012)
- 2.7.4 Bicolore (2010–2012)
- 2.7.5 LP 550-2 Super Trofeo (2010–2013)
- 2.7.6 LP 570-4 Superleggera Nero Nemesis (2010–2013)
- 2.7.7 LP 570-4 Superleggera Bianco Canopus Limited Edition (2011–2013)
- 2.7.8 LP 550-2 Tricolore (2011–2012)
- 2.7.9 LP 570-4 Super Trofeo Stradale
- 2.7.10 Singapore Limited Edition (2011)
- 2.7.11 Panama police car (2011)
- 2.7.12 Lamborghini Gallardo LP 550-2 Hong Kong 20th Anniversary Edition (2012)
- 2.7.13 Malaysia Limited Edition (2012)
- 2.7.14 India Serie Speciale Edition (2013)
- 2.7.15 Indonesia Limited Edition (2013)
- 2.7.16 LP 560-4 Noctis (2012–2013)
- 2.7.17 Gallardo LP 560-4 Bianco Rosso (2012)
- 2.8 Equipment
- 2.9 Motorsport
- 2.10 Reception
- 2.11 Marketing
- 2.12 LP 550-2, LP 560-4, LP 570-4 Edizione Tecnica (2012-2013)
- 2.13 LP 570-4 Super Trofeo 2013 (2012-2013)
- 2.14 LP 570-4 Super Trofeo Asia (2013)
- 2.15 LP 560-2 50° Anniversario (2013)
- 2.16 LP 570-4 Squadra Corse (2013)
- 2.17 LP 560-4 Macau GP (2013)
- 2.18 Motorsports
- 3 Production
- 4 Specifications
- 5 References
- 6 External links
The first generation of the Gallardo was powered with an even firing 4,993 cc (5.0 L) 90 degree V10 engine generating a maximum power output of 500 PS (368 kW; 493 hp). The Gallardo offers two choices of transmissions, a conventional (H-Box) six-speed manual transmission, and a more advanced six-speed electro-hydraulically controlled semi-automatic electrohydraulic manual transmission, which Lamborghini abbreviates to "E-gear". The "E-gear" allows the driver to change gears much faster than they could with a manual transmission. The driver shifts up and down via paddles behind the steering wheel, but can also change to an automatic mode via the gear selector located in place of the gear shift lever. The vehicle was designed by Luc Donckerwolke and was based on the 1995 Calà prototype designed by Italdesign Giugiaro.
2005 Coupé updateEdit
For the 2006 model year (launched in late 2005) Lamborghini introduced many changes to the car to counter some criticisms garnered from the press and owners. These changes were realised in the form of the limited edition Gallardo SE. The exhaust system was changed to a more sporty one (including a flap to make it quieter during city driving), the suspension was revised, a new steering rack was fitted, the engine power was increased by 20 PS to a maximum of 520 PS (382 kW; 513 hp), and the biggest change was overall low gearing ratios, especially in 1st to 5th gear. These changes gave the car much better performance than the original.
Lamborghini Concept SEdit
The Lamborghini Concept S is a concept car based on the Gallardo, featuring a speedster (Barchetta) body designed by Luc Donckerwolke. It was built in 2005 and was first shown at that year's Geneva Motor Show. The Concept S was intended to be a modern interpretation of the single-seat roadsters of the past. Utilising a 'saute-vent' (French for 'change wind') instead of a traditional windscreen, and dividing the interior into two distinct compartments by continuing the bodywork between the seats, which also serves as an air inlet feeding the mid-mounted 5.0 L V10 engine, giving the car a distinctly futuristic look along with increasing aerodynamic flow. The rear-view mirror is even electronically retractable to allow the driver to see behind, when necessary, or to retract it into the dashboard when not needed. Though considered more of a styling exercise than a working production vehicle, the final working show car only had to be modified slightly from the original computer-aided designs. Lamborghini was rumoured to be building 100 examples for customers, but decided to keep it as a styling exercise. Only 2 cars were produced: the high-window prototype sits in the Lamborghini museum with no engine, while the running low-window prototype featured at Pebble Beach was up for auction on 10 December 2015 at RM Sotheby's Manhattan event "Driven by Disruption". It was expected to sell for US$2.4 to 3 million, but failed to sell.
The convertible variant of the Gallardo, called the Gallardo Spyder, was unveiled at the Los Angeles Auto Show in January 2006. It was considered by the company to be an entirely new model, with the engine having a power output of 520 PS (382 kW; 513 hp) and a low-ratio six-speed manual transmission. The Spyder has a retractable soft-top.
At the 2007 Geneva Auto Show, Lamborghini unveiled the Gallardo Superleggera. The name paid tribute to the construction style of the first Lamborghini production model, the 350 GT, designed and built by Carrozzeria Touring and its emphasis on weight reduction. The Superleggera is lighter than the base model by 100 kg (220 lb) due the use of carbon fibre panels for the rear diffuser, undertray, the rearview-mirror housings, the interior door panels, the central tunnel, engine cover; titanium wheel nuts and carbon fibre sports seats. The engine power was uprated by 10 PS (7 kW; 10 hp) courtesy of an improved intake, exhaust and ECU for a total power output of 530 PS (390 kW; 523 hp). The 6-speed E-Gear transmission was standard on US spec models with the 6-speed manual transmission offered as a no cost option. Production of the Superleggera amounted to 618 units worldwide.
Special and limited editionsEdit
Italian police carsEdit
In December 2004, two Gallardos were donated to the Italian Polizia di Stato in honour of the force's 152nd anniversary. One car was donated by Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. while a second one was donated by an independent organisation.
However, both of the cars were destroyed in the course of duty. When the Huracán, Gallardo's successor, was introduced, Lamborghini S.p.A produced a personalised version for the Italian police force serving as the replacement of the destroyed cars.
London Metropolitan PoliceEdit
Two Gallardos have been "temporary" police cars for the Metropolitan Police in London, one in 2005 and one in 2006, for specific publicity events. The car used in 2006 was seen at the start of the 2006 Gumball Rally. Both vehicles were lent by Lamborghini London and were fitted with yellow and blue battenburg markings, police logos and a small blue lightbar.
Gallardo SE (2005)Edit
The Gallardo SE is a limited edition of 250 units introduced in 2005. It is distinguished from the regular Gallardo externally by a black-roofed two-tone color scheme as well as specially designed "Callisto" wheels. It also featured a two-tone interior further distinguishing it from the base model. All piping and stitching on the leather are executed in the same colour as the bodywork of the car. The midsections of the seats are finished in colour-coded upholstery and even the black floormats have a colour-coded border. A rear-view camera was standard on the Gallardo SE, as was the multimedia and navigation system, sports suspension and an exclusive cover. The optional E-gear transmission came with a new function: 'thrust' mode. This feature automatically revs the car to 5,000 rpm then drops the clutch engaging all four wheels in a controlled burnout to ensure that the car performs maximum acceleration.
Gallardo Nera (2007)Edit
The Gallardo Nera is a special edition (limited to 185 units) of the Gallardo and was introduced at the Paris Motor Show. The car was designed to showcase the customization options available to the customer in the Ad Personam program. It features special matte black body panels and was only available in a special shade of black: a combination of Nero Serapis and Nero Noctis. Brake calipers are painted a special silver and the taillights are smoked to match the darker paint scheme. The interior is stitched from high-contrast black and white leather in the Q-Citura (lozenge shaped) fashion.
FIA GT3 ChampionshipEdit
In 2007, the Gallardo was entered in the FIA GT3 Championship, built by German motorsport specialists Reiter Engineering, who previously manufactured the Murciélago R-GT and the Diablo GTR Super Trophy race cars. All the extra aerodynamic components were bolt-on parts, conforming with cost-effective regulations that meant the finished car had to closely resemble its road-going counterpart. Brembo racing brakes and OZ Racing wheels were also added. It was converted to rear wheel drive, other than when racing in the one-make Lamborghini Super Trofeo. The engine generated a maximum power output of 520 PS (382 kW; 513 hp) at 7,800 rpm and 510 N⋅m (376 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4,500 rpm.
In 2007, the Gallardo was entered by Japan Lamborghini Owners Club (JLOC) to the GT300 class of the Japanese Super GT Championship, the car had to conform to rather different regulations. The engine could only have a power output of 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp) and the car must be rear-wheel-drive. The power was limited by air restrictors placed in the engine bay. The gearbox is a sequential 6-Speed twin-clutch setup. The rules regarding aerodynamics are far looser than those in FIA GT, meaning the Super GT car has more advanced aero, including a much bigger rear wing. It took a while to be competitive, only being consistently at the top during the 2009 season.
Lamborghini recalled about 1,500 Gallardo Coupé and Spyder models, from model years 2004 to 2006, because of the possibility of power steering fluid leaking and the risk of fire. The cars were built from May 2003 through April 2008.
Presented at the 2008 Geneva Motor Show, the Gallardo LP 560-4 was a significant update of the Gallardo, powered by a new, uneven firing 5.2 L (5,200 cc; 320 cu in) V10 engine that produces 560 PS (412 kW; 552 hp) at 8,000 rpm and 540 N⋅m (398 lb⋅ft) of torque at 6,500 rpm. Featuring "Iniezione Diretta Stratificata" direct fuel injection system to improve efficiency; fuel consumption and CO2 emissions have been reduced by 18% despite the increase in performance. The car was redesigned, inspired by the Murciélago LP 640 and Reventón.
The new engine, 40 PS (29 kW; 39 hp) more powerful than in the previous car, comes with two transmission choices: a 6-speed manual or 6-speed E-gear, the latter of which was revised to offer a Corsa mode which makes 40% quicker shifts than before and decreases traction control restrictions, a Thrust Mode launch control system was also added. Accompanied with a 20 kg (44 lb) weight reduction. All the improvements add up to a claimed performance of 0-100 km/h (62 mph) in 3.7 seconds, 0-200 km/h (124 mph) of 11.8 and a top speed of 325 km/h (202 mph).
The MSRP base price was $198,000 in the US and £147,330 (including NavTrak vehicle tracking system and delivery package) in the UK. The first US car was sold in the 16th Annual Race to Erase MS charity auction for $198,000 to former True Religion Jeans co-founder/co-creator Kymberly Gold and music producer Victor Newman.
LP 560-4 SpyderEdit
The Lamborghini Gallardo LP 560-4 Spyder was unveiled at the 2008 LA Auto Show. as the replacement for the previous Gallardo Spyder. It is the convertible model of the Gallardo LP 560-4 and as such possess all of its features like the new uneven firing 5.2 L (320 cu in) V10 engine, improved E-gear transmission and 20 kg (44 lb) weight reduction. Performance has been improved to 0-100 km/h (62 mph) in 3.8 seconds, 0-200 km/h (124 mph) of 13.1 and a top speed of 324 km/h (201 mph)
Japan models went on sale in July 2009.
