Lê Thánh Tông

Lê Thánh Tông (25 August 1442 – 3 March 1497), personal name Lê Hạo, temple name Thánh Tông, courtesy name Tư Thành, was an emperor of Đại Việt, reigned from 1460 to 1497, the fifth monarch of the House of Lê Duy and is one of the greatest monarchs in Vietnamese history. He came to power through a coup d'état against his second brother Lê Nghi Dân in 1460. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, education, and fiscal reforms he instituted, and a cultural revolution that replaced the old traditional aristocracy with a generation of literati scholars. His era was eulogized as the Prospered reign of Hồng Đức.

Lê Thánh Tông
黎聖宗
Emperor of Đại Việt
Lê Thánh Tông.jpg
5th Emperor of the Le Dynasty
Reign26 June 1460 – 3 March 1497 (36 years, 250 days)
PredecessorLê Nghi Dân
SuccessorLê Hiến Tông
BornLê Tư Thành ()
(1442-08-25)25 August 1442
Died3 March 1497(1497-03-03) (aged 54)
Burial
Chiêu Tomb, Lam Kinh [vi], Đại Việt
SpouseNguyễn Thị Huyên
Issue
  • Crown Prince Lê Tranh
  • Prince Lê Tân
  • Prince Le Tung
  • Prince Lê Tranh
  • Prince Lê Cảo
  • Prince Lê Thông
  • Prince Lê Táo
  • Prince Lê Tương
  • Princess Lê Thanh Toại
  • Prince Lê Chiêu
  • Prince Lê Cảnh
  • Prince Lê Thoan
  • Prince Lê Kinh
  • Prince Lê Kiện
  • Princess Lê Oánh Ngọc
  • Princess Lê Minh Kính
  • Princess Lê Triệt San
  • Princess Lê Bính Hiểu
  • Princess Lê Lan Khuê
  • Princess Lê Bảo Huyền
  • Princess Lê Lệ Khanh
  • Princess Lê Lan Đường
  • Princess Lê Cẩm Thương
  • Princess Lê Mỹ Thuần
Names
Lê Tư Thành (黎思誠)
Era name and dates
Quang Thuận (光順)(Follower of Light): 1460–1469
Hồng Đức (洪德)(lit. Man of Great Virtue): 1470–1497
Posthumous name
Sùng Thiên Quảng Vận Cao Minh Quang Chính Chí Đức Đại Công Thánh Văn Thần Vũ Đạt Hiếu Thuần Hoàng đế
(崇天廣運高明光正至德大功聖文神武達孝淳皇帝)
Temple name
Thánh Tông (聖宗)
DynastyLê Dynasty
FatherLê Thái Tông
MotherNgô Thị Ngọc Dao
Personal name
VietnameseLê Hạo
Hán-Nôm
Temple name
Vietnamese alphabetLê Thánh Tông
Hán-Nôm

Early lifeEdit

Lê Thánh Tông's birth name is Lê Hạo (黎灝), courtesy name Tư Thành (思誠), pseudonym Đạo Am chủ nhân (道庵主人), rhymed name Tao Đàn nguyên súy (騷壇元帥), formal title Thiên Nam động chủ (天南洞主), was the fourth son of emperor Lê Thái Tông and his consort Ngô Thị Ngọc Dao. He was the fourth grandson of Lê Lợi,[1] the half-brother of Lê Nhân Tông and it is likely that his mother and consort Nguyễn Thị Anh (the mother of Lê Nhân Tông) were related (cousins or perhaps sisters). When Hạo was three years old, he was brought to the royal palace and was educated just like his half brother, the ruling emperor Lê Nhân Tông, and other brothers, Lê Khắc Xương and Lê Nghi Dân in Hanoi.[2] When his elder half brother, Lê Nghi Dân, staged a coup and killed the emperor and the queen in late 1459, Prince Hạo was spared.[3] Nghi Dân proclaimed himself emperor. Nine months later, a second counter-coup against Lê Nghi Dân led by two military leaders Nguyễn Xí and Đinh Liệt successfully carried out, and Nghi Dân was killed in the royal palace.[3] The plotters asked Prince Hạo to become the new emperor and he accepted. Two days after Lê Nghi Dân's death, Lê Hạo was proclaimed emperor.[3]

The leaders of the counter-coup which removed and killed Nghi Dân were two of the last surviving friends and aides of Lê Lợi - Nguyễn Xí and Đinh Liệt. The pair had been out of power since the 1440s, but they still commanded respect due to their association with the dynasty's founder, Lê Lợi. The new emperor appointed these men to the highest positions in his new government: Nguyễn Xí became one of the emperor's councilors, and Đinh Liệt was gifted command over the royal army of Đại Việt.

ReignEdit

Bureaucratic reformsEdit

 
Seal of emperor Le Thanh Ton

Lê Thánh Tông introduced reforms designed to replace the Thanh Hoá oligarchy of Dai Viet's southern region with a corps of bureaucrats selected through the Confucian civil service examinations.[4] Following the Chinese model, he divided the government into six ministries: Finance, Rites, Justice, Personnel, Army, and Public Works.[5] Nine grades of rank were set up for both the civil administration and the military.[1] A Board of Censors was set up with royal authority to monitor governmental officials and report exclusively to the emperor. However, governmental authority did not extend all the way to the village level.[6] The villages were ruled by their own councils.[6]

In 1469, all of Dai Viet was mapped and a full census, listing all the villages in the kingdom, was taken. Around this time, the country was divided into 13 dao (provinces).[7] Each was administrated by a Governor, a Judge, and the local army commander. Thánh Tông also ordered that a new census should be taken every six years.[8] Other public works that were undertaken included building and repair of granaries, using the army to rebuild and repair irrigation systems after floods, and sending out doctors to areas afflicted by outbreaks of disease. Even though the emperor, at 25, was relatively young, he had already restored Dai Viet's stability, which was a marked contrast from the turbulent times marking the reigns of the two emperors before him. By 1471, the kingdom employed more than 5,300 officials (0.1 percent of the population) into the bureaucrat army, equally divided between the court and the provinces, with at least one supervising officer every three villages.[8]

A national-wide census was conducted in 1490, reported approximately 8,000 village-level jurisdictions throughout the country including the thirty-six urban wards that lay between the royal compound and the Red River at Dong Kinh, the only city in the country;[9][10] with the total population was approximately 4.4 million people, the Red River delta had been the most densely inhabited region of Southeast Asia in the early-modern era.[11][12]

The new government proved to be effective and represented a successful adaptation of the Chinese Confucian system of government outside of China. However, following the deaths of Thánh Tông and of his son and successor, Lê Hiến Tông (r. 1498–1504), this new model of government crashed not once but twice in the next three following centuries.[1]

Legal reforms and a new national lawEdit

 
A Chu Đậu Blue and white patterns dish, was made during the reign of Lê Thánh Tông. Musée Guimet, Paris.

In 1483 Lê Thánh Tông created a new code for Đại Việt, called the Hồng Đức Code, which is Vietnam's National Treasures and is kept in the National Library in form of woodblocks No A.314.

The new laws were

"based on Chinese law but included distinctly Vietnamese features, such as recognition of the higher position of women in Vietnamese society than in Chinese society. Under the new code, parental consent was not required for marriage, and daughters were granted equal inheritance rights with sons. U.S. Library of Congress Country Studies – Vietnam

Economic policyEdit

 
Ewer in shape of a dragon made in Chu Đậu, Vietnam during the years of 1460–1497, Cleveland Museum of Art
 
Coins issued by Emperor Lê Thánh Tông during his later reign from 1469 to 1497

During the reign of Thánh Tông, Vietnamese export porcelains from Hải Dương kilns were found as far as West Asia.[13] Trowulan, capital of Majapahit, has yielded numerous Vietnamese ceramic products of the fifteenth century.[13] However, he took an unfavorable view toward international trade, and emphasized for a national self-sustaining economy based on agriculture.[14]

In 1461 he warned the provincial officials not to pursue the insignificant trade/commerce to ensure internal welfare and prohibit foreigners from entering the kingdom. He also introduced a marketplaces code to standardize weights and measures. In 1469 he nationalized gunpowder and weapons.[15] After the defeat of Champa in 1471, he sent large groups of ethnic Vietnamese, including prisoners and criminals, to settle in the new conquered territories. Lands were distributed fair equally, bureaucrats and military garrisons were set up to help people in the new provinces. The fall of Champa enabled the Vietnamese to monopolize Central Highlands' products which most desired in international markets.[16] At the end of 15th century, Vietnamese civilization had reached its zenith in prosperity.[16]

Education policyEdit

 
First page of an essay to encourage people study Confucian literature, written by Thánh Tông

Thánh Tông encouraged the spread of Confucian values throughout the kingdom by having temples of literature built in all the provinces. There, Confucius was venerated and classic works on Confucianism could be found. He also halted the building of any new Buddhist or Taoist temples and ordered that monks were not to be allowed to purchase any new land.[17]

During his reign, Vietnamese Confucian scholarship had reached its golden era, with over 501 tiến sĩ (royal scholars) graduated,[8] out of the total 2,896 tiến sĩ graduated from 1076 to 1911.[10] In 1460, he ordered Confucian scholar Ngô Sĩ Liên (1401–1489) to compile an official national history book, and in 1479 the chronicle Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư was finished, and was presented to the emperor.[18]

 
Stele dated 1478 inscribes names of graduated scholars

Foreign relationsEdit

Ming ChinaEdit

During the reign of Thánh Tông, two related events put the Ming tributary system to the test. The first was the final destruction of Champa in 1471, and the other, the invasion of Laos between 1479 and 1481. After destroying Champa in 1471, the Vietnamese informed the Ming court that the fall of Champa's ruling house had come about as "a result of civil war."[19] In 1472, as Vietnamese pirates attacked Chinese and merchant ships in Hainan and the coast of Guangzhou, the Ming emperor called on Thánh Tông to end such activities. The court of Đại Việt denied its people would do such things.[20]

Article 344 of the Nguyen dynasty code and Article 305 of the Le dynasty code both forbade self-castration and castration of Vietnamese men.[21] Self-castration of Vietnamese men was banned by Lê Thánh Tông, the emperor, in 1464.[22]

The Vietnamese under Emperor Le Thanh Tong cracked down on foreign contacts and enforced an isolationist policy. A large amount of trade between Guangdong (Leizhou Peninsula and Hainan) and Vietnam happened during this time. Early accounts recorded that the Vietnamese captured Chinese whose ships had blown off course and detained them. Young Chinese men were selected by the Vietnamese for castration to become eunuch slaves to the Vietnamese. It has been speculated by modern historians that Chinese who were captured and castrated by the Vietnamese were involved in regular trade between China and Vietnam instead of being blown off course, and that they were punished after a Vietnamese crackdown on trade with foreign countries.[23][24]

A 1499 entry in the Ming Shilu recorded that thirteen Chinese men from Wenchang including a young man named Wu Rui were captured by the Vietnamese after their ship was blown off course while traveling from Hainan to Guangdong's Qin subprefecture (Qinzhou), after which they ended up near the coast of Vietnam, in the 1460s, during the Chenghua Emperor's rule (1464–1487). Twelve of them were enslaved to work as agricultural laborers, while the youngest Chinese man, Wu Rui (吳瑞) was selected by the Vietnamese court for castration since he was the only young man in among the thirteen and he became a eunuch at the Vietnamese imperial palace in Thang Long for nearly one fourth of a century. After years of serving the Vietnamese as a eunuch slave in the palace, he was promoted to a position with real power after the death of the Vietnamese ruler in 1497 to a military position in northern Vietnam as military superintendent since his service in the palace was apparently valued by the Vietnamese. However the Lạng Sơn guard soldier Dương Tam tri (Yang Sanzhi) (楊三知) told him of an escape route back to China and Wu Rui escaped to Longzhou after walking for 9 days through the mountains. The local ethnic minority Tusi chief Wei Chen took him into custody, overruling objections from his family who wanted to send him back to Vietnam. Vietnam found out about his escape and sent an agent to buy Wu Rui back from Wei Chen with 100 Jin in payment since they were scared that Wu Rui would reveal Vietnamese state secrets to China. Wei Chen planned to sell him back to the Vietnamese but told them the amount they were offering was too little and demanded more however before they could agree on a price, Wu was rescued by the Pingxiang magistrate Li Guangning and then was sent to Beijing to work as a eunuch in the Ming palace at the Directorate of Ceremonial (silijian taijian 司禮監太監).[25][26][27][28][29][30] The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư records that in 1467 in An Bang province of Dai Viet (now Quảng Ninh Province) a Chinese ship blew off course onto the shore. The Chinese were detained and not allowed to return to China as ordered by Le Thanh Tong.[31][32][33][34][35] This incident may be the same one where Wu Rui was captured.[26]

Several Malay envoys from the Malacca sultanate were attacked and captured in 1469 by Vietnamese navy as they were returning to Malacca from China. The Vietnamese enslaved and castrated the young from among the captured.[36][37][38][39][40][41]

A 1472 entry in the Ming Shilu reported that some Chinese from Nanhai escaped back to China after their ship had been blown off course into Vietnam, where they had been forced to serve as soldiers in Vietnam's military. The escapees also reported that they found out that more than 100 Chinese men remained captives in Vietnam after they were caught and castrated by the Vietnamese after their ships were blown off course into Vietnam in other incidents. The Chinese Ministry of Revenue responded by ordering Chinese civilians and soldiers to stop going abroad to foreign countries.[42][43] These 100 men were taken prisoner around the same time as Wu Rui and the historian Leo K. Shin believes all of them may have been involved in illegal trade instead of being blown off course by wind.[44] The over 100 Chinese men who were castrated and made into eunuchs by the Vietnamese remained captives in Vietnam when the incident was reported. Both the incidents of the young Chinese man Wu Rui and the more than 100 Chinese men being castrated and used as eunuchs point to possible involvement in trade according to historians John K. Whitmore and Tana Li which was then suppressed by the Vietnamese government instead of them really being blown off course by the wind.[30] China's relations with Vietnam during this period were marked by the punishment of prisoners by castration.[45][46]

ChampaEdit

 
The kingdom of Đại Việt during the reign of Lê Thánh Tông

In 1470, a Cham army numbered 100,000 under king Maha Sajan arrived and besieged the Vietnamese garrison at Huế. The local commander sent appeals to Hanoi for help.[47] Champa was defeated and the balance of power between the Cham and the Vietnamese for more than 500 years came to an end. The Ming annals recorded that in 1485 that "Champa is a distant and dangerous place, and Annam is still employing troops there."[48]

Laos and BurmaEdit

 
Map shows the Vietnamese conquest and immigration to the south (Nam tiến).

Back in 1448, the Vietnamese had annexed the land of Muang Phuan in what is today the Plain of Jars in northeastern Laos, and Thánh Tông made that territory a prefecture of Đại Việt in 1471.[48] Began in 1478, Thánh Tông felt it was the time to take his revenge on King Chakkaphat of Laos, he collected his army along the Annamite border in preparation for an invasion.[49] Around the same time a white elephant had been captured and brought to King Chakkaphat. The elephant being a potent symbol of kingship was common throughout Southeast Asia, and Thánh Tông requested the animal's hair to be brought as a gift to the Đại Việt court. The request was seen as an affront, and according to legend a box filled with dung was sent instead.[49] Thánh Tông also realized that Laos was expanding its authority over Tai peoples who had previously acknowledged Vietnamese suzerainty and had regularly paid tribute to Đại Việt. Thus, the campaigns to reassert Dai Viet's authority over the Tai tribes led to the invasion of Laos.[50]

In fall 1479, Thánh Tông led an army of 180,000 men marched westward, attacked Muang Phuan, Lan Xang and Nan.[51] Luang Phabang was captured and the Laotian ruler Chakkaphat was killed. His forces pushed further to the upper Irrawaddy River, around Kengtung in modern-day Myanmar.[51] In 1482 Momeik borrowed troops of Dai Viet to invade Hsenwi and Lan Na.[51] By November 1484, his forces had withdrawn back to Dai Viet.[48][52] According to the Ming Shilu, in 1488 Burmese Ava embassy in China complained about Dai Viet's incursion into its territory. In the next year (1489) the Ming court sent envoys to admonish Dai Viet to stop.[51]

Other regional powers and piratesEdit

According to the Ming Shilu, Thánh Tông led ninety thousand troops to invade Lan Xang but was chased by the troops of the Malacca Sultanate, who killed thirty thousand Vietnamese soldiers.[53] In 1485, envoys of Champa, Lan Xang, Melaka, Ayutthaya, and Java arrived Dai Viet.[54] In 1470 he sent an anti-pirate expedition in the Gulf of Tonkin, secured the maritime transit.[15] Also in 1475, pirates from Ryukyu Islands and Champa raided the port of Qui Nhơn.[55] In 1480 a battle occurred on the Vietnamese coast between Vietnamese and a shipwrecked Ryukyuan ship.[56][57][58] The Ming received a message requesting aid by Lan Song in 1481 against the Vietnamese invasion.[59] Lê Thánh Tông claimed as tributaries the countries of Melaka, Java, Siam, Laos and Champa in "The Regulations concerning Tribute Missions from Vassals to the Imperial Capital" (Chư phiên sứ thần triều cống kinh quốc lệ) in 1485. The Tusi system was used to rule "barbarian" ethnic minorities in peripheral and mountain border areas.[60][61]

As a poetEdit

 
Blue and white bowl with dragon decoration, during Lê Thánh Tông's years (1460-1497). Metropolitan Museum of Art

A group of 28 poets was formally recognized by the court (the Tao Dan) Lê Thánh Tông himself was a poet and some of his poem has survived. He wrote the following at the start of his campaign against the Champa:

One hundred thousand officers and men,
Start out on a distant journey.
Falling on the sails, the rain

Softens the sounds of the army.

FamilyEdit

  1. Empress Huy Gia (Empress Truong Lac) Nguyễn Thị Hằng of Nguyen Clan (徽嘉皇后阮氏; 1441 - 1505)
    1. Crown Prince Le Tranh, so Emperor Lê Hiến Tông
  2. Empress Nhu Huy of Phung clan (柔徽皇后馮氏; 1444 - 1489)
    1. Prince Le Tan, father of Emperor Lê Tương Dực
  3. Imperial Consort Minh of Pham clan (明妃范氏; 1448 - 1498)
    1. Prince Le Tung
    2. Princess Loi Y Lê Oánh Ngọc (雷懿公主黎莹玉)
    3. Princess Lan Minh Lê Lan Khuê (兰明公主黎兰圭; 1470 - 14??)
  4. Imperial Consort Kinh of Nguyen clan (敬妃阮氏; 1444 - 1485)
    1. Princess Minh Kinh Lê Thụy Hoa (明敬公主黎瑞华)
  5. Consort Nguyen thi (貴妃阮氏)
    1. Prince Le Thoan
  6. Lady Nguyen (修容阮氏)
  7. Lady Nguyen (才人阮氏; 1444 - 1479)
    1. Prince Lê Tranh

Lê Thánh Tông may have had Cham women as concubines, dancers and singers in his court.[62]

AncestryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c Whitmore 2016, p. 200.
  2. ^ Taylor 2013, p. 205.
  3. ^ a b c Taylor 2013, p. 204.
  4. ^ Baldanza 2016, p. 84.
  5. ^ Taylor 2013, p. 213.
  6. ^ a b SarDesai 1988, p. 35-37.
  7. ^ Bridgman 1840, p. 210.
  8. ^ a b c Kiernan 2019, p. 205.
  9. ^ Li 2018, p. 169.
  10. ^ a b Taylor 2013, p. 206.
  11. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 212.
  12. ^ Li 2018, p. 171.
  13. ^ a b Miksic & Yian 2016, p. 525.
  14. ^ Hall 2011, p. 247.
  15. ^ a b Hall 2011, p. 248.
  16. ^ a b Hall 1999, p. 269.
  17. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 208.
  18. ^ Yi 2006, p. 46.
  19. ^ Wang 1998, p. 327-328.
  20. ^ Whitmore 2011, p. 109.
  21. ^ Pastoetter, Ph.D., Jakob (2004). "Vietnam (Cộng hoà Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam) (Socialist Republic of Vietnam)". In Francoeur, Robert T.; Noonan, Raymond J. (eds.). The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. Updates by J. Pastoetter; contributor Beldina Opiyo-Omolo (illustrated, revised ed.). A&C Black. p. 1350. ISBN 0826414885. D. Homosexuality and Vietnamese Law Proschan (Aronson 1999; "Frank" 2000) writes that neither homosexual identity nor behaviors had ... a prohibition of castration and selfcastration (Le Code, Article 305; Nguyen Code, Article 344).
  22. ^ Nguy~en, Ngọg Huy (1987). The Lê Code: Law in Traditional Vietnam : a Comparative Sino-Vietnamese Legal Study with Historical-juridical Analysis and Annotations, Volume 2. The Lê Code: Law in Traditional Vietnam : a Comparative Sino-Vietnamese Legal Study with Historical-juridical Analysis and Annotations, Văn Tài Tạ. Ohio University Press. p. 174. ISBN 0821406302. Law in Traditional Vietnam : a Comparative Sino-Vietnamese Legal Study with Historical-juridical Analysis and Annotations Ngọg Huy Nguy~en ... In 1464 Emperor Lê Thánh Tông warned people against reckless selfcastration ( TT 3 : 189 ) .
  23. ^ 黄啟臣 (16 March 2008). "明代广东海上丝绸之路的高度发展". 國學網--中國經濟史論壇(China Economic History Forum). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  24. ^ 李慶新. "貿易、移殖與文化交流:15-17 世紀廣東人與越南" (PDF). 廣東省社會科學院歷史研究所 南開大學中國社會歷史研究中心. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 此外,沿海平民在海上航行或捕撈漁獵,遇風漂流至越南者時有發生。如成化十三年, 廣東珠池奉御陳彜奏:南海縣民遭風飄至安南被編入軍隊及被閹禁者超過 100 人。5成化中, 海南文昌人吳瑞與同鄉劉求等 13 人到欽州做生意,遇風飄至安南,當局將他們"俱發屯田, 以瑞獨少,宮之"。6... 6《明孝宗實錄》卷一百五十三,弘治十二年八月辛卯。
  25. ^ Shin, Leo K. (2007). "5 | Ming China and Its Border with Annam". In Lary, Diana (ed.). The Chinese State at the Borders (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0774813334. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  26. ^ a b Cooke (2011), p. 109 The Tongking Gulf Through History, p. 109, at Google Books
  27. ^ Wade 2005, p. 2704/05
  28. ^ "首页 > 06史藏-1725部 > 03别史-100部 > 47-明实录孝宗实录-- > 146-明孝宗敬皇帝实录卷之一百五十三". 明實錄 (Ming Shilu) (in Chinese). Retrieved 5 January 2013. [ https://ctext.org/wiki.pl?if=gb&chapter=969669 Simplified Chinese:○金星昼见于辰位○辛卯吴瑞者广东文昌县人成化中与同乡刘求等十三人于钦州贸易遭风飘至安南海边罗者得之送本国求等俱发屯田以瑞独少宫之弘治十年国王黎灏卒瑞往东津点军得谅山卫军杨三知归路缘山行九日达龙州主头目韦琛家谋告守备官送还琛不欲久之安南国知之恐泄其国事遣探儿持百金为赎琛少之议未决而凭祥州知州李广宁闻之卒兵夺送于分守官都御史邓廷瓒遣送至京礼部请罪琛为边人之戒奖广宁为土官之劝从之瑞送司礼监给役 Traditional Chinese:○金星晝見於辰位○辛卯吳瑞者廣東文昌縣人成化中與同鄉劉求等十三人於欽州貿易遭風飄至安南海邊羅者得之送本國求等俱發屯田以瑞獨少宮之弘治十年國王黎灝卒瑞往東津點軍得諒山衛軍楊三知歸路緣山行九日達龍州主頭目韋琛家謀告守備官送還琛不欲久之安南國知之恐洩其國事遣探兒持百金為贖琛少之議未決而憑祥州知州李廣寧聞之卒兵奪送於分守官都御史鄧廷瓚遣送至京禮部請罪琛為邊人之戒獎廣寧為土官之勸從之瑞送司禮監給役] {{cite book}}: External link in |quote= (help)
  29. ^ 《明孝宗实录》卷一五三,弘治十二年八月辛卯
  30. ^ a b Li (2015), p. 202 Imperial China and Its Southern Neighbours, p. 202, at Google Books
  31. ^ Cooke (2011), p. 108 The Tongking Gulf Through History, p. 108, at Google Books
