The Konkow language, also known as Northwest Maidu (also Concow-Maidu, or Koyoomkʼawi in the language itself)[2] is a part of the Maiduan language group. It is spoken in California. It is severely endangered, with three remaining elders who learned to speak it as a first language, one of whom is deaf.[1] As part of an effort to regain official recognition as a federally recognized tribe, an effort to provide language instruction amongst the descendants of the original tribe and affiliated family members has begun.

Northwest Maidu
Koyoom kʼawi
Native toUnited States
EthnicityMaidu, Mechoopda
Native speakers
3 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3mjd
Konkow is classified as Critically Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger

In the name Koyoom kʼawi, koyoo means "meadow", with the additional -m creating the adjective form of the word. Hence, Koyoom kʼawi would be spoken by the Koyoom kʼawim maʼa ("tribe").

Dialects edit

One source supports the claim that Northwest Maidu had at least nine dialects, designated today according to the locality in which each was spoken. These dialects were: Otaki, Mikchopdo, Cherokee, Eskeni, Pulga, Nemsu, Feather Falls, Challenge, and Bidwell Bar. Lexica of each remain scant. In addition, there may have been many family variations within each dialect group; thus, certainly there was no one Konkow language, but Konkow means a phonologically distinct pronunciation from what is popularly defined as 'Maidu' or 'Mountain Maidu', namely in terms of stress patterns on lexicon. According to limited historical data, by the turn of the 19th century there were only four of these dialects still being spoken.

Alternate names edit

The name "Konkow" has been variously spelled Concow and Konkau. The language is also known as Maidu (Meidoo), Holólupai, Michopdo, Nákum, Secumne (Sekumne), Tsamak, Yuba, and the pejorative "Digger".[3]

Modern Konkow edit

Since 2002, a dialect which could be called "Modern Konkow," based on what is conventionally called the Cherokee dialect of Konkow, has come into limited use by some California Native Americans with cultural and familial ties to the old Konkow tribe. This dialect is primarily based on the dialect as learned by Mary Jones, one of the last speakers of Old Konkow, who learned the dialect that was spoken in the vicinity of Cherokee, California. It is being promulgated with a DVD-based course of study called "Twenty-two Lessons in the Koyoongkʼawi Language".

As of 2010, .mp3 learning materials of the Mechoopda dialect were also available, based on old recordings of Emma Cooper, made during the 1940s as a part of the war effort.[4] Also based on the Emma Cooper recordings, a "Konkow Toddler" app was released for iPhone, iPad, and other iOS devices in July 2012.[5]

Materials for study of the Northwest Maidu language, including the 22-lesson course mentioned above, have been made available on the website of the Konkow Maidu Cultural Preservation Association.[6]

Phonology edit

Consonants edit

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive plain p t k ʔ
implosive ɓ ɗ
Affricate t͡sʼ
Fricative s h
Nasal m n
Lateral l
Approximant w j

The affricate /t͡sʼ/ may also be realized as [t͡ʃ]~[t͡ʃʼ] allophonically.

Vowels edit

Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid e ə o
Open a

Vowel length is also present.[7]

References edit

  1. ^ a b Renaissance, Maidu (21 August 2007). "Konkow We'wejbo'sis Project 2007–2011: Concow Language, Annette De Brotherton". Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  2. ^ "Tribal History". Feather Falls Casino. Archived from the original on 2013-04-29. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
  3. ^ "Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English". US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  4. ^ Meridith J. Cooper (2010-09-30). "Preserving Mechoopda tradition - A young tribe member creates a learning program using old recordings of the native language". Chico News & Review. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
  5. ^ "TinkR' Labs launches Konkow Toddler for iOS devices". MacMegasite. 2012-07-30. Archived from the original on 2016-04-04. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  6. ^ "Konkow Maidu Cultural Preservation Association". Retrieved 2012-09-04.
  7. ^ Ultan, Russell (1961). Konkow Grammar. University of California, Berkeley.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)

External links edit