LP 570-4 Superleggera (2010–2013)Edit
In March 2010, Lamborghini announced the release of the Gallardo LP 570-4 Superleggera, a lightweight and more powerful version of the Gallardo LP 560-4 in the same vein as the previous Superleggera. With carbon fibre used extensively inside and out to reduce weight to just 1,340 kg (2,954 lb) making it the lightest road-going Lamborghini in the range. The odd firing 5.2 L V10 on the LP 570-4 gets a power bump over the standard Gallardo to 570 PS (419 kW; 562 hp) at 8,000 rpm and 540 N⋅m (398 lb⋅ft) at 6,500 rpm of torque. Performance has been improved to 0-100 km/h (62 mph) in 3.2 seconds, and a 329 km/h (204 mph) top speed.
Taiwan models went on sale in June 2010, with delivery beginning in July 2010.
Lamborghini Gallardo LP570-4 Superleggera has a power to weight ratio of 2.67 kg (5.89 lb) per horsepower.
LP 570-4 Spyder Performante (2011)Edit
In November 2010, Lamborghini announced the LP 570-4 Spyder Performante, a convertible version of the LP 570-4 Superleggera. Employing the same odd firing 570 PS (419 kW; 562 hp) 5.2L V10 and with a curb weight of 1,485 kg (3,274 lb), heavier than the coupé as usual with coupé based convertibles, the LP 570-4 Spyder Performante goes from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 3.9 seconds, to 200 km/h (124 mph) in 12.0 seconds and has a top speed of 324 km/h (201 mph).
Taiwan models went on sale in April 2011, with delivery beginning in July 2011.
LP 550-2 Coupé, LP 550–2 AD (2010–2013)Edit
Following the LP 550-2 Valentino Balboni and LP 550-2 Bicolore special editions, the LP 550-2 Coupé was offered by Lamborghini in the 2011 model year as the lowest priced model in the Gallardo line-up. The rear-wheel drive LP 550-2 Coupé is distinguished by unique black side skirts and "LP 550-2" badging, suspension tuning borrowed from the Valentino Balboni edition and came equipped with a 6-speed manual transmission with E-gear available as a cost option.
The LP 550–2 AD is based on the LP 550-2 Coupé with Ad Personam customization, which includes transparent engine cover, engine room LED lighting, diamond pattern leather interior upholstery, travel package.
The Taiwan model of the LP 550-2 Coupé went on sale on 9 July 2010.
LP 550-2 Spyder (2011–2013)Edit
In 2012, the LP 550-2 Spyder was introduced with the same specifications as the Coupé, as the lowest priced Spyder model.
The vehicle was unveiled in Balboni Ginza Tower.
Japan models went on sale on 8 December 2011.
Special and limited editionsEdit
Gallardo LP560-4 Polizia (2008)Edit
The Gallardo LP560-4 Polizia is a police car version of the Gallardo LP560-4 coupé for the Italian State Police. It features a camera recording system featuring a camera beside the rear view mirror, GPS navigation, a gun holster, a police radio, a Paletta warning sign, a portable screen, a refrigerator and defibrillator in the front cargo compartment, blu Polizia body colour, a police beacon with blue LEDs at the vehicle's front, roof, side, and rear.
In October 2008, a private ceremony was held at the Viminale Palace where Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. donated a Gallardo LP560-4 Polizia, to the head of the Italian State Police, Prefect Antonio Manganelli. The new Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 Polizia was used as a replacement to its predecessor to fulfill roles with the Lazio Highway Police Department.
LP 550-2 Valentino BalboniEdit
Limited to 250 units, the Gallardo LP 550-2 Valentino Balboni was named after Lamborghini test driver Valentino Balboni and to his request, unlike the contemporary line-up, the Balboni is rear wheel drive, reducing the curb weight by 30 kg (66 lb) to 1,470 kg (3,241 lb). The engine is rated at 550 PS (405 kW; 542 hp). Other features include re-calibrated optional E-gear transmission, redeveloped 45% limited slip differential, full leather black upholstery with white colour strips, Polar white centre console, a stripe down the centre of the car, and a badge below the left side window bears the signature of Valentino Balboni and the production number of the car. On right hand drive cars, the badge is located at the bottom of the right hand drive rear window. A special one off Balboni was created by the Singapore distributor of Lamborghini (Eurosport) which had Superleggera seats and a full Reiter Engineering Super Trofeo Strada body derived directly from the Super Trofeo series cars. This one off Balboni was viewed as the predecessor to the Singapore Edition limited run LP550-2 (see below) which had a stripped out Superleggera interior, Superleggera side skirts, rear deck, rear diffuser and front bumper (sans Superleggera rear wing) but which critically was a 2wd car which catered to the enthusiast driver. This special Balboni was exported from Singapore to Indonesia in 2015. Lamborghini claims the LP 550-2 Valentino Balboni can reach a top speed of 320 km/h (199 mph) and reach 100 km/h (62 mph) in 3.9 seconds.
Gallardo LP 560-4 Gold Edition (2012)Edit
The Gallardo LP 560-4 Gold Edition(金色限量版) is a limited (10 units) version of the Gallardo LP 560-4 for the Chinese market, with gold body colour, black engine cover frame, LED headlamps, Cordelia glossy wheels, red brake calipers, black interior, red stitching and embroidery at steering wheel and head rest.
The Bicolore is a special edition of the Gallardo, available in both LP 560-4 and LP 550-2 trims. Released in 2010 it features a unique two-tone paint job. The car was available only in orange, yellow, grey, white or blue with a black roof with unique Skorplus alloy wheels.
Taiwan model of the LP 560-4 Bicolore went on sale on 10 March 2011.
LP 550-2 Super Trofeo (2010–2013)Edit
The LP550-2 Super Trofeo is a version of the LP 550-2 Valentino Balboni for the Hong Kong market. It does not include the centre stripe of the original car. It includes an e-Gear transmission, Super Trofeo body kit (tail wing, front and tail diffuser, side skirts), front and side airbags, TFT screen with USB/iPod connection, GPS with Bluetooth, front axle height control.