  32. ^ PGS.TSKH Nguyễn Hải Kế(Associate Professor Dr. Nguyen Hai Ke) (28 March 2013). "CÓ MỘT VÂN ĐỒN Ở GIỮA YÊN BANG, YÊN QUẢNG KHÔNG TĨNH LẶNG". 广州日报大洋网(www.dayoo.com). Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
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  41. ^ "首页 > 06史藏-1725部 > 03别史-100部 > 49-明实录宪宗实录-- > 203-大明宪宗纯皇帝实录卷之二百十九". 明實錄 (Ming Shilu) (in Chinese). Retrieved 26 July 2013. Simplified Chinese:○满剌加国使臣端亚妈剌的那查等奏成化五年本国使臣微者然那入贡还至当洋被风漂至安南国微者然那与其傔从俱为其国所杀其余黥为官奴而幼者皆为所害又言安南据占城城池欲并吞满剌加之地本国以皆为王臣未敢兴兵与战适安南使臣亦来朝端亚妈剌的那查乞与廷辨兵部尚书陈钺以为此已往事不必深校宜戒其将来 上乃因安南使臣还谕其王黎灏曰尔国与满剌加俱奉正朔宜修睦结好藩屏王室岂可自恃富强以干国典以贪天祸满剌加使臣所奏朝廷虽未轻信尔亦宜省躬思咎畏天守法自保其国复谕满剌加使臣曰自古圣王之驭四夷不追咎于既往安南果复侵陵尔国宜训练士马以御之 Traditional Chinese:○滿剌加國使臣端亞媽剌的那查等奏成化五年本國使臣微者然那入貢還至當洋被風漂至安南國微者然那與其傔從俱為其國所殺其餘黥為官奴而幼者皆為所害又言安南據占城城池欲併吞滿剌加之地本國以皆為王臣未敢興兵與戰適安南使臣亦來朝端亞媽剌的那查乞與廷辨兵部尚書陳鉞以為此已往事不必深校宜戒其將來 上乃因安南使臣還諭其王黎灝曰爾國與滿剌加俱奉正朔宜修睦結好藩屏王室豈可自恃富強以幹國典以貪天禍滿剌加使臣所奏朝廷雖未輕信爾亦宜省躬思咎畏天守法自保其國複諭滿剌加使臣曰自古聖王之馭四夷不追咎于既往安南果複侵陵爾國宜訓練士馬以禦之
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  43. ^ "首页 > 06史藏-1725部 > 03别史-100部 > 49-明实录宪宗实录-- > 106-明宪宗纯皇帝实录卷之一百六". 明實錄 (Ming Shilu) (in Chinese). Retrieved 5 January 2013. Simplified Chinese:○癸亥广东守珠池奉御陈彝奏南海县民为风飘至安南国被其国王编以为军其后逸归言中国人飘泊被留及所为阉禁者百余人奏下户部请移文巡抚镇守等官禁约军民人等毋得指以□贩私通番国且令守珠军人设法堤备从之 Traditional Chinese:○癸亥廣東守珠池奉禦陳彝奏南海縣民為風飄至安南國被其國王編以為軍其後逸歸言中國人飄泊被留及所為閹禁者百余人奏下戶部請移文巡撫鎮守等官禁約軍民人等毋得指以□販私通番國且令守珠軍人設法堤備從之 {{cite book}}: External link in |quote= (help)
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  52. ^ Sun 2006, p. 103.
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  55. ^ Whitmore 2011, p. 111.
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  • The second part is based in part on the Library of Congress Country studies for Vietnam
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  • Bridgman, Elijah Coleman (1840). Chronology of Tonkinese Kings. Harvard University. pp. 205–212. ISBN 978-1-377-64408-0.
  • Buttinger, Joseph (1967). Vietnam: a Dragon Embattled: Vietnam at war. Praeger.
  • Coedès, George (2015), The Making of South East Asia (RLE Modern East and South East Asia), Taylor & Francis
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  • ——— (2011). A History of Early Southeast Asia: Maritime Trade and Societal Development, 100–1500. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-742-56762-7.
  • Kiernan, Ben (2019). Việt Nam: a history from earliest time to the present. Oxford University Press.
  • Lary, Diana (2007). Lary, Diana (ed.). The Chinese State at the Borders (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. ISBN 978-0774813334.
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  • Li, Tana (2015). "8 EPIDEMICS, TRADE, AND LOCAL WORSHIP IN VIETNAM, LEIZHOU PENINSULA, AND HAINAN ISLAND". In Mair, Victor H; Kelley, Liam (eds.). Imperial China and Its Southern Neighbours. CHINA SOUTHEAST ASIA History (illustrated, reprint ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-9814620536. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
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  • Loke, Alexander; Chen-Wishart, Mindy; Vogenauer, Stefan, eds. (2018). Formation and Third Party Beneficiaries. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-192-53564-1.
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Further readingEdit

  • Maybon, Charles B.; Russier, Henri (1921), Lectures Sur L'histoire D'Annam: Depuis L'avènement Des Lê Suivies de Notions Élémentaires D'administration, Impr. d'Extrême-Orient

External linksEdit

  Media related to Lê Thánh Tông at Wikimedia Commons

Preceded by Emperor of Đại Việt
(ruled from 1460 to 1497)

1442–1497
Succeeded by