LMS Jubilee Class

The London Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) Jubilee Class is a class of steam locomotive designed for main line passenger work. 191 locomotives were built between 1934 and 1936. They were built concurrently with the similar looking LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0. They were nicknamed Red Staniers (due to their crimson liveries) and Jubs.[1][2]

LMS Jubilee Class
Stockport with Stanier 'Jubilee' 4-6-0 geograph-2732998-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg
45578 United Provinces at Stockport in 1957.
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
DesignerWilliam Stanier
Builder
Order numberLMS Lot nos. 97, 112, 113, 118, 121, 129
Build date1934–1936
Total produced191
Specifications
Configuration:
 • Whyte4-6-0
 • UIC2′C h3
Gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm)
Leading dia.3 ft 3+12 in (1.003 m)
Driver dia.6 ft 9 in (2.057 m)
Length64 ft 8+34 in (19.73 m)
Loco weight79.55 long tons (89.10 short tons; 80.83 t)
Tender weight54.65 long tons (61.21 short tons; 55.53 t)
Fuel typeCoal
Fuel capacity9.0 long tons (10.1 short tons; 9.1 t)
Water cap3,500 imp gal (16,000 l; 4,200 US gal) Fowler tender - 4,000 imp gal (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal) Stanier tender
Firebox:
 • Firegrate area
29+12 or 31 sq ft (2.74 or 2.88 m2)
BoilerLMS type 3A
Boiler pressure225 psi (1.55 MPa)
Heating surface:
 • Tubes and flues
1,372 to 1,470 sq ft (127.5 to 136.6 m2)
 • Firebox162 or 181 sq ft (15.1 or 16.8 m2)
Superheater:
 • Heating area228 to 331 sq ft (21.2 to 30.8 m2)
CylindersThree
Cylinder size17 in × 26 in (432 mm × 660 mm)
Valve gearWalschaerts
Valve typePiston valves
Performance figures
Tractive effort26,610 lbf (118.4 kN)
Career
OperatorsLondon, Midland and Scottish Railway, British Railways
Power class
  • LMS: 5XP
  • BR (pre-1955): 6P
  • BR (post-1955) 6P5F (never displayed on cabsides)
Numbers
  • LMS: 5552–5742
  • BR: 45552–45742
NicknamesRed Staniers, Jubes
Axle load classBR: Route Availability 8
Withdrawn1952 (1), 1960–1967
DispositionFour preserved, remainder scrapped
For the details of the two rebuilt locomotives, see LMS Rebuilt Jubilee Class

HistoryEdit

The last five locomotives of Henry Fowler's Patriot class on order, 5552 to 5556, were built with William Stanier's taper boiler and so became the first of the Jubilee class. 113 locomotives were ordered straight from the drawing board. They were initially a disappointment; their moderate degree of superheating often left them short of steam. Changes to the blastpipe and chimney dimensions helped to transform them.

On 29 April 1935 no. 5552, the first of the class, permanently swapped identities with no. 5642 which had been named Silver Jubilee on 19 April 1935 in recognition of the Silver Jubilee of King George V on 6 May of that year. This change gave the name to the rest of the class, see LMS Jubilee Class 5552 Silver Jubilee. Earlier on (from summer 1934), they had been known as the "Red Staniers" (because of the crimson livery), to distinguish them from the "Black Staniers" (the LMS Stanier Black Five class).[3] These engines were named after former Commonwealth states and countries of the British Empire, British admirals, British naval commanders, and finally, ships in the British Navy named after characters from Greek Mythology.

Until the late 1950s, Jubilees were the largest express engine normally found on the lines running out of St Pancras. They practically monopolized the role of the main express engine, with the occasional Royal Scot popping up, or radiating from Derby. They could nevertheless be found on main lines throughout the former LMS system. They were also regarded as a powerful upgrade from both of the older Compound 4-4-0 locomotives, both the MR 1000 Class and the LMS Compound 4-4-0 as well. The Jubilees were a rather common sight on the Midland Main Line, the West Coast Main Line, and the Settle-Carlisle line, but were eventually displaced by the much more powerful Royal Scots during the 1940s.[4]

The power classification was 5XP, in common with the earlier Patriot class.[5] In January 1951 the classification was revised to 6P and in November 1955 to 6P5F but this change was not applied to the locomotives' cabsides, which continued to show 6P.[6]

Five members of the class were fitted with a double chimney at different times. 5684 Jutland was the first, fitted with a double Kylchap in 1937.[7] The double chimney did improve the power of the locos and also improved the coal consumption. It only carried this fitment for one year. 5742 Connaught was the next, being fitted with a plain double exhaust in 1940 which it carried until 1955.[7] 5553 Canada was also fitted in 1940 but carried the double chimney for a short time.[7] 5735 Comet and 5736 Phoenix were rebuilt with a 2A taper boiler and double chimney in 1942.[8] They were to have been the prototypes for the rebuilding of the entire class but were, in the end, the only Jubilees so to be treated. (They were reclassified 6P in July 1943,[9] and 7P in 1951).[10] As part of experiments at the Rugby Locomotive Testing Station, no. 45722 Defence was fitted with a double chimney from 1956 to 1957.[11] In 1961 a double exhaust was fitted to no. 45596 Bahamas which carried it through withdrawal and into preservation.[12]

ConstructionEdit

Although built over only a three-year period the class had many variations due to improvements being made as they were built. The major differences were:

  • Boilers – 10 variations, mainly affecting the number of tubes. The earlier boilers were domeless but later boilers were domed. There were two sizes of fire grate area depending on whether the firebox throatplate was straight or sloping.
  • Bogies – Approximately 50 of the earlier locomotives were built with ex-Claughton bogies which had a 6’3" wheelbase compared to the later locomotives built with new bogies that had a wheelbase of 6' 6".
  • Smokebox Saddle – The first 113 locomotives were built with a two piece saddle; the rest had a conventional one piece saddle.
  • Tenders – Four basic patterns were fitted; Fowler 3,500 gall. Fowler high-sided (10 off), Stanier 4,000 gall and Stanier 3,500 gall. These last tenders were difficult to identify, combining the high curved sides of the Stanier tender with the chassis from the earlier type Fowler tender. The easiest way to spot them is by the top row of horizontal rivets, slightly lower than on the 4,000 gall version. However, taking into account rivets, wheelbase, and welds this can be subdivided into a total of eight patterns.

PerformanceEdit

These locomotives had a bit of a mixed reception during their early working days, but while their reputation did improve over time, they didn't reach the same amount of praise as the Black 5 locomotives.[13] When the first members were built, the original 113 batch of engines to be precise, engine crews said that they were often disappointing. Crews often said that they were poor steamers and that the older locomotives that would be eventually replaced by them often performed better. However, once the problem with these engines was found and fixed after several extensive trials took place, that problem was the diameter of the blast pipe was too large for the engines to make proper steam, the Jubilees went from being a theoretical success to an actual success thanks to some modifications.[14][15][16]

WithdrawalEdit

No. 45637 Windward Islands was scrapped in 1952 due to accident damage. The remaining 188 locomotives were withdrawn between 1960 and 1967. The first of the standard withdrawals being 45609 Gilbert and Ellice Islands in September 1960 and the last engine to be withdrawn was No. 45562 Alberta from Leeds Holbeck shed (20A) on 4 November 1967. They were the last express engines from the Big Four days still in service.[17]

Table of withdrawals
Year Quantity in service at start of year Number withdrawn Quantity withdrawn Locomotive numbers
1952 189 1 1 45637
1960 188 2 1 45609
1961 187 5 3 45616/19/30
1962 184 46 41 45559/66/70/76/82/87/94, 45603/07/15/21/28/36/51/56/62/65/73/77–79/83/86–88/91–93, 45707/11/13/15/18/20/22/24–25/27–29/31
1963 143 77 31 45555/60/75/91, 45624–25/34/39/44–46/48–50/59/68–69/71/80, 45701–02/06/09/12/14/17/19/30/34/38/40
1964 112 141 64 45552–54/56–58/61/64/68–69/71–72/77–80/83–85/92/98–99, 45601/05–06/10–14/17–18/20/22–23/31/35/38/40–41/57/63/70/72/74/76/81–82/85/89–90/95–96/99, 45700/03/08/10/16/23/32–33/37/41
1965 48 174 33 45563/67/73/86/88–90/95/97, 45600/02/04/08/26/29/32–33/42/52–53/55/58/61/64/66–67/84/98, 45704–05/21/26/42
1966 15 182 7 45574/81/96, 45627/43/54/60
1967 8 189 8 45562/65/93, 45647/75/94/97, 45739

Accidents and incidentsEdit

  • On 21 January 1938, locomotive No. 5568 Western Australia was hauling an express passenger train which was in a head-on collision with an empty stock train at Oakley Junction due to a combination of driver and signalman's errors. Three people were killed and 46 were injured.[18]
  • On 11 October 1943 locomotive 5581 Bihar and Orissa hauling the Leeds - Edinburgh express collided with a freight train being shunted into sidings at Steeton, Yorkshire. No one was killed but four people were injured.[19][20]
  • On 18 May 1948, locomotives 5609 Gilbert and Ellice Islands (train loco) and 5605 Cyprus (pilot), hauling the 11:45 am down (St Pancras to Bradford) express were derailed, along with 8 coaches of a 12-coach train on a 30 ft high embankment near Wath Road Junction, Rotherham, Yorkshire. The cause was track distortion in hot weather. Poor track maintenance was a contributing factor. 8 people died and 56 were injured.[21] Both locos were recovered to Derby works[22] and returned to traffic following repairs.
  • On 8 October 1952, a three-train collision occurred at Harrow & Wealdstone station, Middlesex. Locomotive No. 45637 Windward Islands was one of two locomotives hauling an express passenger train which crashed into wreckage. A total of 112 people were killed and 340 were injured. This remains the worst peacetime rail crash in the United Kingdom. The locomotive was consequently scrapped due to damage sustained.
  • On 16 August 1953, locomotive No. 45699 Galatea was hauling a passenger train which became divided and was derailed at Kingsbury, Warwickshire due to a combination of defects on the locomotive and the condition of the track.[23]
  • On 20 July 1959, locomotive No. 45730 Ocean overran a signal and consequently crashed into Dock Junction Signal Box, London. Trains had to be handsignalled into and out of St Pancras station for several days afterwards.[24]
  • On 17 January 1964, No. 45695 Minotaur was involved in a head-on collision with a mail train and a freight train. The locomotive was deemed to be uneconomical to repair and was withdrawn and scrapped off-site.[25]

DetailsEdit

PreservationEdit

Four Jubilees have been preserved with two of them 45593 and 45596 being purchased directly from BR for preservation, the other two being rescued from Woodham Brothers. All four members of the class have operated in preservation and all have run on the main line. As of 2019 three members of the class are operational and all of them have main line certificates, the most recent engine being 45596 Bahamas following running in at Tyseley.

While three members of the class are operational the fourth engine 45593 Kolhapur is stored inside the shed at Tyseley Loco Works awaiting its turn in the overhaul queue.

A large number of parts were taken from sister engine 45562 Alberta, which was the subject matter of a few preservation attempts, one of them even tried to persuade Sir Billy Butlin to buy it, that failed before she was scrapped in 1968 and most parts exist on preserved sister engine Galatea.[26][27]

Note: Marked names indicate that the loco is not presently wearing them & Loco numbers in bold mean their current number.

Number Name Builder Built Withdrawn Service Life Location Owners Livery Condition Mainline Certified Photograph Notes
LMS BR
5593 45593 Kolhapur North British Locomotive Company Dec. 1934 Oct. 1967 32 Years, 10 months Tyseley Locomotive Works Tyseley Locomotive Works LMS Crimson Lake Static display, awaiting overhaul. No  
5596 45596 Bahamas North British Locomotive Company Jan. 1935 Jul. 1966 31 Years, 6 months Keighley and Worth Valley Railway Bahamas Locomotive Society BR Green, Late Crest Operational. Boiler ticket expires: 2027 Yes (2019–2026)   Only preserved Jubilee fitted with a double chimney
5690 45690 Leander Crewe Works Mar. 1936 Mar. 1964 28 Years Carnforth MPD Chris Beet BR Black, Early Emblem Operational, boiler ticket expires: 2024. Yes (2014–2021)   Black nameplate on fireman's side and red nameplate on driver's side.
5699 45699 (45627) *Galatea

Sierra Leone

Crewe Works Apr. 1936 Nov. 1964 28 Years, 7 months Carnforth MPD David Smith BR Green, Late Crest Operational, boiler ticket expires: 2023. Yes (2013–2023)   Presently disguised as scrapped classmate 45627 Sierra Leone.

GalleryEdit

Sound
info
help
5690 Leander at Boar's Head

Preservation photosEdit

Model railwaysEdit

Mainline Railways' catalogue included OO gauge LMS Jubilees with Fowler tenders in 1983; in LMS crimson, BR green and BR lined black liveries. Mainline also had a limited availability of other OO gauge Jubilee 5XPs the same year; an LMS crimson model of Leander and a BR green model of Orion.[28]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Whittaker, Nicholas (6 August 2015). Platform Souls: The Trainspotter as 20th-Century Hero. London, UK: Icon Books Limited. ISBN 9781848319905. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  2. ^ Devereux, Nigel. "GOLDEN JUBILEE". Heritage Railway. Mortons Media Group Ltd. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  3. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 23.
  4. ^ Hewitt, Sam (20 June 2019). "From the archive: Golden Jubilee". The Railway Hub. Mortons Media Group Ltd. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  5. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 5.
  6. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 38.
  7. ^ a b c Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 31.
  8. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 45.
  9. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 46.
  10. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 47.
  11. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, pp. 38–40.
  12. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, pp. 38, 40.
  13. ^ "Review: Jubilees & Black 5's". Locomotive Performance. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  14. ^ Robinson, Simon (31 August 2012). "History". Jubilees. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  15. ^ "6P5F & 7P 45552 – 45742 4-6-0 LMS Stanier Jubilee". Preserved British Steam Locomotives. WordPress.com. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  16. ^ Physick, Liam (25 November 2011). "Leander". Edge Hill Station. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  17. ^ Hewitt, Sam (20 June 2019). "From the archive: Golden Jubilee". The Railway Hub. Mortons Media Group Ltd. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  18. ^ Earnshaw, Alan (1989). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 5. Penryn: Atlantic Books. p. 26. ISBN 0-906899-35-4.
  19. ^ Railways in the Northern Dales -1. The Skipton & Ilkley Line. Wyvern. 1986. p. 24. ISBN 0-907941-25-7.
  20. ^ "Official photo from the Leeds Press Agency, 8 Oxford Row, Leeds 1". Leeds Press Agency. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  21. ^ http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/docsummary.php?docID=735
  22. ^ Binns, Donald (1987). Locomotive Classics 1 LMS Jubilee 4-6-0. Wyvern Publications. p. 30 top photo. ISBN 0907941273.
  23. ^ Earnshaw, Alan (1990). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 6. Penryn: Atlantic Books. p. 31. ISBN 0-906899-37-0.
  24. ^ Trevena, Arthur (1981). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 2. Redruth: Atlantic Books. p. 42. ISBN 0-906899 03 6.
  25. ^ Millward, Ken. "Minotaur's Final Journey". Manchester Locomotive Society. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  26. ^ "6P5F & 7P 45552 – 45742 4-6-0 LMS Stanier Jubilee". Preserved British Steam Locomotives. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  27. ^ Devereux, Nigel (20 June 2019). "From the archive: Golden Jubilee". The Railway Hub. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  28. ^ "Mainline's big plans for 1983". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. March 1983. pp. 36–7. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit