Kyrgyz alphabets

The Kyrgyz alphabets (Kyrgyz: Кыргыз алфавити, romanizedKyrgyz alfaviti, قىرعىز الفابىتى, Yañalif: Qьrƣьz alfaviti, Kyrgyz pronunciation: [qɯrˈɢɯz ɑɫfɑˈviti]) are the alphabets used to write the Kyrgyz language. The Kyrgyz language uses the following alphabets:

Kazakh Arabic Script as developed by the father of Kazakh linguistics, Akhmet Baitursynov.

The Arabic script was traditionally used to write Kyrgyz before the introduction of the first Latin-based alphabets in 1927. Today an Arabic alphabet is used in China.[1] The New Turkic Alphabet was used in the USSR in the 1930s until its replacement by a Cyrillic script. The Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet is the alphabet used in Kyrgyzstan. It contains 36 letters: 33 from the Russian alphabet with 3 additional letters for sounds of the Kyrgyz language: Ң, Ү, Ө.

Correspondence chartEdit

Correspondence chart of four Kyrgyz alphabets: the Kyrgyz Cyrillic and Kyrgyz Braille alphabets used in Kyrgyzstan, the Kyrgyz Latin alphabet used 1928–1938 in Kyrgyzstan and the Kyrgyz Arabic alphabet used in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Xinjiang, China. In this correspondence chart, the Cyrillic alphabet is written in its official order. The Arabic and Latin equivalents are not written in their official alphabetical orders but have been listed around the Cyrillic for ease of understanding.

Comparison of Kyrgyz Alphabets[2]
Cyrillic Name Braille Arabic[2] Transliteration
(BGN/PCGN)
Transliteration
(Developed by PAU)
Latin
(1928–⁠1938)
IPA transcription
А а а (a) ا A a A a A a /ɑ/
Б б бе (be) ب B b B b B ʙ /b/
В в ве (v) ۋ V v V v V v /v/, /w/
Г г ге (ge) گ
غ*
G g G g, Ğ ğ G g, Ƣ ƣ /ɡ/, /ʁ/, /ɢ/
Д д де (de) د D d D d D d /d/
Е е e (e) ە E e E e E e /e/
Ё ё ё (ë) ي+و(يو) Yo yo Yo yo Jo jo /jo/
Ж ж же (zhe) ج J j J j Ç ç (Ƶ ƶ from 1938) /d͡ʒ/, both /d͡ʒ/ and /ʒ/ since 1938
З з зе (ze) ز Z z Z z Z z /z/
И и и (i) ى I i İ i I i /i/
Й й ий (iy) ي Y y Y y J j /j/
К к кa (ka) ك
ق*
K k K k, Q q K k, Q q /k/, /q/, /χ/
Л л эл (el) ل L l L l L l /l/, /ɫ/
М м эм (em) م M m M m M m /m/
Н н эн (en) ن N n N n N n /n/
Ң ң ың (yng) ڭ Ng ng Ñ ñ /ŋ/, /ɴ/
О о о (o) و O o O o O o /o/
Ө ө ө (ö) ۅ Ö ö Ö ö Ɵ ɵ /ø/
П п пe (pe) پ P p P p P p /p/
Р р эр (er) ر R r R r R r /r/
С с эс (es) س S s S s S s /s/
Т т те (te) ت T t T t T t /t/
У у у (u) ۇ U u U u U u /u/
Ү ү ү (ü) ۉ Ü ü Ü ü Y y /y/
Ф ф эф (ef) ف F f F f F f /f/
Х х ха (kha) ح H h H h H h /χ/, /k/
Ц ц це (tse) (ت+س (تس C c C c Ts ts /t͡s/
Ч ч че (che) چ Ch ch Ç ç C c /t͡ʃ/
Ш ш ша (sha) ش Sh sh Ş ş Ş ş /ʃ/
Щ щ ща (shcha) - Shch shch Şç şç Şc şc /ʃt͡ʃ/, /ʃː/
Ъ ъ ажыратуу белгиси (azhyratuu belgisi) - - - *[3]
Ы ы ы (y) ى Y y I ı Ь ь /ɯ/
Ь ь ичкертүү белгиси (ichkertüü belgisi) - - - *[3]
Э э э (e) ە E e E e E e /e/
Ю ю ю (yu) ي+ۋ(يۋ) Yu yu Yu yu Ju ju /ju/, /jy/
Я я я (ya) ي+ا(يا) Ya ya Ya ya Ja ja /ja/, /jɑ/

The letter H is not present in the Kyrgyz alphabet. Instead, it was replaced by a mute sound. (e.g. "Шаар (Shaar)" (city) in Kyrgyz corresponds to Şahar/Şähär/Şəhər in other Turkic languages.)

