Kullervo Achilles Manner (Finnish pronunciation: [ˈkulːerʋo ˈmɑnːer]; 12 October 1880 – 15 January 1939) was a Finnish politician and journalist, and later a Soviet politician. He was a member of the Finnish parliament, serving as its Speaker in 1917. He was also chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Finland between 1917 and 1918. During the Finnish Civil War, he led the Finnish People's Delegation, a leftist alternative to the established Finnish government. After the war, he escaped to the Soviet Union, where he co-founded the Finnish Communist Party. It is said if the Red Guards had won the Civil War, Manner might have risen to the position of the "Leader of the Red Finland".
|Chairman of the Finnish People's Delegation of the Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic|
29 January 1918 – 25 April 1918
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|Speaker of the Parliament|
4 April 1917 – 31 October 1917
|Preceded by||Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg|
|Succeeded by||Johannes Lundson|
|Leader of the Finnish Communist Party|
|Preceded by||Yrjö Sirola|
|Succeeded by||Hannes Mäkinen|
|Leader of the Finnish Social Democratic Party|
|Preceded by||Matti Paasivuori|
|Succeeded by||Väinö Tanner|
Kullervo Achilles Manner
12 October 1880
Kokemäki, Grand Duchy of Finland, Russian Empire
|Died||15 January 1939 (aged 58)|
Ukhta-Pechora, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Political party||SDP |
Manner was born a priest's son in Kokemäki. His father Gustaf Manner worked in various parishes, including those of Lappi and Vampula. Kullervo's mother was Alma Limón, daughter of pastor Johannes Limón. After graduating from high school in 1900, Manner worked as a journalist in Porvoo and later in Helsinki. In 1906 he founded a newspaper called Työläinen (meaning "worker") in Porvoo, of which he was the editor-in-chief until 1909; an article published in the newspaper in 1909 brought him the following year, already as a Member of Parliament, a six-month prison sentence for a lèse majesté (a lesser crime similar to treason) against Nicholas II in 1911. He was elected to the Finnish Parliament as a Social Democrat from Uusimaa in 1910 and 1917. He was appointed Speaker of the Parliament in 1917. Manner's brother Arvo Manner was governor of Viipuri and Kymi provinces from the 1920s to the 1950s.
Manner married Olga Arjanne (Seger until 1906) on October 26, 1908 at the local register office of Porvoo. From 1906 they worked at the same time in the Työläinen's editorial office and lived in the house where the editorial office was located.
On 28 January 1918, during the Finnish Civil War, Manner was appointed Chairman of the Finnish People's Delegation. On 10 April the same year, Manner was appointed commander-in-chief of the Red Guards as well as head of state of its short-lived government, "The People's Deputation. He was given dictatorial powers. At the time, the Red Guards led by Manner ruled several months Helsinki and other southern cities, while the White Guards led by General Mannerheim and the Senate has a control of northern Finland.
In the USSREdit
After the Civil War, Manner fled to Soviet Russia where he became the second chairman of the Finnish Communist Party after Yrjö Sirola. He also became an official of the Comintern. In the 1930s, Manner and his wife Hanna Malm fell out of favor with Otto Wille Kuusinen. Manner was dismissed from most of his duties in May 1934. He continued to work as a Comintern rapporteur on Latin American affairs until July 1935.
Imprisonment and deathEdit
In 1935, Manner was arrested and sentenced to ten years hard labor. Manner was taken to a Gulag labor camp in Ukhta-Pechora in Komi Republic, where he died on 15 January 1939. The official cause of death was tuberculosis. According to professor of history Alexander Popov, the real cause of death could be attributed radiation sickness, which Manner could have received, since he worked with water containing radium.
Manner was rehabilitated in 1962.
Political and military officesEdit
Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg
| Speaker of the Parliament of Finland
| Chairman of the Finnish People's Delegation
| Commander-in-chief of the Red Guards
10 April 1918 – 25 April 1918
- Matti Lackman (2017). Kullervo Manner – kumouksellisen muotokuva (in Finnish). Somero: Amanita. ISBN 978-952-5330-84-7.
- "Manner, Kullervo – Svinhufvud". Finland100.fi. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- Flakin, Nathaniel (26 May 2019). "When the North Star Turned Red: Against Reconciliation". Left Voice. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- SDP:n puheenjohtaja halusi punadiktaattoriksi, mutta kuoli Stalinin vankileirillä (in Finnish)
- Sainio, Venla (6 September 2001). "Manner, Kullervo". The National Biography of Finland (in Finnish). Retrieved 14 January 2021.
- Keränen et al. 1992, pp. 91–101 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFKeränenTiainenAholaAhola1992 (help)
- Upton 1980, pp. 390–515 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFUpton1980 (help), Keränen et al. 1992, pp. 80–89 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFKeränenTiainenAholaAhola1992 (help), Manninen 1993b, pp. 96–177 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFManninen1993b (help), Manninen* 1993c, pp. 398–432 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFManninen*1993c (help), Westerlund 2004b, pp. 175–188 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWesterlund2004b (help), Tikka 2014, pp. 90–118 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTikka2014 (help)
- "Tiedonkierto 2003". www.tyovaenperinne.fi. Retrieved 6 April 2021.