LP 570-4 Superleggera Nero Nemesis (2010–2013)Edit
The LP 570-4 Superleggera Nero Nemesis (消光黑色特別版) is a version of the LP 570-4 Superleggera for the Taiwan market, with matte black body colour, matte black interior upholstery, silver interior stitching, 4-point seat belt.
The vehicle was available for sale from 2010 to 2013.
LP 570-4 Superleggera Bianco Canopus Limited Edition (2011–2013)Edit
The LP 570-4 Superleggera Bianco Canopus Limited Edition (中華民國建國百年特仕車) is a version of the LP 570-4 Superleggera for the Taiwan market, commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Republic of China. It includes matte white body colour, e-gear transmission, silver interior stitching, and 4-point seat belts.
LP 550-2 Tricolore (2011–2012)Edit
The LP 550-2 Tricolore is a version of the Gallardo LP 550-2 for the Europe, Middle East, and Asian Pacific markets, commemorating the 150th anniversary of Italian unification. It includes green, white, and red stripes (representing the flag of Italy) from cargo bay to engine cover; white body colour, carbon fibre rear view mirror and side skirts taken from the Gallardo LP 570-4 Superleggera, matte black front air intake grille from the Gallardo LP 570-4 Superleggera, black interior, green, white, red stripes at left seat aligned to the exterior tricolor stripes; 'Tricolore' embroidering at driver seat, e-gear panel and steering wheel in carbon fibre, Alcantara upholstery at centre console and door trim, Nero Perseus black leather upholstery, 'Tricolore' plaque at door sill, seat side and inner window frame.
Taiwan models of the LP 550-2 Tricolore went on sale on 2 June 2011.
LP 570-4 Super Trofeo StradaleEdit
Presented at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show, the Super Trofeo Stradale was a limited (150 units) version of the LP570-4 Superleggera. Boasting a dry weight of 1,340 kg (2,954 lb), it is 30 kg (66 lb) lighter than a comparably equipped LP570-4 Superleggera. Essentially a road version of the Super Trofeo race car, equipped with the same adjustable rear spoiler that offers an aerodynamic load 3 times that of the standard Gallardo LP 560-4 for increased dynamic stability during tight, high-speed driving. Another element taken directly from the racing version was the removable engine hood with quick-release system. The vehicle includes Rosso Mars (red) body colour, 6-speed E-gear transmission, carbon fibre and Alcantara interior upholstery with red stitching, double-A-arm suspension, 19-inch wheels, titanium bearing and bolts, Pirelli P Zero Corsa tires. Optional equipment includes carbon-ceramic brake discs, a tubular interior roll cage, 4-point safety belts and fire extinguisher, satellite navigation, with Bluetooth connection for mobile phones, an anti-theft system, grey or white brake calipers and a lifting system that raises the front axle.
The Taiwan model was sold in limited quantities (3 units), with both road and track versions. The road version includes exclusive carbon fibre tail wing and engine cover, Alcantara interior upholstery and Alcantara racing seats. The track version includes a racing type roll cage, red 4-point seat belts, travel package and a chrome and carbon fibre interior package.
The car won the Targa Tasmania in 2010.
Singapore Limited Edition (2011)Edit
The Singapore Limited Edition was a limited (10 units) version of the Gallardo LP 550-2 in Singapore, celebrating 10 years of Lamborghini's presence in Singapore. Available in black and white primary body color with red side stripes accented by a badge featuring the Merlion, it includes parts taken from the LP570-4 Superleggera such as the front spoiler, a rear wing, a wheel set and interior trim.
Panama police car (2011)Edit
Lamborghini Gallardo LP 550-2 Hong Kong 20th Anniversary Edition (2012)Edit
The LP 550-2 Hong Kong Edition commemorates the 20th anniversary of Lamborghini cars being sold in Hong Kong. Modifications on the model include custom paint with a coat of Bianco Monocerus, a white color, matte gold stripes that run the length of the hood, over the roof, and down the rear. Matte black accents round out the paint work with a matte black rear bumper and spoiler, side skirts, and spoiler, with HK20 graphics on the front spoiler, rear fascia and side sills. These extend to the interior on the headrests and center console. Only 8 will be produced with pricing at $3,680,000 each.
Malaysia Limited Edition (2012)Edit
The Gallardo Malaysia Limited Edition is a limited edition (20 units) version of the Gallardo LP 550-2 for the Malaysian market. Available in Bianco Monocerus (solid white), Verde Ithaca (pearl green) and Arancio Borealis (pearl orange) body color, it includes the body kit from the LP 570-4 Superleggera (front bumper, carbon side skirts, 4 titanium exhaust tips and a carbon fibre rear diffuser), a different interior with Alcantara and leather with bespoke stitching and a 6-speed E-gear transmission.
The vehicle was unveiled at Eminent Century Sdn Bhd, the official Malaysian importer of Lamborghini cars, and JH Italia Sdn Bhd, the sole dealer, in Kuala Lumpur. The vehicle went on sale for RM868,000 before duties, road tax and insurance (RM 1,680,000 excluding insurance).
India Serie Speciale Edition (2013)Edit
To mark its 50th anniversary, Lamborghini wanted to provide something special for the Indian market where they had found a good business potential, hence a limited edition of six cars based on the best selling variant of the Gallardo, the LP 550-2 was created. Two cars were produced in Arancio Borealis (pearl orange), two in Bianco Isis (pearl white) and two in Verde Ithaca (pearl green), representing the colours of the Indian Flag. All cars featured the Indian flag tricolour stripes running the entire length of the car and engine intake manifold cover in the same colour. To suit Indian road conditions, the car features a lift suspension. With the push of a button, the ground clearance increases by 40 mm (1.6 in) taking it to 165 mm (6.5 in).
