Order of St Michael and St George
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III.
|The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George|
Collar and Badge of the Grand Cross
|Awarded by |
Sovereign of the United Kingdom
|Type||Order of chivalry|
|Established||28 April 1818|
|Motto||Auspicium Melioris Ævi|
Token of a Better Age
|Eligibility||Typically British or commonwealth citizens|
|Awarded for||At the monarch's pleasure, though typically awarded for extraordinary non-military service in a foreign country and for services to foreign and commonwealth affairs.|
|Founder||Prince George, Prince Regent|
|Sovereign||Queen Elizabeth II|
|Grand Master||Prince Edward, Duke of Kent|
|Grades||Knight/Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)|
Knight/Dame Commander (KCMG/DCMG)
|Next (higher)||Order of the Star of India|
|Next (lower)||Order of the Indian Empire|
Ribbon bar of the Order of St Michael and St George
The Order of St Michael and St George was originally awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, and was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire. It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, and can also be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs.
The Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority and rank:
- Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)
- Knight Commander (KCMG) or Dame Commander (DCMG)
- Companion (CMG)
It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations. People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are regularly appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), and then after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander (KCMG). It is the traditional award for members of the FCO.
The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi (Latin for "Token of a better age"). Its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, and St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael trampling over and subduing Satan in battle.
The Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer fully a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse; no appointments have been made to it since 1936. The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has also been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947.
The Prince Regent founded the Order to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted their own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817. It was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, and for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean".
In 1864, however, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became part of Greece. A revision of the basis of the Order in 1868, saw membership granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, and in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.
The British Sovereign is the Sovereign of the Order and appoints all other members of the Order (by convention, on the advice of the Government). The next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was formerly filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands; now, however, Grand Masters are chosen by the Sovereign. Grand Masters include:
- 1818–1825: Sir Thomas Maitland
- 1825–1850: Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
- 1850–1904: Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
- 1904–1910: George, Prince of Wales
- 1910–1917: None
- 1917–1936: Edward, Prince of Wales
- 1936–1957: Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone
- 1957–1959: Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax
- 1959–1967: Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis
- 1967–present: Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
The Order originally included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, and 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, and 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor do foreign members appointed as "honorary members".
The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers. The Usher of the Order is known as the Gentleman or Lady Usher of the Blue Rod. Blue Rod does not, unlike the usher of the Order of the Garter, perform any duties related to the House of Lords.
Habit and insigniaEdit
Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions (such as coronations), which vary by rank:
- The mantle, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of Saxon blue satin lined with crimson silk. On the left side is a representation of the star (see below). The mantle is bound with two large tassels.
- The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold. It consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, and the cyphers "SM" and "SG", all alternately. In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows.
At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used:
- The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders. It is worn pinned to the left breast. The Knight and Dame Grand Cross' star includes seven-armed, silver-rayed 'Maltese Asterisk' (for want of a better description—see image of badge), with a gold ray in between each pair of arms. The Knight and Dame Commander's star is a slightly smaller eight-pointed silver figure formed by two Maltese Crosses; it does not include any gold rays. In each case, the star bears a red cross of St George. In the centre of the star is a dark blue ring bearing the motto of the Order. Within the ring is a representation of St Michael trampling on Satan.
- The badge is the only insignia used by all members of the Order; it is suspended on a blue-crimson-blue ribbon. Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear it on a riband or sash, passing from the right shoulder to the left hip. Knights Commanders and male Companions wear the badge from a ribbon around the neck; Dames Commanders and female Companions wear it from a bow on the left shoulder. The badge is a seven-armed, white-enamelled 'Maltese Asterisk' (see Maltese Cross); the obverse shows St Michael trampling on Satan, while the reverse shows St George on horseback killing a dragon, both within a dark blue ring bearing the motto of the Order. In June 2020, discussions started concerning modification of the insignia because they show a dark-skinned Satan defeated by white St Michael.
On certain "collar days" designated by the Sovereign, members attending formal events may wear the Order's collar over their military uniform or morning wear. When collars are worn (either on collar days or on formal occasions such as coronations), the badge is suspended from the collar. All collars which have been awarded since 1948 must be returned to the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood. The other insignia may be retained.
The original home of the Order was the Palace of St. Michael and St. George in Corfu, the residence of the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands and the seat of the Ionian Senate. Since 1906, the Order's chapel has been in St Paul's Cathedral in London. (The Cathedral also serves as home to the chapels of The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire and the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor.) Religious services for the whole Order are held quadrennially; new Knights and Dames Grand Cross are installed at these services.
The Sovereign and the Knights and Dames Grand Cross are allotted stalls in the choir of the chapel, above which their heraldic devices are displayed. Perched on the pinnacle of a knight's stall is his helm, decorated with a mantling and topped by his crest. Under English heraldic law, women other than monarchs do not bear helms or crests; instead, the coronet appropriate to the dame's rank, if there is one, is used. Above the crest or coronet, the stall's occupant's heraldic banner is hung, emblazoned with his or her coat of arms. At a considerably smaller scale, to the back of the stall is affixed a piece of brass (a "stall plate") displaying its occupant's name, arms and date of admission into the Order. Upon the death of a Knight, the banner, helm, mantling and crest are taken down. The stall plates, however, are not removed; rather, they remain permanently affixed somewhere about the stall, so that the stalls of the chapel are festooned with a colourful record of the Order's Knights and Dames Grand Cross since 1906.
Precedence and privilegesEdit
Members of the Order of St Michael are assigned positions in the order of precedence in England and Wales. Wives of male members also feature on the order of precedence, as do sons, daughters and daughters-in-law of Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders; relatives of female members, however, are not assigned any special precedence. (As a general rule, individuals can derive precedence from their fathers or husbands, but not from their mothers or wives.)
Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders prefix "Sir", and Dames Grand Cross and Dames Commanders prefix "Dame", to their forenames. Wives of Knights may prefix "Lady" to their surnames, but no equivalent privilege exists for husbands of Dames. Such forms are not used by peers and princes, except when the names of the former are written out in their fullest forms. Furthermore, honorary (foreign) members and clergymen do not receive the accolade and thus are not entitled to use the prefix "Sir" or "Dame". Knights and Dames Grand Cross use the post-nominal "GCMG"; Knights Commanders and Dames Commanders use "KCMG" and "DCMG" respectively; Companions use "CMG".
Knights and Dames Grand Cross are also entitled to receive heraldic supporters. They may, furthermore, encircle their arms with a depiction of the circlet (a circle bearing the motto) and the collar; the former is shown either outside or on top of the latter. Knights and Dames Commanders and Companions may display the circlet, but not the collar, surrounding their arms. The badge is depicted suspended from the collar or circlet.
In the satirical British television programme Yes Minister, Jim Hacker MP is told an old joke by his Private Secretary Bernard Woolley about what the various post-nominals stand for. From Season 2, Episode 2 "Doing the Honours":
Woolley: In the [civil] service, CMG stands for "Call Me God". And KCMG for "Kindly Call Me God".
Hacker: What does GCMG stand for?
Woolley (deadpan): "God Calls Me God".
Both sexes use the same post-nominal initials, except that there is a distinctly female form of Knight Commander of St Michael and St George. This is Dame Commander of St. Michael and St George (DCMG).
Ian Fleming's spy, James Bond, a commander in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (RNVR) was fictionally decorated with the CMG in 1953. (This is mentioned in the novels From Russia, with Love and On Her Majesty's Secret Service, and on-screen in his obituary in Skyfall.) He was offered the KCMG (which would have elevated him from Companion to Knight Commander in the Order) in The Man with the Golden Gun, but he rejected the offer as he did not wish to become a public figure. Dame Judi Dench's character "M" is "offered" early retirement and a GCMG in Skyfall after a series of events resulting in the loss of a list that named every NATO espionage operative.
Current Knights and Dames Grand CrossEdit
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(NOTE: For clarity, the table denotes holders of the GCMG only; all other posts-nominal shown, for respective members, are for the sake of completeness alone.)
Knights and Dames Grand CrossEdit
|1||Sayyid Sir Jamshid bin Abdullah of Zanzibar||Sultan of Zanzibar||1963|
|2||The Duke of Kent||Royal family||1967|
|3||Dame Elmira Minita Gordon||Governor General of Belize||1984|
|4||Sir Antony Acland||British diplomat||1986|
|5||Sir Crispin Tickell||British diplomat||1989|
|6||Sir Shridath Ramphal||OE OM OCC||Secretary General of the Commonwealth of Nations||1990|
|7||Sir Michael Somare||GCL CF KStJ SSI KSG||Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea||1990|
|8||Dame Catherine Tizard||Governor General of New Zealand||1990|
|9||The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn||Governor of Hong Kong||1991|
|10||Sir Wiwa Korowi||Governor General of Papua New Guinea||1992|
|11||Sir James Carlisle||Governor General of Antigua and Barbuda||1993|
|12||Sir Rodric Braithwaite||British diplomat||1994|
|13||Sir Julius Chan||Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea||1994|
|14||Sir Colville Young||Governor General of Belize||1994|
|15||The Lord Hannay of Chiswick||British diplomat||1995|
|16||Sir Orville Turnquest||Governor General of the Bahamas||1995|
|17||Sir Michael Hardie Boys||Governor General of New Zealand||1996|
|18||Sir Christopher Mallaby||British diplomat||1996|
|19||Sir Tulaga Manuella||Governor General of Tuvalu||1996|
|20||Sir Daniel Williams||Governor General of Grenada||1996|
|21||Sir John Coles||British diplomat||1997|
|22||Sir Silas Atopare||Governor General of Papua New Guinea||1998|
|23||Sir John Lapli||Governor General of the Solomon Islands||1999|
|24||Dame Pearlette Louisy||Governor General of Saint Lucia||1999|
|25||Sir Andrew Wood||British diplomat||2001|
|26||Sir John Goulden||British diplomat||2001|
|27||The Lord Kerr of Kinlochard||British diplomat||2001|
|28||Sir Tomasi Puapua||Governor General of Tuvalu||2002|
|29||Sir David Wright||British diplomat||2002|
|30||Sir Jeremy Greenstock||British diplomat||2003|
|31||Sir Rob Young||British diplomat||2003|
|32||The Lord Robertson of Port Ellen||Secretary General of NATO||2004|
|33||Sir Stephen Wall||British diplomat||2004|
|34||Sir Paulias Matane||Governor General of Papua New Guinea||2005|
|35||Sir Nathaniel Waena||CSI||Governor General of Solomon Islands||2005|
|36||The Lord Jay of Ewelme||British diplomat||2006|
|37||Sir Emyr Jones Parry||British diplomat||2007|
|38||Sir Kenneth O. Hall||OJ||Governor General of Jamaica||2007|
|39||Dame Louise Lake-Tack||Governor General of Antigua and Barbuda||2007|
|40||Sir David Manning||British diplomat||2008|
|41||Sir Carlyle Glean||Governor General of Grenada||2008|
|42||Sir Patrick Allen||ON||Governor General of Jamaica||2009|
|43||Sir Frank Kabui||CSI||Governor General of Solomon Islands||2009|
|44||Sir Arthur Foulkes||Governor General of the Bahamas||2010|
|45||Sir Iakoba Italeli||Governor General of Tuvalu||2010|
|46||The Lord Ricketts||British diplomat||2011|
|47||Sir Nigel Sheinwald||British diplomat||2011|
|48||Sir Elliott Belgrave||Governor General of Barbados||2012|
|49||Dame Cécile La Grenade||Governor General of Grenada||2013|
|50||Sir Edmund Lawrence||Governor General of Saint Kitts and Nevis||2013|
|51||Dame Marguerite Pindling||Governor General of the Bahamas||2014|
|52||Sir Rodney Williams||Governor General of Antigua and Barbuda||2014|
|53||The Baroness Ashton of Upholland||British diplomat||2015|
|54||Sir John Sawers||British diplomat||2015|
|55||Sir Tapley Seaton||Governor General of Saint Kitts and Nevis||2015|
|56||Sir Simon Fraser||British diplomat||2016|
|57||Sir Peter Westmacott||British diplomat||2016|
|58||Sir Robert Dadae||Governor General of Papua New Guinea||2017|
|59||Dame Sandra Mason||DA QC||Governor General of Barbados||2017|
|60||Sir Mark Lyall Grant||British diplomat & National Security Adviser||2018|
|61||Sir Neville Cenac||Governor General of Saint Lucia||2018|
|62||Sir Cornelius A. Smith||Governor General of the Bahamas||2019|
|63||Sir David Vunagi||Governor General of Solomon Islands||2019|
|64||Dame Susan Dougan||Governor General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||2020|
- Prelate: David Urquhart (Lord Bishop of Birmingham)
- Chancellor: The Lord Robertson of Port Ellen
- Secretary: Sir Simon McDonald , Permanent Under-Secretary of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
- Registrar: Sir David Manning
- King of Arms: Sir Jeremy Greenstock
- Gentleman Usher of the Blue Rod: Dame DeAnne Julius
Honorary Knights/Dame Grand Cross (GCMG)Edit
|Vigdís Finnbogadóttir||Former President of Iceland||1982|
|Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei||Sultan of Brunei||1984|
|Abdelaziz bin Khalifa Al Thani||Member of the royal family of Qatar||1985|
|Gyanendra of Nepal||Former King of Nepal||1986|
|Fidel V. Ramos||Former President of the Philippines||1995|
|Aleksander Kwaśniewski||Former President of Poland||1996|
|Maumoon Abdul Gayoom||Former President of the Maldives||1997|||
|Nawaz Sharif||Former Prime Minister of Pakistan||1997|
|Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani||Former Emir of Qatar||1997|
|Carlos Menem||Former President of Argentina||1998|
|Ernesto Zedillo||Former President of Mexico||1998|
|Alberto Fujimori||Former President of Peru||1998|
|János Martonyi||Former Minister of Foreign Affairs||1999|||
|Abdullah II of Jordan||King of Jordan||1999|
|Friis Arne Petersen||Former Director of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark||2000|
|Giuliano Amato||Former Prime Minister of Italy||2000|
|Lamberto Dini||Former Prime Minister of Italy||2000|
|Umberto Vattani||Former Secretary General of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs||2000|
|Emil Constantinescu||Former President of Romania||2000|
|Thabo Mbeki||Former President of South Africa||2000|
|Nursultan Nazarbayev||Former President of Kazakhstan||2000|
|Ali Abu al-Ragheb||Former Prime Minister of Jordan||2001|
|Jorge Sampaio||Former President of Portugal||2001|
|Anson Chan||GBM||Former Chief Secretary of Hong Kong|||
|Vicente Fox||Former President of Mexico||2002|||
|Xanana Gusmão||GCL,,||Former Prime Minister of East Timor||2003|
|Hamid Karzai||Former President of Afghanistan||2003|
|Alfred Moisiu||Former President of Albania||2003|
|Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz||Former Prime Minister of Poland||2004|
|Gianfranco Fini||Former Deputy Prime Minister of Italy||2005|
|Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum||Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates||2010|||
|Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan||Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi||2010|||
|Sabah Al Khalid Al Sabah||Deputy Prime Minister of Kuwait||2012|||
|Manuel Valls||Former Prime Minister of France||2014|||
|Marie Louise Coleiro Preca||Former President of Malta||2015|||
Honorary Knights/Dames Commander (KCMG/DCMG)Edit
|Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa||King of Bahrain||1979|
|Henry Kissinger||Former United States Secretary of State||1995|
|Frederico Cezar de Araujo||Brazilian diplomat||1997|
|Gelson Fonseca||Brazilian diplomat||1997|
|Affonso Emilio de Alencastro Massot||Brazilian diplomat||1997|
|Takekazu Kawamura||Japanese diplomat||1998|
|Henrik Schmiegelow||German diplomat||1998|
|Carl Bildt||Former Prime Minister of Sweden||1998|||
|József Szájer||Former Chairman of the European Integration Select Committee||1999|
|Jan Marcussen||Danish diplomat||2000|
|Carmela Decaro Bonella||Former Deputy Director General and Director of the President of Italy’s Office||2000|
|Luigo Guidobono Cavalchini||Former Private Secretary to the Foreign Minister of Italy||2000|
|Francesco Olivieri||Former Diplomatic Adviser to the Prime Minister of Italy||2000|
|Javier Solana||Former Secretary General of NATO||2000|
|Richard Armitage||, ,||Former United States Deputy Secretary of State||2005|
|Fazle Hasan Abed||Founder and chairman of BRAC||2010|
|Jaap de Hoop Scheffer||Former Secretary General of NATO||2010|||
|Sadako Ogata||Japanese academic and diplomat||2011|
|Efthymios Mitropoulos||Former Secretary-General of International Maritime Organization||2011|
|Marzuki Alie||Former Speaker of the Indonesian House of Representatives||2012|
|Irman Gusman||Former Speaker of the Indonesian House of Regional Representatives||2012|
|Marty Natalegawa||Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia||2012|
|Sudi Silalahi||Former Secretary of State of Indonesia||2012|
|Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan||Minister of Foreign Affairs of the UAE||2013|
|Yun Byung-se||Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of South Korea||2013|
|Jacques Rogge||Former President of the International Olympic Committee||2014|
|Angelina Jolie||American actress, filmmaker, and humanitarian||2014|||
|Laurent Fabius||Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of France||2014|
|Laurent Stefanini||Former Ambassador, Chief of Protocol to President Hollande||2014|
|Grace Fu||Former Minister for Foreign Affairs of Singapore||2014|
|Anders Fogh Rasmussen||Former Secretary General of NATO||2015|||
|José Antonio Meade Kuribreña||Former Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico||2015|||
|Joseph Muscat||Former Prime Minister of Malta||2015|||
|Peter Piot||Belgian microbiologist||2016|||
|George Vella||Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Malta now President of Malta||2018|
|Zeid Raad Al Hussein||Former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights||2019|
- Duckers, Peter (2009) . British Orders and Decorations. Oxford: Shire Publications. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-7478-0580-9. OCLC 55587484.
- The Royal Household (2009). "Order of St. Michael and St. George". The Official Website of the British Monarchy. London: Crown Copyright. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- Townsend, Francis (1828). Calendar of Knights. William Pickering. p. 206.
- "Knights/Knighthoods genealogy project". geni_family_tree. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Evelyn Bark, article in The Independent
- Joseph Netto; Leah Asmelash. "Jamaica's governor-general suspends personal use of royal insignia over 'offending image'". CNN. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- Henry POOLE 1873–1928 (Tate Britain); retrieved 1 October 2009.
- Cross, Colin (1968). The Fall of the British Empire. London: Book Club Associates.
- "H.K.'s ex-No. 2 leader Anson Chan honored by Queen Elizabeth". Findarticles. 11 November 2002. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
- Alice Johnson Khalifa, Queen Elizabeth II exchange orders. Gulf News. 26 November 2010 Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- List of honorary British knights and dames
- "Honorary awards" (PDF). Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- "Honorary awards" (PDF). Retrieved 30 June 2017.
-  Archived 1 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Hoge Britse ridderorde voor De Hoop Scheffer" (in Dutch).
- "Honorary British Awards to Foreign Nationals – 2014". Archived from the original on 16 October 2014.
- "Honorary British Awards to Foreign Nationals – 2015" (PDF).
- "Honorary awards" (PDF).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Order of St Michael and St George.|
- "Knighthood and Chivalry", (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
- Orans, L. P. "The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George"
- Velde, F. R. (2003). "Order of Precedence in England and Wales"
- State Library of New South Wales: Nelson Meers Foundation—gallery to full set of insignia, including images of both sides of the badge and a close-up of the star.