Kruševac

Kruševac (Serbian Cyrillic: Крушевац [krûʃeʋats] (About this soundlisten)) is a city and the administrative center of the Rasina District in central Serbia. It is located in the valley of West Morava, on Rasina river. According to the 2011 census, the city administrative area has a population of 128,752, while the urban area has 73,316 inhabitants.

Kruševac

Град Крушевац
City of Kruševac
Ks panorama1.jpg
Zgrada okružnog načelstva u Kruševcu 15.JPG
Slobodiste 01.jpg
J26 147 Lazar-Denkmal.jpg
Kruševac, náměstí III.jpg
J26 146 Lazarica.jpg
Kruševac, hrad.jpg
From top: Panorama of Kruševac, Town Hall, Slobodište Memorial Complex, Lazar Hrebeljanović's statue, The Kosovo Heroes monument, Lazarica Church, Kruševac Fortress
Flag of Kruševac
Flag
Coat of arms of Kruševac
Coat of arms
Kruševac is located in Serbia
Kruševac
Kruševac
Location of the city of Kruševac within Serbia
Coordinates: 43°35′N 21°19′E / 43.583°N 21.317°E / 43.583; 21.317Coordinates: 43°35′N 21°19′E / 43.583°N 21.317°E / 43.583; 21.317
Country Serbia
RegionŠumadija and Western Serbia
DistrictRasina
Founded1371
Founded byLazar of Serbia
Settlements101
Government
 • MayorJasmina Palurović (SNS)
Area
Area rank20th in Serbia
 • Urban11.30 km2 (4.36 sq mi)
 • Administrative854 km2 (330 sq mi)
Elevation
163 m (535 ft)
Population
 (2011 census)[2]
 • Rank14th in Serbia
 • Urban
73,316
 • Urban density6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
 • Administrative
128,752
 • Administrative density150/km2 (390/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
37000
Area code+381(0)37
Car plates
Websitewww.krusevac.rs

The city was founded in 1371, by Prince Lazar of Serbia (1371–1389), who used it as his seat.

EtymologyEdit

The etymology is derived from the Serbian word for "river stone", krušac which was largely used for a building at that time.

HistoryEdit

Kruševac was founded in 1371, as a fortified town in the possession of Lord Lazar Hrebeljanović. The Lazarica Church (or Church of St, Stephen) was built by Lazar between 1375–78, in the Morava architectural style.[3] It is mentioned in one of Lazar's edicts in 1387, as his seat, when he affirmed the rights of Venetian merchants on Serbian territory. In preparation for the Battle of Kosovo (1389) against the Ottoman Empire, the Serbian army assembled in the city. The site of Lazar's palace is marked by a ruined enclosure containing a fragment of the tower of his spouse Princess Milica, and, according to legend, tidings of the defeat were brought to her by crows from the battlefield. After the battle, the city was held by Princess Milica as her seat. The little that remains of Lazar's city is the Kruševac Fortress, which was declared a Cultural Monument of Exceptional Importance in 1979.[4] Several old Ottoman houses were left at the beginning of the 20th century, besides an old Turkish fountain and bath, which was known as Alacahisar (Aladža Hisar) during Ottoman rule between 1427–1833 (nominally to 1867) when Kruševac was the seat of the Sanjak of Kruševac. The Ottoman rule was interrupted during Austrian occupations between 1688–1690 and 1717–1739.

A large monument dedicated to Serbs fallen at the Battle of Kosovo was sculpted by Đorđe Jovanović and unveiled by King Petar I Karađorđević of Serbia in 1904. A detail on the monument, among others, is a statue of the famous blind Serbian poet Filip Višnjić.

At the beginning of the German occupation of Yugoslavia the units of Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland commanded by Dragutin Keserović and supported by one detachment of communists attacked the German garrison in September 1941 but failed to liberate the town after four days battle. During World War II mass executions of patriots and antifascists occurred on hill Bagdala. Largest execution was in summer of 1943. At place of executions now is a monument named Slobodište (from the Serbian word "sloboda", which means 'freedom'). Kruševac was liberated on 14 October when chetnik collaborators and Germans left the city together. After the regime of communists in Serbia ended the Government of Serbia and its Ministry of Justice established the commission to research atrocities that were committed by members of the Yugoslav Partisan Movement after they gained control over Serbia in Autumn 1944. According to the report of this commission, out of 55,554 registered victims of communist purges in Serbia the new communist regime in Kruševac killed 493 people while 11 people are missing.[5]

Kruševac progressed profusely during the SFRY. A large number of factories were built in that era, while Kruševac became one of the strongest industrial centres in both Serbia and Yugoslavia. The machine factory IMK 14. oktobar Kruševac employed around 7,000 workers.

However, the large Kruševac industry hasn't survived the NATO bombing and post-Milošević transition. In 2002 alone 5 factories went bankrupt.[6] From 2002 to 2014 27 factories closed and around 11,000 workers lost their jobs.[7] The unemployment rate in Kruševac was almost 39% in 2015.[8]

SettlementsEdit

Aside from the urban area of Kruševac, the city administrative area includes the following 100 settlements:

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194887,853—    
195394,827+1.54%
1961103,190+1.06%
1971118,016+1.35%
1981132,972+1.20%
1991138,111+0.38%
2002131,368−0.45%
2011128,752−0.22%
Source: [9]

According to the 2011 census results, the city of Kruševac has a total population of 128,752 inhabitants.

