Lüleburgaz (Turkish: [lyˈlebuɾɡaz], Modern Greek: Λουλέ Μπουργκάς Lule Burgas, Bulgarian: Люлебургаз Lyuleburgaz), Bergoulion (Ancient Greek: Βεργούλιον) or Arcadiopolis (Ancient Greek: Αρκαδιόυπολις Arkadiópolis) is the largest city and district of Kırklareli Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. Located at the border with Bulgaria within the historic region of East Thrace in Rumelia, the city is typically home to Balkan Turks mainly from Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania and ex-Yugoslavia, that have immigrated to Turkey from the nineteenth century on.

Lüleburgaz
From top left: Mehmet Pasha Sokolović Mosque; Mehmet Pasha Sokolović bridge; Lüleburgaz railway station; Zindan Baba Türbesi; Congress Square; Panaroma of Lüleburgaz; Lüleburgaz museum
Coat of arms of Lüleburgaz
Lüleburgaz is located in Turkey
Lüleburgaz
Lüleburgaz
Lüleburgaz is located in Europe
Lüleburgaz
Lüleburgaz
Coordinates: 41°24′20″N 27°21′25″E / 41.40556°N 27.35694°E / 41.40556; 27.35694Coordinates: 41°24′20″N 27°21′25″E / 41.40556°N 27.35694°E / 41.40556; 27.35694
CountryTurkey
ProvinceKırklareli
Government
 • MayorMurat Gerenli (2019–2024) (CHP)
 • KaymakamSalih Yüce
Area
 • District1,017.79 km2 (392.97 sq mi)
Elevation
30 m (100 ft)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
105,279
 • District
137,872
 • District density140/km2 (350/sq mi)
Postal code
39750, 39770, 39780
ClimateHot-summer Mediterranean climate
Websitewww.luleburgaz.bel.tr

Economically, Lüleburgaz is an important centre of manufacturing for pharmaceutical and electronic industries, as well as agriculture. It is also a hub of road and rail transportation, with the city being connected to Istanbul and Edirne through the Istanbul-Kapikule Regional Train and to Plovdiv, Sofia, Belgrade, Bucharest and Budapest through Balkan Express and Bosphorus Express.

The city used to be the capital of the Roman province of Europa, established by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 294.

FactsEdit

The city has an urban population of 122,635 (2021 census) and is the largest district center in Kırklareli Province. It's known as the "Paris of Thrace" among the locals as it's relatively more developed and well known compared to other surrounding cities which are also administratively part of Kirklareli Province. Lüleburgaz is known for its sixteenth-century mosque and bridge, both named after the Grand Vizier Mehmet Paşa Sokolović and purportedly designed by the Ottoman chief architect Mimar Sinan.

HistoryEdit

 
The surrender and humiliation of Thomas the Slav in the Skylitzes manuscript.

The ancient name of the city was Bergula; Emperor Theodosius I changed it to Arcadiopolis in honour of his son and successor Arcadius. The city of Arcadiopolis fell to Attila the Hun during his campaign against the Eastern Roman Empire in 443 AD.

During the revolt of Thomas the Slav against Michael II, the city was the last refuge of Thomas after the defection of his troops in 823. Michael II invested the city and after more than five months of siege, the exhausted and starving troops delivered their leader in exchange for imperial pardon. Thomas was delivered up on a donkey and tortured.

The Battle of Arcadiopolis of 970 saw Byzantine forces defeat an invading Kievan-Pecheneg-Magyar force who were aiming to capture Constantinople, 100 miles (161 kilometres) to the east.

As the capital of the Roman province of Europa it had its own bishop, who was recorded as attending a number of important church councils and was noted as an autocephalous archbishopric by the seventh century. It is no longer a residential bishopric, although the Diocese of Arcadiopolis survives as a Roman Catholic titular see. Marcel Lefebvre, the founder of the Society of Saint Pius X, was one of its titular bishops.[3]

The Battle of Lule Burgas was fought between 28 October and 2 November 1912 as part of the First Balkan War. The city was occupied by the Greek army between 1920 and 1922, before joining to the Modern Turkish Republic.[4]

EconomyEdit

 
Coat of arms of the city of Lüleburgaz in 2019. It displays the Mehmet Pasha Sokolović Mosque (left) and factory chimneys (right), as well as a sunflower and wheat ears with the initials of the city and a European Union (EU) flag.

The economy of Lüleburgaz is mainly based on the industrial sector and agriculture. There are various factories around the city.

Pharmaceutical industryEdit

Pharmaceutical companies such as Sanofi-Aventis, Deva Holding A.S. and Zentiva has their main manufacturers within the urban area of Lüleburgaz.

AgricultureEdit

Widely grown crop in Lüleburgaz are wheat, corn, and sunflower, with the latter being one of the symbols of the city. Trakya Birlik, with its headquarters in the city, is one of the main sunflower oil producers in Turkey.

Glass productionEdit

The leading glass producer of Turkey, Şişecam, and its East Thracian division Trakya Cam owns a factory in Lüleburgaz.

SportEdit

In 2007, a women's football club, the Düvenciler Lisesispor was founded, which played in the Turkish Women's First Football League after promotion from the Second League. The team changed its name to Lüleburgaz 39 Spor and colors from yellow-black to red-green in 2011. The club ended its participation in the league in the 2013-14 season.[5]

CultureEdit

The city and the Battle of Lule Burgas are evoked by Marcel Proust in his Time Regained, the final chapter of Remembrance of Things Past, published in 1927.

The festival of koliada is historically celebrated in the city in the month of January.[6]

MediasEdit

The city of Lüleburgaz is home to several local media agencies. The centre-left Lüleburgaz Görünüm Gazetesi and Lüleburgaz Haber could be mentioned among them.

PoliticsEdit

The center-left, secular and pro-European Republican People's Party (CHP) dominates the politics of the city. Lüleburgaz emerges as one of the most pro-European cities of Turkey; mayoral candidates advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. In the 2017 Turkish constitutional referendum, 72.89% of the population of Lüleburgaz had voted "no".[7] In the 2018 Turkish general election the most popular party was the CHP which received 51.38% of the vote. The liberal democratic Nation Alliance received 64.80% of the votes in the city.[8] In the 2019 Turkish local elections the most popular candidate was Murat Gerenli of the CHP which received 66.55% of the vote.[9]

Famous residentsEdit

 
Candan Erçetin, 2015

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Lüleburgaz is twinned with:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ Listing on Catholic-hierarchy.org
  4. ^ Arslan, Ali (2010). Kasabadan kente bir Cumhuriyet yürüyüşü: Lüleburgaz; II. Kitap, Ekonomi ve Siyaset Tarihi. Görünüm Yayinlari.
  5. ^ "Bu görüntü mazide kaldı". Görünüm Gazetesi (in Turkish). 2013-08-24. Archived from the original on 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-06.
  6. ^ "Mandıra'da 'korkunç' gece". Görünüm Gazetesi. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  7. ^ "2017 Turkiye Geneli Referandum Sonuclari". NTV. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  8. ^ "Kirklareli 24 Haziran (2018) Secim Sonuclari ve Kazanan Milletvekilleri". Sozcu. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  9. ^ "Kirklareli Luleburgaz Secim Sonuclari: 31 Mart 2019". Sozcu. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  10. ^ "Candan Erçetin Lüleburgaz'daki Sanat Akademisi'ni inceledi: "Lüleburgaz çok önemli bir cazibe merkezi olabilir"". Mahalli Gündem. Retrieved 31 January 2022.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit