The Kubrawiya order (Arabic: سلسلة کبرویة) or Kubrawi order, also known as Firdausia Silsila, is a Sufi order that traces its spiritual lineage (Silsilah) to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, through Ali, Muhammad's cousin, son-in-law and the First Imam. This is in contrast to most other Sufi orders that trace their lineage to Ali. The Kubrawiya order is named after its 13th-century founder Najmuddin Kubra, who lived in Konye-Urgench under the Khwarazmian dynasty (present day Turkmenistan). The Mongols captured Konye-Urgench in 1221 and killed much of the population including Sheikh Najmuddin Kubra.
The Kubrawiya order places emphasis on being a universal approach, applicable to both Sunnis and Shiites. It is popular in eastern India, Bangladesh and Mauritius and some areas of Pakistan as well.
Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani was the second founder of the Kubrawiyyah order and expanded in parts of today's India, Pakistan, Kashmir, Bangaladesh, China, and Central Asian countries in the 14th century. In Iran the Kubrawiya order was split into branches after Khwaja Ishaq Khatlani succeed the founder. Eventually, differences within the order had arisen between the two claimants to succeed the leadership in which one group called themselves the Nurbakshia group comprising the supporters of Nurbaksh while the other group supported Barzish Abadi who was based in Mashhad.
The Noorbakhshiya has emerged in the 15th century in Iran as a splinter group of the Kubrawiya Sufi order. A similar controversy has later developed about the religious affiliation of Syed Muhammad Noorbakhsh who had been a disciple of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani's principal successor Khwaja Ishaq Khatlani and who is being regarded as the founder of the Kubrawiya.
- Adel, Gholamali Haddad; Elmi, Mohammad Jafar; Taromi-Rad, Hassan (2012), Sufism: An Entry from Encyclopaedia of the World of Islam, EWI Press, pp. 53–, ISBN 978-1-908433-08-4
- The Kubravi order
- Stump, Roger W. (2008), The Geography of Religion: Faith, Place, and Space, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, pp. 196–, ISBN 978-0-7425-8149-4
- Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths