Kosača noble family

The Kosača (Serbian Cyrillic: Косача, pl. Косаче), somewhere Kosačić (Косачић, pl. Косачићи), was a Bosnian[6][7][8] medieval noble family which ruled over parts of modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia between the 14th century and the 15th century. The land they controlled was known as Humska zemlja (Hum, for short),[9][10][11] roughly corresponding to modern region of Herzegovina, which itself was derived from the title "Herzog", which Stjepan Vukčić Kosača adopted in 1448. Besides Hum, they ruled parts of Dalmatia and Rascia. They were vassals to several states, including the Kingdom of Bosnia and Ottoman Empire.
There is no document or evidence that the family "Kosače" belonged to any confession. They were in contact with the Orthodox Church, the Church of Bosnia, the Roman Catholic Church and Islam, but it was not recorded that anyone belonged to them. They married women of these confessions, respected their faith and supported them, they even built religious buildings but were not personally believers or practiced any religion. During the fall of the Bosnian Kingdom, the "Kosače" split into three branches: Venetian, Dalmatian and Ottoman. From then onward, these branches became accepting of the Roman Catholic faith, in the first two cases, and of Islam in the third.

Kosača
Косача

Kosačić
Косачић
Kosačegrb.png
Country
Foundedfirst half of the 14th century
FounderVuk Kosača
Final rulerVlatko Hercegović
Titles
  • vojvoda
  • herceg
  • bey

special titles

Estate(s)
  • Gornje Podrinje or Gornja Drina (area around the upper course of the Drina river)
  • Hum (1326–1482)
    (roughly modern Herzegovina)
Dissolution1482
Cadet branches
  • Vuković
  • Hranić
  • Vukčić
  • Hercegović
  • Hersekzade
  • Isabegović[2][3][4][5]
  • Isabegzade

HistoryEdit

 
Flag of Kosača family

The family name Kosača was probably taken after the village of Kosače near Goražde, in the Upper Drina region of eastern Bosnia, where the Kosača family were originally estate owners.[12][13]

The founder, Vuk[13] was a prominent military commander under Emperor Dušan the Mighty of Serbia (r. 1331–1359) who took part in the conquests of southern Balkans. He was given lands around Upper Drina, province of Rudine.[14][15]

Vlatko Vuković, the son of Vuk, brought the family to prominence after taking part in battles against the Ottomans.[13] He commanded the victorious Bosnian army at the Battle of Bileća (1388).[13] At the Battle of Kosovo (1389) Bosnian King Tvrtko I sent him to command with his troops. Bosnian contingent under Vlatko was positioned at the left flank from the Serbian army led by Prince Lazar of Serbia. The battle was at first reported as a victory, also by Vlatko himself, however it has been concluded as inconclusive, with a long-term Ottoman victory.[16]

In 1448, Stjepan Vukčić Kosača styled himself "By the Grace of God Herceg of Hum and Duke of Primorje, Bosnian Grand Duke, Knyaz of Drina and the rest", adding "Herceg of Hum and the Coast" to the style, and in 1450 he styled himself "By the Grace of God Stjepan Herceg of Saint Sava, Lord of Hum and Bosnian Grand Duke, Knyaz of Drina and the rest", adding "Herceg of Saint Sava".[9][1] This title had considerable public relations value, because Sava's relics were consider miracle-working by people of all Christian faiths. The Kosačas themselves, however, were one of the few non-Orthodox noble families in Hum.[1] His lands were known as Herzog's lands or later Herzegovina.[1][17]

King Stjepan Tomaš of Bosnia married Katarina Kosača, daughter of Stjepan Vukčić, in a Catholic ceremony in May 1446 ensuring, at least for a short while, he had the support of the most powerful nobleman in the kingdom and a staunch supporter of the Bosnian Church, Stjepan Vukčić.[18]

MembersEdit

 
Coat of Arms of the "Vuković", from the Fojnica Armorial (18th century).
 
Sandalj's proto-heraldic escutcheon from marriage to Katarina Vuković Hrvatinić.[19]
  • Ivan Vuković, prince
  • Adam Vuković
  • Sigismund (Šimun) Kotromanić, later converted to Islam and changed his name to Isak-beg Kraljević (Turkish: Ishak-bey Kraloglu)
  • Katarina Kotromanić, later she converted to Islam and changed her name to Tahiri-hanuma, buried in Skopje in "turbe" (mausoleum)

Religious legacyEdit

OrthodoxEdit

The Eastern Orthodox church building attributed as endowment of Stjepan Vukčić is the Church of Saint George in Sopotnica near Goražde, which is believed to be finished during 1452.[20] In the valley of Šćepan Polje, bellow the Soko fort ruins, also foundation remains of the small church of Saint Stephen have been found but the results of archaeological research have never been published, however, it is believed to be endowment of Sandalj Hranić.[21]

CatholicEdit

Catholics from the region often visit Katarina Kosača's tomb in the Roman church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli.[22] Her tombstone features a life-size portrait and the coat of arms of the Kotromanići and Kosača at each side. The inscription, originally written in Bosnian Cyrillic (Inscription, external link) but in 1590 replaced with a Latin one, which reads:[18]

Catharinae Reginae Bosnensi
Stephani ducis santi sabbae sorori
et genere Helene et domo principis
Stephani natae Thomae regis Bosane
vsori Qvanrum vixit annorum LIIII
et obdormivit Romae anno Domini
MCCCCLXXVIII dei XXV oteobris
monumentum ipsus scriptis positiv.

