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This is a list of campaigns of Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty.

Kublai Khan's Campaigns
Part of Mongol invasions and conquests
Yuan Dynasty 1294.png
The Yuan dynasty under Kublai Khan after the conquest of Southern Song dynasty.
  • Rise of the Yuan dynasty
  • Decisive victory for Japan, Java, Đại Việt & Champa
  • South China and Upper Burma added into the Yuan dynasty and fall of the Song dynasty
  • Belligerents

    Yuan dynasty

  • Sasa Rindo.svgKamakura shogunate
  • Song dynasty
  • Đại Việt under the Trần dynasty
  • Champa
  • Pagan Empire
  • Java
  • Commanders and leaders
    Total: 581,000+
    • 450,000 Mongols
    • 100,000 Chinese
    • 40,000 Koreans
    Total: 1,610,000+
    • 1,500,000+ Chinese
    • 120,000+ Japanese
    Casualties and losses
    Total: 250,000+ dead Total: Over 10,000,000 including Chinese Civilians

    Campaigns against Song ChinaEdit

    Mongol warrior on horseback, preparing a mounted archery shot.

    The campaign for Kublai Khan to conquer China under the Song dynasty were specified under the years between 1266-1276. This included the declaration of Kublai Khan as the new emperor of China in the year 1271[1] This was the start of the Yuan dynasty that was a rule incorporated with elements of both Mongul and Chinese influences.[2] After successfully eliminating all resistance to the new Yuan dynasty, Kublai Khan wanted to expand his empire by attacking Japan and built around 300-600 vessels in preparation for the assault on Japan.[1]

    Campaigns against JapanEdit

    Kublai Khan's armada in 1274 made a tactical mistake by sailing into open seas that became targets for the Japanese cannons. Suffering heavy losses, the remaining fleet retreated and prepared for next assault again on 1281. Again on 1281, the Japanese samurais were more than prepared to hold off an invasion attempt by the Kublai Khan's fleet, and which they did so with great success.[3] Even though the campaign failed in the end due to stiff Japanese resistance, Kublai Khan's campaigns saw the development of gunpowder as a form of weaponry.[4]

    Campaigns against Burma, Java and VietnamEdit

    Besides Song China and Japan, Kublai Khan also launched campaigns against Burma, Java and Vietnam. A series of military conflicts between the Yuan dynasty and the Pagan Empire took place between 1277 and 1287, collectively known as the First Mongol invasion of Burma. The invasion toppled the 250-year-old Pagan Empire and the Mongols occupied Upper Burma. However, Mongol invasions of both Java and Vietnam resulted in failure. Nevertheless, both the Trần dynasty (Đại Việt) and Champa decided to accept the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty in order to avoid further conflicts.


    1. ^ a b Kallie, Szczepanski. "Mongol Invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281". abouteducation. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
    2. ^ "Kublai Khan". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
    3. ^ Winters, Harold et al. (2001). Battling the Elements, p. 14., p. 14, at Google Books
    4. ^ Stephen Turnbull (19 February 2013). The Mongol Invasions of Japan 1274 and 1281. Osprey Publishing. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-1-4728-0045-9. Retrieved 16 April 2013.