Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

  (Redirected from Kosovo and Metohija)

Kosovo and Metohija (Serbian: Косово и Метохиja/Kosovo i Metohija; Albanian: Kosovës dhe Metohisë) commonly known as Kosovo and abbreviated to Kosmet or KiM, is an autonomous province that occupies the southernmost part of Serbia. The territory is the subject of an ongoing political and territorial dispute between Serbia and the partially recognised, self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo, the latter of which has de facto control over most of the region.[a] Its administrative capital and largest city is Priština.

Kosovo and Metohija
  • Косово и Метохиja/Kosovo i Metohija  (Serbian)
  • Kosovës dhe Metohisë  (Albanian)
Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija
Аутономна Покрајина Косово и Метохиja (sr)
Krahina Autonome e Kosovës dhe Metohisë (al)
Flag of Kosovo and Metohija
Coat of arms of Kosovo and Metohija
Location of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia
Location of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia
Coordinates: 42°40′N 21°10′E / 42.667°N 21.167°E / 42.667; 21.167Coordinates: 42°40′N 21°10′E / 42.667°N 21.167°E / 42.667; 21.167
Country Serbia
Treaty of London30 May 1913
Autonomous Province31 January 1946
Constitutional status increased21 February 1974
Autonomy decreased28 March 1989
Kosovo War28 February 1998 to
11 June 1999
UN Administration10 June 1999
Brussels Agreement19 April 2013
Administrative centerPristina
 • TypeAutonomous province


 • Total10,910 km2 (4,210 sq mi)
 (2011 census)
 • Total1,780,021
 • Density160/km2 (420/sq mi)
 • Official languages
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeRS-KM
Map of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

The territory of the province, as recognized by Serbian laws, lies in the southern part of Serbia and covers the regions of Kosovo and Metohija. The capital of the province is Pristina. The territory was previously an autonomous province of Serbia during Socialist Yugoslavia (1946–1990), and acquired its current status in 1990. The province was governed as part of Serbia until the Kosovo War (1998–99), when it became a United Nations (UN) protectorate in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, but still internationally recognized as part of Serbia. The control was then transferred to the UN administration of UNMIK. On 17 February 2008, representatives of the people of Kosovo (Albanian: Udhëheqësit e popullit tonë, të zgjedhur në mënyrë demokratike) unilaterally and extra-institutionally declared Kosovo's independence,[2] which is recognized by 96 UN members, but not by Serbia which still regards it as its province.[3] On 22 July 2010 the International Court of Justice (ICJ) concluded that "the declaration of independence of Kosovo adopted on 17 February 2008 did not violate international law".[4]


In 1990, the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, an autonomous province of Serbia within Yugoslavia, had undergone the Anti-bureaucratic revolution by Slobodan Milošević's government which resulted in the reduction of its powers, effectively returning it to its constitutional status of 1971–74. The same year, its Albanian majority—as well as the Republic of Albania—supported the proclamation of an independent Republic of Kosova. Following the end of the Kosovo War 1999, and as a result of NATO intervention,[5][6] Serbia and the federal government no longer exercised de facto control over the territory.

In February 2008, the Republic of Kosovo declared independence.[7][8] While Serbia has not recognised Kosovo's independence, in the Brussels agreement of 2013, it abolished all its institutions in the Autonomous Province. Kosovo's independence is currently recognized by 96 UN member states.[5][9] In 2013, the Serbian government announced it was dissolving the Serb minority assemblies it had created in northern Kosovo, in order to allow the integration of the Kosovo Serb minority into the general population of Kosovo.[10]


Constitutional changes were made in Yugoslavia in 1990. The parliaments of all Yugoslavian republics and provinces, which until then had MPs only from the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, were dissolved and multi-party elections were held within them. Kosovar Albanians refused to participate in the elections so they held their own unsanctioned elections instead. As election laws required (and still require) turnout higher than 50%, a parliament in Kosovo could not be established.[citation needed]

