Korean language in China
The Chinese Korean language (Korean: 중국조선말; Hanja: 中國朝鮮말; RR: Jungguk Joseonmal, lit. 'China Joseon language') is the variety of the Korean language spoken by Ethnic Koreans in China, primarily located in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning.
|Chinese Korean language|
|Literal meaning||China Joseon Language|
|Chinese Korean name|
Chinese Korean vocabulary is significantly similar to the North Korean standard, as is orthography; a major exception of orthography is that the spelling of some Chinese cities is different (for example, Beijing is called by the Hanja reading of 北京, 북경 Bukgyeong, rather than the South Korean transcription of Mandarin Beijing, 베이징); exceptions of vocabulary are all related to China.
The text used in the Korean language of Yanbian was originally in Korean mixed script, which made it difficult for a large number of grassroots Korean people to read articles. In 1949, the local newspaper Northeast Korean People's Daily in Yanbian published the "workers and peasants version" which used all-hangul in text, in addition to the existing "cadre version" that had mixed script for the convenience of grassroots Korean people. Starting April 20, 1952, the newspaper abolished the "cadre version" and published in hangul only, soon the entire publishing industry adopted the hangul-only style. On June 28, 1963, Zhou Enlai instructed that the Korean language of Yanbian should be based on the Pyongyang standard of North Korea. Subsequently, the Yanbian Language and History Research Committee standardized the Korean language of Yanbian on the basis of North Korean standard.  Currently, the standardized dialect of Korean amongst Chinese-Koreans is similar to that of North Korea due to China's favorable relations with North Korea, and also the proximity of the two nations.
The southwestern variant of Chinese Korean retains the [ø] pronunciation for ㅚ and [y] for (ㅟ), which have been simplified into [we] and [wi] in standard Korean. The southeastern variant of Chinese Korean does not differentiate the respective pronunciations for [ɛ](ㅐ) and [e] (ㅔ).
Additionally, in the northeast and the southeast regions of this dialect, pitch accent is used.
Chinese Korean also simplifies diphthongs in loanwords into single vowels, such as in the word 땐노 (ddaen-no, "computer"; from Chinese 电脑, diànnăo).
The copula "-ᆸ니까/-습니까" in Standard Korean is rendered as "-ᆷ둥/-슴둥" in dialects of Korean spoken in Northeastern Jilin, and "-ᆷ니꺼/-심니꺼" in dialects spoken in Southwestern Heilongjiang.
At the same time, there are grammatical influences from Standard Chinese, for example:
- 전화 치다 "make a phone call" (Standard Korean: 전화 걸다). In Chinese, the same sentence 打电话 literally means to physically "hit" a telephone, hence the word 치다, "to hit", is used to describe making a phone call.
- 뭘 주면 뭘 먹는다 "eat whatever is given" (Standard Korean: 주는 건 다 먹는다)
Vocabulary is another differentiating factor in comparison with other varieties of Korean, with usage of words such as 개구리 and 개구락지 (frog). As a result of Chinese influence, there are many words that arise from Modern Standard Chinese.
There are also some loanwords that are phonetically transliterated from Japanese that standard Korean doesn't have:
|English||Japanese||Yanbian Korean||Standard Korean||Remark|
|Onion||たまねぎ Tamanegi||다마네기 Tamanaegi||양파 Yangpa|
|Radio||ラジオ Rajio||라지오 Raji'o||라디오 Rati'o||Spelling difference|
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