Ethnic groupsEdit

The ethnic composition of the city administrative area:[10]

Ethnic group Population %
Serbs 122,529 95.17%
Roma 2,461 1.91%
Montenegrins 282 0.22%
Macedonians 200 0.16%
Croats 107 0.08%
Yugoslavs 86 0.07%
Total 128,752

EconomyEdit

The most notable large companies based in the city of Kruševac are: Trayal Corporation, 14. oktobar, Rubin and Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Serbia. As of September 2017, Kruševac has one of 14 free economic zones established in Serbia.[11]

The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2019):[12]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 369
Mining and quarrying 42
Manufacturing 8,519
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 514
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 652
Construction 2,007
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 5,150
Transportation and storage 1,387
Accommodation and food services 1,093
Information and communication 362
Financial and insurance activities 560
Real estate activities 210
Professional, scientific and technical activities 1,076
Administrative and support service activities 572
Public administration and defense; compulsory social security 1,784
Education 2,221
Human health and social work activities 2,877
Arts, entertainment and recreation 642
Other service activities 567
Individual agricultural workers 1,941
Total 32,547

PoliticsEdit

Seats in the city parliament won in the 2016 local elections:

Party Seats
Serbian Progressive Party 53
Socialist Party of Serbia 8
Democratic Party 4
United Serbia 4
Independent MP 1

SportsEdit

The city's main football club is FK Napredak Kruševac, who regularly play in the Serbian SuperLiga.

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Kruševac (1981–2010, extremes 1961–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
24.2
(75.6)
29.6
(85.3)
31.9
(89.4)
35.5
(95.9)
39.6
(103.3)
43.7
(110.7)
42.4
(108.3)
36.8
(98.2)
33.8
(92.8)
27.4
(81.3)
21.7
(71.1)
43.7
(110.7)
Average high °C (°F) 4.6
(40.3)
7.2
(45.0)
12.5
(54.5)
18.0
(64.4)
23.1
(73.6)
26.4
(79.5)
28.7
(83.7)
29.0
(84.2)
24.1
(75.4)
18.5
(65.3)
11.4
(52.5)
5.6
(42.1)
17.4
(63.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
2.0
(35.6)
6.6
(43.9)
11.8
(53.2)
16.8
(62.2)
20.0
(68.0)
21.8
(71.2)
21.5
(70.7)
16.8
(62.2)
11.6
(52.9)
5.9
(42.6)
1.6
(34.9)
11.4
(52.5)
Average low °C (°F) −3.4
(25.9)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.5
(34.7)
5.6
(42.1)
10.2
(50.4)
13.5
(56.3)
14.9
(58.8)
14.6
(58.3)
10.7
(51.3)
6.3
(43.3)
1.6
(34.9)
−1.9
(28.6)
5.9
(42.6)
Record low °C (°F) −28.1
(−18.6)
−23.7
(−10.7)
−17.2
(1.0)
−6.1
(21.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.9
(37.2)
5.8
(42.4)
3.0
(37.4)
−3.0
(26.6)
−7.3
(18.9)
−21.4
(−6.5)
−23.9
(−11.0)
−28.1
(−18.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40.3
(1.59)
39.2
(1.54)
48.4
(1.91)
56.6
(2.23)
56.9
(2.24)
71.2
(2.80)
55.0
(2.17)
49.8
(1.96)
50.0
(1.97)
49.3
(1.94)
56.2
(2.21)
55.1
(2.17)
628.1
(24.73)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13 12 12 13 12 11 10 8 9 9 11 14 134
Average snowy days 8 8 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 31
Average relative humidity (%) 85 79 73 71 72 72 70 69 74 79 81 85 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 54.0 78.7 129.1 154.0 206.0 223.2 269.0 263.2 190.6 137.2 79.1 42.6 1,826.7
Source: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia[13]

Famous residentsEdit

International relationsEdit

Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit

Kruševac is twinned with:

Other forms of co-operation and city friendship similar to the twin/sister city programmes:

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  2. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  3. ^ Filip Jovanovic i Djordje Banovic. "Istorija – Crkva Lazarica – Kruševac – Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva". Lazarica.rs. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  4. ^ Monuments of Culture in Serbia: ЦРКВА СВ.СТЕФАНА ЛАЗАРИЦА СА КРУШЕВАЧКИМ ГРАДОМ (SANU) (in Serbian and English)
  5. ^ "Registar Žrtava". www.komisija1944.mpravde.gov.rs. Ministry of Justice, Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  6. ^ http://krusevacgrad.rs/svi-nasi-porazi-vecina-krusevackih-restrukturasa-zavrsila-u-stecaju/
  7. ^ http://krusevacgrad.rs/svi-nasi-porazi-vecina-krusevackih-restrukturasa-zavrsila-u-stecaju/
  8. ^ http://www.blic.rs/vesti/politika/pajtic-krusevac-dotakao-dno-za-vreme-vlasti-sns/ed111nx
  9. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  10. ^ "ETHNICITY Data by municipalities and cities" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  11. ^ Mikavica, A. (3 September 2017). "Slobodne zone mamac za investitore". politika.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  12. ^ "Запослени у Републици Србији, 2019. - Годишњи просек -" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of Republic of Serbia. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Monthly and annual means, maximum and minimum values of meteorological elements for the period 1981 - 2010" (in Serbian). Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  14. ^ "AllCorfu.Com: Corfu's Twin Cities". allcorfu.com. Retrieved 25 February 2010.

External linksEdit