  • К (K) – ك changes into ق (Q) if precedes or succeeds by letters а, о, у, ы.
  • Г (G) – گ changes into غ (Ğ) if precedes or succeeds by letters а, о, у, ы.

Text sampleEdit

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights[4]

Kyrgyz in
Cyrillic script
Kyrgyz in
Arabic script
Transliteration
(Turkish-based, by PAU)
Kyrgyz in
Latin script (Yañalif-based) (1928–1938)
IPA transcription English
Бардык адамдар өз беделинде жана укуктарында эркин жана тең укуктуу болуп жаралат. Алардын аң-сезими менен абийири бар жана бири-бирине бир туугандык мамиле кылууга тийиш. باردىق ادامدار ۅز بەدەلىندە جانا ۇقۇقتارىندا ەركىن جانا تەڭ ۇقۇقتۇۇ بولۇپ جارالات. الاردىن اڭ-سەزىمى مەنەن ابئيىرى بار جانا بئرى-بئرىنە بئر تۇۇعاندىق مامئلە قىلۇۇعا تئيىش. Bardıq adamdar öz bedelinde jana uquqtarında erkin jana teñ uquqtuu bolup jaralat. Alardın añ-sezimi menen abiyiri bar jana biri-birine bir tuuğandıq mamile qıluuğa tiyiş. Bardьq adamdar ɵz ʙedelinde çana uquqtarьnda erkin çana teꞑ uquqtuu ʙolup çaralat. Alardьn aꞑ‑sezimi menen aʙijiri ʙar çana ʙiri‑ʙirine ʙir tuuƣandьq mamile qьluuƣa tijiş. bɑrd̪ɯχ ɑd̪ɑmd̪ɑr øz bed̪elind̪e d͡ʒɑnɑ uquχt̪ɑrɯnd̪ɑ erkin d͡ʒɑnɑ t̪eŋ uχuqt̪uː boɫup d͡ʒɑrɑɫɑt̪. ɑɫɑrd̪ɯn ɑɴ-sezimi menen ɑbijiri bɑr d͡ʒɑnɑ biri-birine bir t̪uːʁɑnd̪ɯχ mɑmilje qɯɫuːʁɑ t̪ijiʃ. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

ArabicEdit

The tabel below illustrates the letter order for kyrgyz as the letter order differs based on whether it is being written in the Arabic versus Cyrillic alphabet.

Transliteration Name in Kyrgyz IPA Isolated Final Medial Initial
Cyrillic Latin
А а A a Алип [ɑ] ا ا
Б б B b Бээ [b]
П п P p Пээ [p] پ
Т т T t Тээ [t]
Ж ж J j / Dj dj Жым [dʒ]
Ч ч Ch ch Чым [t͡ʃ]
Х х H h (ĥ) / X x H h / X x [χ~q]
Д д D d Дал [d]
Р р R r R r [r]
З з Z z Z z [z]
С с S s S s [s]
Ш ш Sh sh Sh sh [ʃ]
Г г Gh gh Gh gh [ɢ~ʁ]
Ф ф F f F f [ɸ]
К к Q q Q q [q]
Кь кь K k K k [k] ك ـك ـكـ كـ
Гь гь G g G g [ɡ] گ
Ң ң Ng ng Ng ng [ŋ~ɴ] ڭ ـڭ ـڭـ ڭـ
Л л L l лам [l~ɫ]
М м M m M m [m]
Н н N n N n [n]
О о O o O o [o] و و
Ө ө Ö ö Ö ö [ø] ۅ ـۅ ۅ
У у U u U u [u] ـﯗ
Ү ү Ü ü Ü ü [y] ۉ ـۉ ۉ
В в V v V v [v~w] ـﯞ
Э э

Е е

E e E e [e] ە ە
И и

Ы ы

I ı/ İ i I ı/ İ i [i~ɯ] ـىـ ىـ
Й й Y y Y y [j] ي ي
- Кыбачы ء

In earlier versions of the alphabet, the sequence «ییی» was used to represent ы/и; the sequence «ېېې» was instead used to represent й. This modification was likely undone because of «ېېې»'s historic role representing the /e/ sound. Although «ېېې» was never apart of standardized Persian or Chagatai orthography, it possibly had precedent as a scribal variation of representing /e/ and it's modern day role in Pashto and Uyghur is also representing /e/. For this reason Kasym Tynystanov likely erred on the side of caution and settled on the modern scheme shown above.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Minglang Zhou (2003). Multilingualism in China: the politics of writing reforms for minority languages, 1949–2002. Vol. 89 of Contributions to the sociology of language (illustrated ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 149. ISBN 3-11-017896-6. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
  2. ^ a b "Kyrgyz alphabet, language and pronunciation". omniglot.com. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  3. ^ a b no phonemic value; only found in borrowings
  4. ^ Kyrgyz edition of Universal Declaration of Human Rights

External linksEdit