Knights, baronets and peers of the Protectorate

During the Protectorate period (1653–1659) of the Commonwealth of England, the Lord Protector reserved the power previously held by the monarch to confer knighthoods, baronetcies and peerages.

KnightsEdit

Lord Protector Oliver CromwellEdit

Knights made by Oliver Cromwell.[a]

Lord Protector Richard CromwellEdit

Knights made by Lord Protector Richard Cromwell:

Henry Cromwell, Lord Deputy of IrelandEdit

Knights made in Ireland by Henry Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.

BaronetsEdit

The following baronetcies were conferred by the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell (All the Cromwellian Baronetcies became, invalid on the Restoration of Monarchy, 29 May 1660):[10][n]

  • 25 June 1657, John Read of Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire.[7] — Read had a baronet before the Interregnum, so when Cromwell's baronetcies passed into oblivion, he was entitled to use his previous baronetcy.[14]
  • 20 July 1657, John Claypole of Northborough — father of Lord Claypole.[7] Claypole's baronetcy passed into oblivion.[14]
  • 6 October 1657, Thomas Chamberlayne [7] — Chamberlayne had a baronet before the Interregnum, so when Cromwell's baronetcies passed into oblivion at the Restoration, he was entitled to use his previous baronetcy.[15]
  • 5 March 1658, Thomas Beaumont, of Leicestershire [7] — At the Restoration Beaumont's Cromwellian baronetcy passed into oblivion, but he was granted a new one by Charles II on 21 February 1661.[15]
  • 10 April 1658, Colonel Henry Ingoldsby [7] — At the Restoration Ingoldsby's Cromwellian baronetcy passed into oblivion, but he was granted a new one by Charles II on 30 August 1661.[16]
  • 10 April 1658, John Twisleton.[7] — At the Restoration Twisleton's Cromwellian baronetcy passed into oblivion.[16]
  • 10 April 1658, Henry Wright [7] — Son of Cromwell's personal physician, Dr. Laurence Wright. At the Restoration Wright's Cromwellian baronetcy passed into oblivion, but he was granted a new one by Charles II on 11 June 1660.[16]
  • 28 May 1658, Griffith Williams, of Carnarvonshire.[7] — At the Restoration Williams's Cromwellian baronetcy passed into oblivion, but he was granted a new one by Charles II on 17 June 1661.[10]
  • 13 August 1658, Attorney General Edmund Prideaux.[7] — Prideaux shortly after receiving the baronetcy the title was inherited by his son Edmund Prideaux and then less than a year later passed into oblivion at the Restoration.[10]
  • 13 August 1658, Solicitor General William Ellis.[7] — At the Restoration Ellis's Cromwellian baronetcy passed into oblivion,[16] but he received a knighthood from King Charles II on 10 April 1671.[12]
  • 28 August 1658, William Wyndham, county Somerset.[7] — At the Restoration Wyndham's Cromwellian baronetcy passed into oblivion, but he received a knighthood from King Charles II (between April 1660 and April 1661) and was granted a baronetcy by Charles II on 9 December 1661.[17]

The Protectorate baronetcies, being rare, seem to have been much prized; and that of Henry Ingoldsby raised jealousies.[18]

PeersEdit

Peerages conferred by Cromwell were not likely, any more than his Knighthoods and Baronetcies, to be paraded by their possessors after the Restoration.

Permanent life members were created for Cromwell's Other House (similar in concept to the modern life peers who sit in the House of Lords) and were addressed as "Lord". However with the exception of Lord Eure none of those who already had peerages granted under the ancient regime took up their seats in the Other House. When Oliver Cromwell died, those in the funeral procession who had noble titles under the ancient regime were so called (for example Edward Earl of Manchester), those who had sat in Cromwell's Other House were called lord (for example Philip Lord Skipton), but those such as "George Monck, General in Scotland", who had not taken up their seats in the Other House, were not referred to as lord.[19][20]

Aside from the Other House members who were known as lords, two peers are known to have been granted by the Lord Protector and a third may have been:

  • Colonel Charles Howard, a scion of the Norfolk and Surrey and Arundel-landed Howards - "Viscount Howard of Morpeth and Baron Gilsland in Cumberland" — "Cromwell's favourite".[7] He was raised (elevated further) to Earl of Carlisle by Charles II
  • Edmund Dunch, of Little Wittenham, Berks - Baron Burnell, April 20, 1658 — Cromwell's relative.[7] Charles II granted him no title and he, his son and grandson (after which it became extinct) did not use the title after the Restoration.
    • Bulstrode Whitelocke — possibly a viscount. Cromwell, just before his death wanted to grant him this honour, but no use or record other than this wish is known.[7]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ It appears by Cray's examination of Neale, that the Speaker of the House of Commons had the power of knighthood given to him after the execution of King Charles I and that accordingly, in 1649, by recommendation of the House, he knighted Thomas Andrews, Alderman and Lord Mayor of London; and Isaac Fennington and Thomas Atkins, Aldermen of that city.[1][2]
  2. ^ Masson gives the date as 15 April 1656.[5]
  3. ^ A Richard Combe, of Hemel Hempstead was knighted by Charles II on 5 February 1601.[6]
  4. ^ a b Masson date is 10 December 1656[5]
  5. ^ Not mentioned by Masson.[7]
  6. ^ Both Shaw and Masson state the 2 November but Shaw favours the 7 November.[3][7]
  7. ^ Masson dates this award 31 December 1657.[7]
  8. ^ Masson name him Henry Bickering.[7]
  9. ^ Both Shaw and Masson state the 22 March but Shaw favours the 2 March and also mentions the 9 March as a possible date.[3][7]
  10. ^ "Henry Jones of Oxfordshire, mentioned above as fighting at Fenwick's side, became wounded in three places, when, mounting a cavalier's horse, he struck in with the pursuing French cavalry, but had the mishap to be taken prisoner. As soon as ho was exchanged and had got back to England, the Protector knighted him at Hampton Court" (Waylen 1880, p. 212).
  11. ^ The following knighthoods are included by Noble 1784, pp. 442-438, Metcalfe 1885, p. 205—who cites Noble, and Shaw 1906, p. 224—who seems to have based his list on Noble; but are not included in the list provided by Masson 1877, p. 303 and according to George Cokayne (1903) "The best authority for the Cromwellian creations appears to be Masson's Life of Milton":(Cokayne 1903, p. 2)
  12. ^ Dodd cites Whitelock, Memorials , iv, 338, and notes that both Shaw 1906, p. 224 and Noble & 1784 ii, p. 543 misname him John in this context.[9]
  13. ^ Masson dates this one day later on 25 November 1657. He mentions no other knighthoods bestowed by Henry Cromwell.[7]
  14. ^ The best authority for the Cromwellian creations appears to be Masson's Life of Milton in which 11 Baronetcies are stated to have been thus created:(Cokayne 1903, p. 2) Read, Cleypole, Chamberlayne (25 June, 20 July, and 6 Oct. 1657), Beaumont (5 March 1658), Ingoldsby, Twisleton, Wright, Williams, Prideaux, Ellis and Wyndham (10 April [ter] 28 May, 13 Aug. [6is] and 28 Aug. 1658). Of these eleven, the Baronetcy of Wyndham is omitted in Noble's Cromwell (vol. i, pp. 439-442, edit. 1787), while Baronetcies ascribed to Dunch and Willis (certainly in error) and to Lenthal (presumably in error—see below) are therein inserted.
    Masson, who is eminently painstaking and careful, states that the list is the best he has been able to put together. It is mostly the same as that in the [old] Parliamentary History (vol. xxi, p. 220), where these creations stand thus: 1656 [sic] June 25, Read; 1657, July 16, Cleypole; Oct. 6, Chamberlain; Nov. 5, Beaumont; Nov. 24, Twisleton; 1658, March 31, Ingoldsby and Wright; May 28, Williams; Aug. 13, Prideaux and Ellis; Aug. 28, Wyndham. The first date herein (1656) is clearly wrong. (Cokayne 1903, p. 2)
    The undoubted Baronetcies of Prideaux, Ellis, and Wyndham are not in Banks's continuation of Dugdale's Catalogue; the Cromwellian creations given therein (eight in all) being Read, Beaumont, Twisleton, Cleypole, Chamberlayne, Ingoldsby, Wright and Williams. Dunch, Willis and Lenthal (for all three of which Noble's Cromwell seems the only authority) are also (apparently rightly) omitted (Cokayne 1903, p. 6).
    • Edmund Dunch[11] There is an apparently erroneous statement in Noble's Cromwell [vol. i, pp. 438-442, edit. 1787] that "Edmund Dunch, of Little Wittenham, in Berkshire, Esq. [was] created a Baronet, April 26, 1657-8" [sic] by the Lord Protector Cromwell. The date presumably, 26 April 1658, is that on which Edmund Dunch was created a Peer by the Lord Protector, as Baron Brunell of East Wittenham, Berks. (see the Peerages section in this article).[12]
    • Thomas Willis [1] Although Noble mentions this man in his lives as a protectorate baronet, it appears that Noble is confused as Sir Thomas Willys, 1st Baronet who was created a baronet by Charles I in December 1641 (a date early enough to be recognised as a legal creation by the Commonwealth negating the need for the Lord Protector to issue a new honour), and was the man who sat in the Third Protectorate Parliament (see the Wikipedia biography article on the man).[13]
    • John Lenthall[11] Another statement, presumably also erroneous, in Noble's Cromwell, is that a baronetcy was conferred by the Lord Protector on "John Lenthall, Esq., only son of Will. Lenthall, one of Oliver's Lords". No date is assigned to this alleged Cromwellian creation, but, if it ever was conferred, it would probably have been in 1658. John Lenthall was the only son of Speaker William Lenthal, he was knighted by Cromwell on 9 March 1658, hoverer none of the other sources consulted by George Cokayne (1903) found any record of the granting of a baronet to John Lenthall and he concludes that Nobel was in error.[13]
  1. ^ Shaw notes an erratum see infra under date 26 July 1658 (that he was knighted by Henry Cromwell at Dublin Castle — he would not have been knighted twice under the Protectorate), also see p. 232 infra (Shaw 1906, p. 223).
  1. ^ a b Noble 1784, p. 442.
  2. ^ Cokayne 1903, p. 2.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Shaw 1906, p. 223.
  4. ^ Metcalfe 1885, p. 205.
  5. ^ a b Masson 1877, p. 303.
  6. ^ Shaw 1906, p. 233.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Masson 1877, p. 354.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Shaw 1906, p. 224.
  9. ^ Dodd 2009.
  10. ^ a b c Cokayne 1903, p. 6.
  11. ^ a b Noble 1784, pp. 438-442.
  12. ^ a b Cokayne 1903, p. 7.
  13. ^ a b Cokayne 1903, p. 8.
  14. ^ a b Cokayne 1903, p. 3.
  15. ^ a b Cokayne 1903, p. 4.
  16. ^ a b c d Cokayne 1903, p. 5.
  17. ^ Cokayne 1903, pp. 7, 238.
  18. ^ Masson 1877, p. 354 cites: letter of Henry Cromwell in Thurloe, VII. 57.
  19. ^ Rutt 1828, p. 527.
  20. ^ Forster 1846, p. 641.

ReferencesEdit

  • Dodd, Arthur Herbert (2009), "The biography of Sir Thomas Morgan, 1st Baronet", Dictionary of Welsh Biography, National Library of Wales, retrieved 3 December 2013
  • Cokayne, George Edward (1903), Complete baronetage: 1649 – 1664, 3, Exeter: W. Pollard & Company, pp. 2, 3–9
  • Masson, David (1877), The Life of John Milton: 1654-1660, 5 (7 volumes ed.), pp. , 354
  • Forster, John (1846), The Statesmen of the Commonwealth of England: With a Treatise on the Popular Progress in English History, 5, Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longmans, p. 641
  • Metcalfe, Walter Charles (1885), A Book of Knights Banneret, Knights of the Bath, and Knights Bachelor made between the fourth year of King Henry VI and the restoration of King Charles II ..., London: Mitchell and Hughes, pp. 205, 215
  • Noble, Mark (1784), Memoirs of several persons and families who by females are allied to, or descended from the protectorate-house of Cromwell: chiefly collected from original papers and records, to which is added a catalogue of such persons who were raised to honors or great employments by the Cromwells, with the lives of many of them, 2 (2nd ed.), London: Pearson and Rollason, sold by R. Baldwin, pp. 538541 – contains a short biography on those knighted by Oliver and Richard Cromwell, and is the source used by both Metcalfe (1885) and Shaw (1906).
  • Noble, Mark (1784), Memoirs of several persons and families who by females are allied to, or descended from the protectorate-house of Cromwell: chiefly collected from original papers and records, to which is added a catalogue of such persons who were raised to honors or great employments by the Cromwells, with the lives of many of them, 2 (3rd ed.), London: Pearson and Rollason, sold by R. Baldwin, pp. 439–422
  • Rutt, John Towill, ed. (1828), Diary, of Thomas Burton, Esq. Member in the Parliaments of Oliver and Richard Cromwell from 1656-59 ...: With an introduction containing an Account of the Parliament of 1654; from the Journal of Guibon Goddard, II (IV volumes ed.), H. Colburn, p. 527
  • Shaw, William Arthur (1906), The Knights of England: A complete record from the earliest time to the present day of the knights of all the orders of chivalry in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and of knights bachelors, incorporating a complete list of knights bachelors dubbed in Ireland, 2, London: Sherratt and Hughes
  • Waylen, James (1880), The house of Cromwell and the story of Dunkirk, London: Chapman and Hall, p. 212

Further readingEdit

  • Prestwich, John (1787), Prestwich's Respublica, Or, A Display of the Honors, Ceremonies & Ensigns of the Common-wealth Under the Protectorship of Oliver Cromwell, J. Nichols, p. 149–171