IslamEdit

"Turbe" mausoleum in Skopje which was destroyed in the 1963 Skopje earthquake. The mausoleum in memory of Princess Katherine Kotromanić referred in Turkish sources as the "Tahiri-hanuma" was built by Isa beg Ishaković. It is a very rare occurrence that a mausoleum is dedicated to a female person. After the quake, the mausoleum of the princess was never restored, but the tradition of the locals has been maintained to this day by visiting and burning candles.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Fine 1994, p. 578
  2. ^ Emecen, Ferıdun (2000), Ishak bey - Osmanlı uç beyi (in Turkish), Istanbul: TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi, p. 524, Hıristiyan bir aileye mensup olup Bosnalı aristokrat ailelerden Kosac ve Pavlovicler’le akrabalığından söz edilir
  3. ^ Gökbilgin, Tayyib (1952), Edirne Ve Pasha Livasi (in Turkish), Edirne: İstanbul Üniversitesı Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayinlarindan No.508, p. 333, Ishak beyın, Isa bezden başka, Mehmed Bey ve Hüsvın Bey adında ıkı oğlu daha olduğu ve babasının da Koç Bey ısmınde bırı bulunduğu, Fatıh devrıne aıt ıkı vesıkadan anlaşılmaktadır (krş. Alı Emırı tasnıfıö Fatıh, n. 23,26). Başlıkları şöyledır
  4. ^ Emecen, Ferıdun (2000), Ishak bey - Osmanlı uç beyi (in Turkish), Istanbul: TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi, pp. 524–525, "Kosac" ile "Koç" lakabının benzerliği böyle bir irtıbatın bulunabileceği ihtımalini ortaya koyarsa da burada adı geçen şahsın uç beyi İshak’la ilgisi şüphelidir
  5. ^ Truhelka, Ćiro (1911), Tursko-slovjenski spomenici dubrovačke arhive (in Bosnian), Sarajevo: Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja BiH XXIII., p. 446, Mehmedbega Isabegovića, novog sandžaka krajišnika, karakteriše dragoman Skenderbeg u spomenutom pismu ovako: „a tai sadašni sandžak Esebegovik krotak je človek, kako no za Sinanbega. Na nega da se nešto vele ne tratíte i ne spenžate, nego što mu je zákon od pregašneh vrjemeni. S nim je lasno. Takoj da znáte.“ I to malo riječi je u doba, kada bakšiš u turskoj carevini postaje glavnim državničkim načelom, najbolja pohvala državniku. Ovaj sandžak bio je sin glasovitog Isabega Isabegovića, kóji je pod imenom Mehmed-Čelebije bio gospodar Pavloviča zemlje (1466.—1468.)
  6. ^ Esad Kurtović (2009). Veliki vojvoda bosanski Sandalj Hranić Kosača (PDF) (in Bosnian) (Book 4 of Historijske monografije ed.). Sarajevo: Institut za istoriju. p. 20. ISBN 978-9958-649-01-1. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  7. ^ State Archives of Dubrovnik, 12.04.1437. Diversa Notariae, XXI, 132 (in Latin), Dubrovnik, 1437, ... Nobiles et egregii viri ser Ivan Vochovich et ser Giurag Radivoy Stipchovich ambo Bosinenses et attinentes condam voivode Sandagl ex quatuor domibus attinentium eiusdem voivode...
  8. ^ State Archives of Dubrovnik, 20.04.1437. Diversa Notariae, XXI, 132 (in Latin), Dubrovnik, 1437, ... Nobiles viri Vlatchus Obradovich, Radossauus Stiepchovch, Radiç Stiepchovich, Sladoe Vochovich et Stipan Dragisich omnes Bosinenses attinentes condam voiuode Sandagl ex quatuor domibus attinentum eisdem voivode...
  9. ^ a b Vego, Marko (1982). "Chapter: Humska zemlja". Postanak srednjovjekovne bosanske države (in Serbo-Croatian). Svjetlost. p. 48. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  10. ^ Ćirković, Sima M. (1964). Herceg Stefan Vukčić-Kosača i njegovo doba (in Serbian). Naučno delo. pp. 336–337. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  11. ^ Anđelić, Pavao (1982). "Chapter: Humska zemlja". Studije o teritorijalnopolitičkoj organizaciji srednjovjekovne Bosne (in Serbo-Croatian). "Svjetlost," OOUR Izdavačka djelatnost. pp. 239–240. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  12. ^ Šanjek, Franjo (2005). Fenomen "krstjani" u srednjovjekovnoj Bosni i Humu: sbornik radova. p. 266. ISBN 978-9958-9642-5-1.
  13. ^ a b c d Др. Жељко Фајфрић, Београд, 7. децембар 2000, Котроманићи: "Како су Санковићи сишли са политичке сцене тако се почела издизати породица Косача. Њихово исходиште јесте негде око Фоче где се налазило село Косач, по коме су, могуће је, добили име. Родоначелник ове породице јесте Вук Косача, али породица захваљује свој успон његовом сину Влатку Вуковићу. Он је био од самог почетка један од најповерљивијих људи краља Твртка I. Ишао је у многе преговоре као његов представник, победио Турке код Билеће 1388. године, водио босанску војску на Косову 1389. године, и још доста тога што га је уздигло у односу на остале. Напад на Санковиће била му је и последња акција будући да је већ следеће године (1392.) умро. Наследио га је Сандаљ Хранић, син његовог брата Храње Вуковића. Осим земаља и утицаја, наследио је Сандаљ од стрица Влатка и титулу војводе. У то прво време Сандаљ Хранић нема одлучујући утицај у Босни, будући да су испред њега Павле Раденовић и Хрвоје Вукчић, али његово је време долазило."
  14. ^ Tomović, p. 2
  15. ^ Arheološko društvo Jugoslavije 1968, p. 96
  16. ^ Fine 1994, p. 409–411
  17. ^ The first written document to mention "Herzegovina" is letter from Duke Isa-bey Ishakovic Hranic dated 01/02/1455 recommending to his subordinates his friend out from Dubrovnik merchant Franko to take him wherever he goes, to Pavlovic country, to Moravica or to Herzegovina It is written in "Bosancica" Source: State Archives of Dubrovnik, Historical letter out of Isa bey Ishakovic from 01.02.1455.
  18. ^ a b Miller, William (1921). Essays on the Latin Orient. CUP Archive. pp. 508–509. Retrieved 2011-02-26.
  19. ^ Amer Sulejmanagić (23 July 2015). "Grbovi Vukčića Hrvatinića". Povijesni Prilozi / Historical Contributions (in Croatian). Hrvatski institut za povijest / Croatian Institute of History. 34 (48): 33–68. ISSN 0351-9767. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  20. ^ Ćirković, Sima M. (1964). Herceg Stefan Vukčić-Kosača i njegovo doba (in Serbian). Beograd: Naučno delo. p. 215. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  21. ^ Kurtović, Esad (2009). Veliki vojvoda bosanski Sandalj Hranić Kosača (in Bosnian). Sarajevo: Institut za istoriju. p. 333. ISBN 978-9958-649-01-1. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  22. ^ Thynne, Roger (1924). The churches of Rome. K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & co., ltd. p. 154. Retrieved 2011-02-26.

SourcesEdit

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  • Fine, John Van Antwerp (1975). The Bosnian Church: a new interpretation: a study of the Bosnian Church and its place in state and society from the 13th to the 15th centuries. East European Quarterly.
  • Tomović, Gordana. Oblasni gospodari u 14. veku (PDF) (in Serbo-Croatian). p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26.
  • Serbian Patriarchy (1965). Serbian Orthodox Church: its past and present.
  • Pavle Ivić (1995). The history of Serbian culture. Porthill Publishers. ISBN 9781870732314.
  • Lukovic. Заједничка граница области Косача и области Бранковића јужно од реке (PDF). Balcanica (in Serbian).
  • Arheološko društvo Jugoslavije (1968). Arheološki pregled (in Serbo-Croatian). 10–11. p. 96.
  • Др. Жељко Фајфрић (7 December 2000). Котроманићи (in Serbian). Београд.
  • А. Ивић: Родословне таблице српских династија и властеле, Нови Сад 1928.
  • Дио Сандаљевог депозита за побочну грану племена Косача, У: Српска проза данас : Косаче оснивачи Херцеговине / Ћоровићеви сусрети прозних писаца у Билећи, Научни скуп историчара у Гацку ; [приређивач Радослав Братић]. - Билећа : Просвјета ; Гацко : Просвјета ; Београд : Фонд "Светозар и Владимир Ћоровић", 2002, 261-268.
  • Родоначелник племена Косача – војвода Влатко Вуковић, У: Српска проза данас : Косаче оснивачи Херцеговине / Ћоровићеви сусрети прозних писаца у Билећи. Научни скуп историчара у Гацку / [приређивач Радослав Братић]. - Билећа : Просвјета ; Гацко : Просвјета ; Београд : Фонд “Светозар и Владимир Ћоровић”, 2002, 243-260.
  • Споредна грана племена Косача, У: Зборник за историју Босне и Херцеговине 3 (2002) 61-77.
  • Учешће Косача у ослобађању Јајца од Турака 1463. године, У: Српска проза данас : Косаче оснивачи Херцеговине / Ћоровићеви сусрети прозних писаца у Билећи, Научни скуп историчара у Гацку / [приређивач Радослав Братић]. - Билећа: Просвјета; Гацко: Просвјета; Београд: Фонд "Светозар и Владимир Ћоровић", 2002, 464-475.
  • Prof. Dr. Feridun Emecen, TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi, Turkish academic encyclopedia for Islamic studies, p. 524,525
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