The new constitution abolished the individual provinces' official media, integrating them within the official media of Serbia while still retaining some programs in the Albanian language. The Albanian-language media in Kosovo were suppressed. Funding was withdrawn from state-owned media, including those in the Albanian language in Kosovo. The constitution made the creation of privately owned media possible, however their operation was very difficult because of high rents and restrictive laws. State-owned Albanian language television or radio was also banned from broadcasting from Kosovo.[11] However, privately owned Albanian media outlets appeared; of these, probably the most famous is "Koha Ditore", which was allowed to operate until late 1998 when it was closed after publishing a calendar glorifying ethnic Albanian separatists.[citation needed]

The constitution also transferred control over state-owned companies to the Yugoslav central government. In September 1990, up to 123,000 Albanian workers were dismissed from their positions in government and media, as were teachers, doctors, and civil servants,[12] provoking a general strike and mass unrest. Some of those who were not sacked quit in sympathy, refusing to work for the Serbian government. Although the sackings were widely seen as a purge of ethnic Albanians, the government maintained that it was removing former communist directors.

Albanian educational curriculum textbooks were withdrawn and replaced by new ones. The curriculum was (and still is, as this is the curriculum used for Albanians in Serbia outside Kosovo) identical to its Serbian counterpart and that of all other nationalities in Serbia except that it had education on and in the Albanian language. Education in Albanian was withdrawn in 1992 and re-established in 1994.[13] At the University of Pristina, which was seen as a centre of Kosovo Albanian cultural identity, education in the Albanian language was abolished and Albanian teachers were also dismissed in large numbers. Albanians responded by boycotting state schools and setting up an unofficial parallel system of Albanian-language education.[14]

Kosovo Albanians were outraged by what they saw as an attack on their rights. Following mass rioting and unrest from Albanians as well as outbreaks of inter-communal violence, in February 1990, a state of emergency was declared and the presence of the Yugoslav Army and police was significantly increased to quell the unrest.[citation needed]

Unsanctioned elections were held in 1992, which overwhelmingly elected Ibrahim Rugova as "president" of a self-declared Republic of Kosova; Serb authorities rejected the election results, and tried to capture and prosecute those who had voted.[15] In 1995, thousands of Serb refugees from Croatia were settled in Kosovo, which further worsened relations between the two communities.[citation needed]

Albanian opposition to the sovereignty of Yugoslavia and especially Serbia had previously surfaced in rioting (1968 and March 1981) in the capital Pristina.[dubious ] Rugova initially advocated non-violent resistance, but later opposition took the form of separatist agitation by opposition political groups and armed action from 1996 by the "Kosovo Liberation Army" (Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës, or UÇK) whose activities led to the Kosovo War ending with the 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the eventual creation of the UN Kosovo protectorate (UNMIK).[citation needed]

In 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro left the federation in 2006 and recognised Kosovo's independence in 2008).[16]

Politics and governmentEdit

The regions of Metohija (yellow), and Kosovo (blue)

Since 1999, the Serb-inhabited areas of Kosovo have been governed as a de facto independent region from the Albanian-dominated government in Pristina. They continue to use Serbian national symbols and participate in Serbian national elections, which are boycotted in the rest of Kosovo; in turn, they boycott Kosovo's elections. The municipalities of Leposavić, Zvečan and Zubin Potok are run by local Serbs, while the Kosovska Mitrovica municipality had rival Serbian and Albanian governments until a compromise was agreed in November 2002.[17]

The Serb areas have united into a community, the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo and Metohija established in February 2003 by Serbian delegates meeting in North Mitrovica, which has since served as the de facto "capital." The Union's president is Dragan Velić. There is also a central governing body, the Serbian National Council for Kosovo and Metohija (SNV). The President of SNV in North Kosovo is Dr Milan Ivanović, while the head of its Executive Council is Rada Trajković.[18]

Local politics are dominated by the Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohija. The Serbian List was led by Oliver Ivanović, an engineer from Kosovska Mitrovica.[19]

In February 2007 the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo and Metohija has transformed into the Serbian Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija presided by Marko Jakšić. The Assembly strongly criticised the secessionist movements of the Albanian-dominated PISG Assembly of Kosovo and demanded unity of the Serb people in Kosovo, boycott of EULEX and announced massive protests in support of Serbia's sovereignty over Kosovo. On 18 February 2008, day after Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence, the Assembly declared it "null and void".[20][21]

Also, there was a Ministry for Kosovo and Metohija within the Serbian government, with Goran Bogdanović as Minister for Kosovo and Metohija. In 2012, that ministry was downgraded to the Office for Kosovo and Metohija, with Aleksandar Vulin as the head of the new office.[22] However, in 2013, Aleksandar Vulin post was raised into being a Minister without portfolio in charge of Kosovo and Metohija.

Administrative divisionsEdit

Districts in Kosovo and Metohija

Five Serbian Districts are in the territory of Kosovo, comprising 28 municipalities and 1 city. In 2000, UNMIK created 7 new districts[citation needed] and 30 municipalities. Serbia does not exercise sovereignty over this polity. For the UNMIK districts and the districts of Kosovo, see Districts of Kosovo.

District Seat Population
in 2016 (rank)
Municipalities and cities
Kosovo District
(Kosovski okrug)
Pristina 672,292
Kosovo-Pomoravlje District
(Kosovsko-Pomoravski okrug)
Gjilan 166,212
Kosovska Mitrovica District
(Kosovskomitrovički okrug)
Mitrovica 225,212
Peć District
(Pećki okrug)
Peja 178,326
Prizren District
(Prizrenski okrug)
Prizren 376,085

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states have recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.



  1. ^ "Региони у Републици Србији" (PDF). (in Serbian). Statistical Office of Serbia. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Republic of Palau suspends recognition of Kosovo". The Government of the Republic of Serbia (Vlada Republike Srbije). 21 January 2019.
  4. ^ "case 141". International Court of Justice. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  5. ^ a b "NATO – Topic: NATO's role in Kosovo". 31 August 2012.
  6. ^ Steven Beardsley. "Kosovo aims to form military force and join NATO – News". Stripes.
  7. ^ "Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate international law – UN court". UN News Centre. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  8. ^ "ICJ,International Court of Justice:Declaration of independence of Kosovo from Serbia is not a violation of international law". Bbc Retrieved 2 January 2011.
  9. ^ "Dačić: Centralnoafrička republika povukla priznanje Kosova; Priština: Nevažno je šta kaže Dačić".
  10. ^ Serbia Pulls Plug on North Kosovo Assemblies
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 June 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ ON THE RECORD: //Civil Society in Kosovo// - Volume 9, Issue 1 - August 30, 1999 - THE BIRTH AND REBIRTH OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN KOSOVO - PART ONE: REPRESSION AND RESISTANCE
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 April 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ Clark, Howard. Civil Resistance in Kosovo. London: Pluto Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7453-1569-0
  15. ^ Noel Malcolm, A Short History of Kosovo, p.347
  16. ^ Lonely Planet Montenegro. Lonely Planet. 2009. p. 15. ISBN 9781741794403.
  17. ^ Day, Matthew (11 November 2010). "Serbia calls for boycott of Kosovo elections". The Daily Telegraph.
  18. ^ Declaration of Establishing the Assembly of the Community of Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (in English)
  19. ^ "Ivanović: Frustracija Kosovom uzrok nestabilnosti". Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  20. ^ Vesna Peric Zimonjic (29 June 2008). "Kosovo Serbs set up rival assembly". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original on 30 June 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2008.
  21. ^ Ben Cahoon. "Kosovo". Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  22. ^ "Closure of Serbian ministry sparks debate". Southeast European Times. 14 August 2012.

External linksEdit