A kumiho (gumiho) (Korean pronunciation: [kumiho]; Korean구미호; Hanja九尾狐, literally "nine-tailed fox") is a creature that appears in the folktales and legends of Korea. [1] Korean kumiho shares many similarities to the Chinese huli jing and the Japanese kitsune. It can freely transform, among other things, into a beautiful woman often set out to seduce boys, and eat their liver or heart (depending on the legend). There are numerous tales in which the kumiho appears, several of which can be found in the encyclopedic Compendium of Korean Oral Literature (한국 구비문학 대계/韓國口碑文學).

Kumiho
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationGumiho
McCune–ReischauerKumiho

MythologyEdit

An old Chinese text, claims a fox with nine tails lives in an area called Qingqiu (靑丘) which mean country of East ethnic(東夷). As the kumiho and other versions of the nine-tailed fox myths and folklores originated from China, they have a similar concept. All explain fox spirits as being the result of great longevity or the accumulation of energy, said to be foxes who have lived for a thousand years, and give them the power of shapeshifting, usually appearing in the guise of a woman. However, while huli jing and kitsune are often depicted with ambiguous moral compasses, possibly good or bad, the kumiho is almost always treated as a malignant figure who feasts on human flesh. It is unclear at which point in time Koreans began viewing the kumiho as a purely evil creature, since many ancient texts of the Chinese mention the benevolent kumiho assisting humans (and even make mentions of wicked humans tricking kind but naïve kumiho).

In later literature, kumiho were often depicted as bloodthirsty half-fox, half-human creatures that wandered cemeteries at night, digging human hearts out from graves. The fairy tale The Fox Sister depicts a fox spirit preying on a family for their livers. However, according to Gyuwon Sahwa, kumiho is described as an auspicious fox spirit with a book in its mouth. Considering the text is thought to be written in 1675, some speculate that the modern violent image of kumiho is influenced during the Japanese occupation in Korea. Nevertheless, foxes often contained a negative image during the Koryo Dynasty (Shin Don was described as an old fox spirit due to his love for women and drinks despite his being a buddhist monk), suggesting two different views could have co-existed in ancient Korea. Taiping Guangji claims Silla worshipped foxes as sacred beings.

The most distinctive feature that separates the kumiho from its two counterparts (Japanese kitsune, and Chinese huli jing) is the existence of a 'yeowoo guseul' (여우구슬, literally meaning fox marble/bead) which is said to consist of knowledge. According to Korean mythology, the yeowoo guseul provides power to the kumiho and knowledge (and intelligence) to people if they can steal and swallow one. The kumiho can absorb humans' energy with it. The method of absorbing energy with the "yeowoo guseul" resembles a "deep kiss" (i.e. a kiss using a tongue). The kumiho sends the yeowoo guseul into people's mouths and then retakes it with their tongues. If that person swallows the yeowoo guseul, however, and then observes "sky, land, and people", each observation gives the observer preternatural knowledge. But the person fails to watch the "sky" in most tales, so they get a special ability but not the most important one.

Most legends state that while a gumiho was capable of changing its appearance, there is still something persistently foxy about it (i.e. a foxy face, a set of ears, or the tell-tale nine tails) or a magical way of forcing; its countenance changes, but its nature does not. In Transformation of the Kumiho (구미호의 변신), a kumiho transforms into the identical likeness of a bride at a wedding and is only discovered when her clothes are removed. Bakh Mun-su and the Kumiho (박문수와 구미호) records an encounter that Pak Munsu has with a girl, living alone in the woods, that has a foxy appearance. In The Maiden who Discovered a Kumiho through a Chinese Poem (한시로 구미호를 알아낸 처녀), the kumiho is ultimately revealed when a hunting dog catches the scent of a fox and attacks. Although they have the ability to change forms, the true identity of a kumiho was said to be zealously guarded by the kumiho themselves. Some tales say that if a kumiho abstains from killing and eating humans for a thousand days, it can become human.

Much like changelings, werewolves or vampires in Western lore, there are always variations on the myth depending on the liberties that each story takes with the legend. One version of the mythology, however, holds that with enough will, a kumiho could further ascend from its yogoe (yokai) state, become permanently human and lose its evil character. Explanations of how this could be achieved vary, but sometimes include aspects such as refraining from killing or tasting meat for a thousand days, or obtaining a cintamani and making sure that the Yeoiju saw the full moon at least every month during the ordeal. Unlike Yeoiju-wielding dragons, kumiho were not thought to be capable of omnipotence or creation at will, since they were lesser creatures.

In popular cultureEdit

Works focusing on kumiho include:

Film and television/showsEdit

ComicsEdit

  • The Fox Sister, an ongoing webcomic started in 2011.
  • Story of Miho, a webtoon created by Hye Jin-yang
  • The God of High School, an ongoing webcomic started in 2011. The plot involves one of these Kumihos as a powerful deity bent on revenge.
  • White Fox, Ami Han in Marvel comics is the last Kumiho
  • Inattentional Blindness, a Naver WEBTOON started in 2019 including a Kumiho named No-myeong sent to the human realm to hunt ghosts and find the reason behind 'Mountain energy' being drained by a human girl.
  • 구슬의 주인, [14] an ongoing Daum webtoon started in 2021. It is a GL(Girls' Love) story about a human girl swallowing a Kumiho's "yeowoo guseul". Consequently, the Kumiho begins following her around and saving her from the various dangers that the human girl has now garnered the attention of.

Video gamesEdit

  • Overwatch: D.Va Halloween skin
  • League of Legends: Ahri
  • Elsword: Ara Haan's companion, Eun
  • Lost Saga: Gumiho
  • Metin2: Nine Tails
  • Analogue: A Hate Story: *Mute
  • MapleStory: The Nine-Tailed Fox is a boss monster, along with three-tailed foxes known as Samiho.
  • SCP – Containment Breach: Nine-Tailed Fox is the code name for a certain Mobile Task Force.
  • Cookie Run: The Kumiho Cookie (also known as the Ninetales Cookie) is an in-game playable character that can transform from a marshmallow fox into a beautiful cookie by using double jumps.
  • Arena of Valor: Liliana.
  • Ōkami: Ninetails, a boss character.
  • Brawlhalla: Yumiko
  • War Robots: Kumiho, a fast robot, has two medium weapon grooves.
  • Pokémon: Ninetales, a pokémon that evolves from Vulpix, is likely adapted from Korean and Japanese folklore.
  • White Day: A Labyrinth Named School: The hallway between the new building and the main building has a ghost that sings and can scare the player at the end of the song. The picture in the ghost collection shows a girl with foxy features and it's believed to be a kumiho because the game takes place in Korea.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Korean Mythology, on unsolvedmysteries.com. Retrieved 15 March 2007
  2. ^ https://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/gumiho-the-fox-with-nine-tails
  3. ^ "Fox with Nine Tails (TV Mini-Series 2004– ) - IMDb" – via m.imdb.com.
  4. ^ "The Fox Family (2006) - IMDb" – via m.imdb.com.
  5. ^ "Yobi, the Five Tailed Fox (Yeu woo bi) (2006)" – via www.rottentomatoes.com.
  6. ^ ""Korean Ghost Stories" Gumiho (TV Episode 2009) - IMDb" – via m.imdb.com.
  7. ^ "My Girlfriend Is a Gumiho (TV Series 2010) - IMDb" – via m.imdb.com.
  8. ^ "Grudge: The Revolt of Gumiho | Rakuten Viki" – via www.viki.com.
  9. ^ "MBC 주간시트콤 천 번째 남자 다시보기". www.imbc.com.
  10. ^ "Gu Family Book (TV Series 2013) - IMDb" – via m.imdb.com.
  11. ^ "Nail Shop Paris (TV Mini-Series 2013– ) - IMDb" – via m.imdb.com.
  12. ^ "Lee Dong Wook And Jo Bo Ah Are Drawn To Each Other In Alluring New Poster For Upcoming Drama". Soompi. September 9, 2020.
  13. ^ https://m.sportschosun.com/news.htm?id=201305150100109610009009&ServiceDate=20130514&f_url=https://en.m.wikipedia.org/&stype=o
  14. ^ "구슬의 주인". Daum 웹툰 (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-03-15.

External linksEdit