Indonesia Limited Edition (2013)Edit
The Gallardo LP550-2 Indonesia Limited Edition is based on the LP550-2 model but features a Superleggera style body and a bright green Verde Ithaca body colour. It was limited to the Indonesian Market only and available in January 2013. The 2013 Gallardo LP550-2 Indonesia Limited Edition received several items from the option list as standard equipment, the most eye catching naturally being the Superleggera bumpers and side skirts, a glass engine cover with the optional LED lights installed which gave an even better view of the V10 engine at night and available with E-Gear transmission. The wheels are the regular dual five spoke Apollo wheels seen on the Gallardo LP560-4 model, but finished in glossy black for the Indonesian edition.
LP 560-4 Noctis (2012–2013)Edit
The LP 560-4 Noctis is a version of the Gallardo LP 560-4 with two-tone colour schemes, for Hong Kong and Chinese markets. Available in dark grey/silver and dark blue/silver body colour, 6-speed E-gear transmission, 19-inch alloy wheels, black leather and grey Alcantara upholstery, adjustable suspension.
Gallardo LP 560-4 Bianco Rosso (2012)Edit
The Gallardo LP 560-4 Bianco Rosso (ガヤルド LP560-4 ビアンコ・ロッソ) is a limited (10 units) version of the Gallardo LP 560-4 coupé for the Japanese market, commemorating 45 years of importing Lamborghini to Japan and 10 years of Lamborghini Japan, inspired by Japan's flag. Designed by Lamborghini Design Centre, it includes red side mirror cover, red engine cover frame, red brake caliper, black interior, red leather upholstery at side side holder, door handle, hand brake; rear view camera, LED headlight package, 19-inch high gloss black Cordelia wheels, car navigation system, lifting system.
Marrone Apus (matte brown), Giallo Horus (matte gold), Nero Nemesis (matte black), Bianco Canopus (matte white) body colours were introduced to the Taiwan market on 10 August 2010.
Lamborghini Blancpain Super TrofeoEdit
In May 2009 Lamborghini introduced what it calls the 'Fastest one-make series in the world', featuring the Gallardo LP 560-4 Super Trofeo, a race-prepared version of the newer Gallardo LP560-4. The series supported European race series such as Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft (DTM), FIA GT Series and the World Touring Car Championship (WTCC), featuring 18 races overall and having a 30-car grid consisting of privateer teams as well as Lamborghini dealer teams and one factory team featuring guest drivers. The Super Trofeo race car was based on the Gallardo LP 560-4 sports car, but with a reworked chassis, dramatic body work/aerodynamics and a direct injection odd firing V10 engine rated at 570 PS (419 kW; 562 hp) with higher compression ratio of 12.5:1, variable valve timing all prepared by the Reiter Engineering group. The car has dry weight of 1,300 kg (2,866 lb). E-gear transmission was standard. The race car and parts package cost €200,000 (US$284,300) plus tax, available via Lamborghini dealerships, with support and parts sales trackside.
The final motorsport iteration of the Gallardo was created externally by Lamborghini's long time motorsport partner Reiter Engineering. Introduced in 2014 the Reiter Extenso, later known as the Gallardo R-EX, extended the racing life of the Gallardo beyond the introduction of its replacement the Lamborghini Huracán GT3.
American Le Mans SeriesEdit
West Racing campaigned an LP560 GT in the GT class of the American Le Mans Series for certain races of the 2011 season. However, as of July 2011, the team announced that they were developing a new car and by implication would no longer race the LP560.
Speed World ChallengeEdit
In a test drive of the LP 550-2 Valentino Balboni, the test driver bearing the name of the car said he was against E-gear because it takes some amount of vehicle control away from the driver, and all-wheel drive Lamborghinis from the beginning, and the company was divided over AWD cars. In that review, an LP 550-2 with E-Gear was tested.
As part of the Gallardo LP570-4 Superleggera launch in Taiwan, Jean-Michel Lorain of the La Côte Saint Jacques restaurant was invited by Taiwan Lamborghini dealer Gramus International Co., Ltd. and Taiwan American Express company to cook French meals at The Landis Taipei Paris 1930 between 1 December 2010 and 4 December 2010, and at the Le Moût restaurant between 6 December 2010 and 9 December 2010, with a Gallardo LP570-4 Superleggera Nero Nemesis unveiled at the 1st floor lounge of The Landis Taipei hotel. In addition, for Lamborghini buyers using an American Express card until 31 December 2010, all Lamborghini vehicles got an order price of 2 million NTD, and Lamborghini LP 570-4 Superleggera Nero Nemesis buyers using an American Express Centurion card can purchase the vehicle for 17,880,000 NTD.
LP 550-2, LP 560-4, LP 570-4 Edizione Tecnica (2012-2013)Edit
At the end of its production run, Lamborghini produced special editions of the Gallardo featuring parts from its Gallardo Super Trofeo race cars. These editions were based off on all the basic variants of the Gallardo and the cars receiving such modifications were given the Edizione Technica designation in addition to their names.
Changes to the Gallardo LP 560-4 and the LP 550-2 includes revised front fascias with triangular and trapezoidal forms with diagonal elements in body color and black, larger air intakes ahead of the front wheels, new 19-inch "Apollo polished" alloy wheels in matte black with spokes in polished silver, redesigned rear end with a wider surface area, optional Style Package (high-gloss black paintwork on the underside of the front spoiler, front and rear grilles and the transverse element of the rear trim).
The LP 570-4 Edizione Tecnica was based on the LP 570-4 Superleggera and the LP 570-4 Spyder Performante, with a fixed rear wing, carbon-ceramic brakes, roof arch and front air intakes painted in contrasting color schemes (Nero Nemesis (matt black) body with Arancio Argos (orange) pillars and front air intakes, Bianco Canopus (matt white) body with Arancio Argos pillars and front air intakes, and Arancio Argos body with Nero Nemesis pillars and front air intakes).
The vehicles were unveiled at the 2012 Paris Motor Show, followed by the 2013 Shanghai Motor Show (in which a Gallardo LP 560-4 Spyder Edizione Technica in Grigio Telesto paint scheme was unveiled).
The vehicles were available at Lamborghini dealerships from November 2012. Early models include the LP 550-2 (Coupé/Spyder), LP 560-4 (Coupé/Spyder), LP 570-4 (Superleggera/Spyder Performante).
LP 570-4 Super Trofeo 2013 (2012-2013)Edit
The 2013 LP 570-4 Super Trofeo is a race car version of the Gallardo LP 570-4 for the Lamborghini Blancpain Super Trofeo series. It features adjustable aerodynamic devices, a ten-position rear wing and improved front brake cooling over the 2012 Gallardo via remodeled brake ducts.
LP 570-4 Super Trofeo Asia (2013)Edit
The Gallardo LP 570-4 Super Trofeo Asia (亞洲限量版) is a limited (3 units, 1 in Taiwan, 2 in Thailand) version of the LP 570-4 Super Trofeo 2013 for the Asian market. It includes a matte black carbon fibre tail wing, matt black carbon fibre engine cover, yellow body colour, high gloss carbon fibre door pedal, rear diffuser, rear view mirror cover; red ceramic carbon fibre brake caliper, Alcantara interior upholstery, 'Super Trofeo Asia' plaque at red rear window frame interior border with serial number, red stitching, carbon fibre upholstery at door trim, racing seats, centre console.
LP 560-2 50° Anniversario (2013)Edit
The Gallardo LP 560-2 50° Anniversario is a version of the Gallardo LP 550-2 Coupé with increased engine power to 560 PS (412 kW; 552 hp), clear carbon fiber rear wing from the original Gallardo Superleggera, transparent engine cover, dark grey Scorpius wheels and a Bianco Opalis (white metallic) body colour.
LP 570-4 Squadra Corse (2013)Edit
Unveiled at the 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show, the Lamborghini Gallardo LP 570-4 Squadra Corse is a limited production (50 units, 15 in USA, 3 in Canada) street-legal version of the Lamborghini Gallardo LP 570-4 Super Trofeo 2013 race car. It features a removable engine cover with quick-release system, different front and rear bumpers, rear wing and the engine cover made from carbon composite material, carbon-ceramic brake system, e-gear six-speed transmission with, tricolore decals on the sides. It was available in 4 body colours (Giallo Midas (yellow), Bianco Monocerus (white), Grigio Thalasso (grey) and Rosso Mars (red)), matte black rear wing with contrasts in body colour, hood, front air intakes, rear diffuser and 19-inch forged wheels in high-gloss black; choice of three brake calliper colours (red, black, yellow), carbon fibre (at door panels, racing seats and centre console cover, handbrake frame, the middle of the centre console, the lower rim of the steering wheel, the trim around the main and secondary instrument panels, the door handles, the handle for opening the glove box) and Alcantara (at underside of the dashboard, central panel of the seat cushion and the backrest) interior upholstery, bucket seats (optional comfort seats). The rear wing was reported to produce three times more downforce than the standard Gallardo's electronically adjusted spoiler.
The US model was offered in Giallo Midas colour only. Deliveries of the vehicle began in September 2013.
LP 560-4 Macau GP (2013)Edit
The Gallardo LP 560-4 Macau GP is a limited (3 units) version of the Gallardo LP 560-4 Coupé for the Taiwan market, commemorating Hanss Lin (#38) of the Taiwan-based Gama Racing Team taking 2nd place in the Macau race of the 2013 Lamborghini Super Trofeo Asia series. Changes include the Gallardo Super Trofeo parts (front/rear bumpers, adjustable rear wing and diffuser, front skirt, detachable carbon fibre engine cover), orange body colour, hexagon '63' decal and tricolore stripes throughout the whole vehicle.
The vehicle was unveiled at the Lamborghini Taipei event between 26 December 2013 and 30 December 2013, and went on sale for $16 million NTD.
|2012||1,221 (1,161 deliveries)||822||399|
|2013||933 (1,120 deliveries)||653||280|
End of productionEdit
On 25 November 2013, the last Lamborghini Gallardo, a LP 570-4 Spyder Performante with Rosso Mars (red) body colour, was built at the Sant'Agata Bolognese factory, to be received by a private collector in the upcoming weeks. A total of 14,022 units of the Lamborghini Gallardo had been built during its 10-year product cycle.
|Superleggera||LP 560-4||LP 560-4 Spyder||LP 550-2
rear wheel drive
|LP 570-4 Superleggera Edizione Tecnica/Performante Spyder|
|DOHC 4 valves per cylinder V10 engine|
|Displacement, type||4,961 cc (5.0 L; 302.7 cu in), even firing||5,204 cc (5.2 L; 317.6 cu in), odd firing|
|Power at rpm||500 PS (368 kW; 493 hp) at 7,800||520 PS (382 kW; 513 hp) at 8,000||530 PS (390 kW; 523 hp) at 8,000||560 PS (412 kW; 552 hp) at 8,000||550 PS (405 kW; 542 hp) at 8,000||570 PS (419 kW; 562 hp) at 8,000|
|Torque at rpm||510 N⋅m (376 lb⋅ft) at 4,500||510 N⋅m (376 lb⋅ft) at 4,250||540 N⋅m (398 lb⋅ft) at 6,500|
|0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) (sec)||4.2||4.0||4.3||3.8||3.7||4.0||3.9 (4.2 Spyder)||3.4 (3.9 Spyder)|
|0 to 200 km/h (120 mph) (sec)||14.5||13.6||14.3||12.4||9.5||11.7||10.6||?|
|1/4 mile||12.4 s at 118 mph (190 km/h)||12.1 s at 120 mph (193 km/h)||–||11.7 s at 123 mph (198 km/h)||11.2 s at 129.5 mph (208.4 km/h) (R&T)
11.9 s at 120.5 mph (193.9 km/h) (MT)
|12 s at 124 mph (200 km/h)||11.5 s at 126.7 mph (203.9 km/h) (R&T)
11.5 s at 125.6 mph (202.1 km/h) (MT)
|Top speed||309 km/h (192 mph)||315 km/h (196 mph)||315 km/h (196 mph)||315 km/h (196 mph)||325 km/h (202 mph)||324 km/h (201 mph)||320 km/h (199 mph)||325 km/h (202 mph)|
Awards and recognitionEdit
- "2009 Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 - Short Take Road Test - Car Reviews". Caranddriver.com. 8 October 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "Vehicle comparisons" (PDF). Media.caranddriver.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "Vehicle : Ferrari F430 v Lambo Gallardo" (PDF). Media.caranddriver.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "Car and Driver Track Sheet" (PDF). Media.caranddriver.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "2010 Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 Valentino Balboni – Instrumented Test – Car and Driver". Caranddriver.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "2011 Lamborghini Gallardo LP570-4 Superleggera - Second Drive - Car Reviews". Caranddriver.com. 8 October 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- Lamborghini Gallardo production ends on No. 14,022 – AutoBlog, 26 November 2013
- Markus, Frank (February 2013). "Sant'Agata Bolognese to Zaragoza, the Heming-Way". Motor Trend. 65 (2): 108.
- "Gallardo 5.0 - the STORY on". Lambocars.com. 5 September 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "Luc Donckerwolke « Future Car". Futurecar.co.za. 25 June 2011. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- "Lamborghini Concept S : News & Reports : Motoring". Web Wombat. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- Anderson, Brad (16 December 2015). "Lamborghini Concept S Fails To Sell At RM's New York Auction". Carscoops. Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- AutoBlog.com, Geneva Motor Show: Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera
- "Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera (2007–)". channel4.com. Archived from the original on 14 May 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "SuperCars.net". SuperCars.net. 1 March 2004. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "SuperGT.net". SuperGT.net. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "LAMBORGHINI RECALLING CARS DUE TO RISK OF FIRE". Associated Press. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- "Geneva 2008: Gallardo LP560-4 live and drool whorthy". Autoblog. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "Road and Track Gallardo LP560-4 road test". Road and Track. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- AutoBlog.com, Lamborghini prices Gallardo LP560-4 for UK, releases new pics
- AutoBlog.com, First US-bound Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 Spyder raises $202k at charity auction
- AutoBlog.com, LA 2008: Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 Spyder unveiled Live
- "CAR – 僯儏乕僗 – 儔儞儃儖僊乕僯丄乽僈儎儖僪LP560-4僗僷僀僟乕乿傪崙撪敪攧". impress.co.jp.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP 570-4 Superleggera". DieselStation.com.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP 570-4 Superleggera". Automoblog.net.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP 570-4 Superleggera". Car-Center.co.uk. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010.
- "輕量性能極致，Gallardo LP 570-4 Superleggera登台開賣". U-CAR車壇新聞.
- Lamborghini Galladro LP 570-4 Spyder Performante 10 January 2018 auto-data.net
- "以性能為名，Gallardo LP570-4 Spyder Performante上空出場". U-CAR車壇新聞. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "後驅蠻牛出陣！Lamborghini Gallardo LP 550-2抵台上市". U-CAR車壇新聞.
- "Car Watch 儔儞儃儖僊乕僯丄乽僈儎儖僪 LP 550-2 僗僷僀僟乕乿偑擔杮忋棨". impress.co.jp.
- "Car Watch 儔儞儃儖僊乕僯丄乽僈儎儖僪 LP 550-2 僗僷僀僟乕乿傪崙撪敪攧". impress.co.jp.
- "執法特快車，Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 Polizia警車問世". U-CAR車壇新聞.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 Polizia". CarWalls.com.
- "Lamborghini LP550-2 – the First RWD Lambo in 10 Years". Automoblog.net.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 Gold Edition for China". CarBuzz.
- "兰博基尼金色限量版跑车深港澳车展首发_厦门车市_新浪厦门汽车_新浪汽车_新浪网". sina.com.cn.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo Bicolore Edition – Sybarites". Sybarites.org. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "玩色小牛，Lamborghini LP 560-4 Bicolore國內首發". U-CAR車壇新聞.
- "Lamborghini LP550-2 Super Trofeo裝甲狂牛". on.cc.
- "血脈沸騰 Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 Super Trofeo". on.cc.
- kun. "Lambo新車登台！預告Murciélago後繼車明年叩關". 癮車報.
- "Lamborghini Taipei向建國百年致敬". chinatimes.com.
- "同慶百年，Lamborghini LP570-4 Superleggera限量特仕車發表". U-CAR車壇新聞.
- Noah Joseph (10 March 2011). "Lamborghini Gallardo Tricolore commemorates 150 years of Italian unification". Autoblog. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- Jeremy Korzeniewski (12 September 2011). "Lamborghini Gallardo Super Trofeo Stradale hits the stage". Autoblog. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "預告台灣賽車新紀元，Gallardo LP 570-4 Super Trofeo Stradale上市". U-CAR車壇新聞.
- "Gallardo LP570-4 Super Trofeo Stradale". udn.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015.
- "Official: Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 Singapore Limited Edition". gtspirit.com.
- Noah Joseph. "Lamborghini Gallardo Singapore Limited Edition lands in the Far East". Autoblog.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo as Police Car in Panama [w/ videos] - Cardotcom.com". cardotcom.com. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Video: Lamborghini Gallardo Policia de Panamá". gtspirit.com.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 Hong Kong 20th Anniversary Edition". Egmcartech.com.
- Tan, Danny. "Lamborghini Gallardo Malaysia Limited Edition - 20 units". Paultan.org. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP 550-2 India Serie Speciale". Topgear. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- "A complete overview of Lamborghini production models at LamboCARS.com". lambocars.com.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 Indonesia limited Edition". KOMPASIANA.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP 550-2 Indonesia Limited Edition". luckydaff.
- "兰博基尼携三款超跑 亮相2012青岛车展【图】_进口新车快讯_太平洋汽车网". pcauto.com.cn.
- Discuz! Team and Comsenz UI Team. "兰博基尼 Gallardo LP560-4 Noctis 4S 现车优惠68万元---已售". eenzo.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- "Lamborghini announces a limited-edition Gallardo for Japan". jcarblog.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- The Asahi Shimbun Company. "墨泣糠使デジタル¨ランボルギ〖ニ、泣塑嘎年１０骆の泼侍慌屯贾 – 唉贾". 墨泣糠使デジタル.
- "Car Watch 儔儞儃儖僊乕僯丄擔杮忋棨45廃擭婰擮幵乽僈儎儖僪 價傾儞僐丒儘僢僜乿". impress.co.jp.
- "Lamborghini牛王站台，總代理推出四款百萬消光車色選配". U-CAR車壇新聞.
- "NetCarShow.com". NetCarShow.com. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "American Le Mans Series website". Americanlemans.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "West Racing Facebook site". Facebook. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- "SCCA Pro Racing Speed World Challenge – Drivers". World-challenge.com. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- Lieberman, Jonny (26 August 2009). "AutoBlog.com". AutoBlog.com. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "超跑級美食饗宴，Lamborghini與米其林名廚合擺「犇騰宴」". U-CAR車壇新聞.
- "NOWnews 今日新聞". Legacy.nownews.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "Lotus Evora IPS" (PDF). Gama-t.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- Carstuff 人車事. "【焦點新聞】「2010犇騰宴」北中齊開桌！Lamborghini偕美國運通邀星級名廚再次登台獻藝". carstuff.com.tw.
- "Gallardo LP 570-4 Spyder Performante Edizione Tecnica". Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP 570-4 Superleggera". Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.
- Jeffrey N. Ross. "Lamborghini Aventador LP 720-4 50 Anniversario is one helluva birthday present". Autoblog.
- Jonathon Ramsey. "Lamborghini releases 2013 Gallardo details". Autoblog.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP 570-4 Super Trofeo 2013 unveiled". gizmag.com.
- Seyth Miersma. "2013 Lamborghini Gallardo LP570-4 Super Trofeo racecar is unveiled". Autoblog.
- "傳承賽道榮耀，Lamborghini Gallardo Super Trofeo亞洲限量版抵臺". U-CAR車壇新聞.
- "Official: Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-2 50th Anniversario". gtspirit.com.
- Seyth Miersma. "Lamborghini unveils 50th anniversary Aventador Roadster and Gallardo". Autoblog.
- Damon Lowney. "Lamborghini Gallardo LP 570-4 Squadra Corse brings one-make series to the road". Autoblog.
- "Extreme Lamborghini Gallardo Squadra Corse Debuts in Frankfurt". Motor Trend Magazine. 9 September 2013.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP 570-4 Squadra Corse". Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. 3 October 2013. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015.
- "Lamborghini company news". Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. 10 October 2013. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- Sanchez, Karla (November 2013). "Lamborghini Gallardo LP 570-4 Squadra Corse". Motor Trend. 65 (11): 16.
- Brandon Turkus. "Lamborghini Gallardo Squadra Corse will cost $260K* and only come in yellow". Autoblog.
- "以澳門之名，Gallardo LP 560-4 Macau GP登場". U-CAR車壇新聞.
- "Lamborghini company news". Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. 10 October 2013. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016.
- "Volkswagen AG Annual Report 2004, p.92" (PDF). Volswagenag.com. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- "Volkswagen AG Annual Report 2006, p.49" (PDF). Volswagenag.com. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- "Volkswagen AG Annual Report 2008, p.87" (PDF). Volswagenag.com. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- "Volkswagen AG Annual Report 2010, p.111" (PDF). Volswagenag.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Volkswagen AG Annual Report 2012, p.109" (PDF). Volswagenag.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Noah Joseph. "Aventador sales drive record revenue at Lamborghini". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- "Volkswagen Group Annual Report 2013, p.27" (PDF). Volswagenag.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-2 50th Anniversary: Elegy for the Manual Transmission". Popular Mechanics.
- Damon Lowney. "Lamborghini Gallardo production ends on No. 14,022". Autoblog.
- "Lamborghini company news". Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. 10 October 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
- Simona (25 November 2013). "Final Lamborghini Gallardo Rolls Off The Production Line". Top Speed.
- Knapman, Chris (26 November 2013). "Lamborghini Gallardo production ends". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Markus, Frank (22 April 2009). "The Ultimate Play Date: Maserati GranTurismo, Audi R8, Ferrari F430, Lamborghini LP560-4, Mercedes McLaren SLR". Motor Trend.
- [dead link]
- "Lamborghini Gallardo LP550-2 Valentino Balboni First Test". Motor Trend. 31 August 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2017.