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Kiro Gligorov (Macedonian: Киро Глигоров, pronounced [ˈkirɔ ˈɡliɡɔrɔf] (About this soundlisten); May 3, 1917 – January 1, 2012) was the first President of the Republic of Macedonia, serving from 1991 to 1999. He held various high positions in the political establishment of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including as Secretary of State for Finance in the Federal Executive Council, a member of the Yugoslav Presidency, as well as President of the Assembly of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from May 15, 1974 to May 15, 1978.

Kiro Gligorov
Киро Глигоров
Kiro Gligorov.jpg
1st President of Macedonia
In office
January 27, 1991 – November 19, 1999
Vice PresidentLjubčo Georgievski (1991)[1]
Preceded byVladimir Mitkov (as President of the SR Macedonia)
Succeeded byBoris Trajkovski
Personal details
Born(1917-05-03)May 3, 1917
Štip, Serbia (under Bulgarian occupation)
DiedJanuary 1, 2012(2012-01-01) (aged 94)
Skopje, Macedonia
NationalityYugoslav/Macedonian
Political partyLCM/Independent[2]
Spouse(s)Nada Misheva (1943–2009; her death)
Children3

Contents

Early lifeEdit

Born in Štip, Kingdom of Serbia (then occupied by Bulgaria),[3] Gligorov later graduated from the University of Belgrade's Law School. After the defeat of Yugoslavia in 1941, he returned to Skopje (then annexed by Bulgaria), where Gligorov worked as a lawyer until 1943. Afterwards he participated in the National Liberation War of Macedonia as a secretary of the Initiative committee for the organization of the Antifascist Assembly of the National Liberation of Macedonia (ASNOM) and a finance commissioner in the Presidium of ASNOM.[4] He served as Finance Minister of Yugoslavia from 1962 to 1967.

After the promotion of parliamentary democracy in the country in 1990, he became the first democratically elected president of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia on January 27, 1991. On April 16, 1991, the parliament adopted the constitutional amendment for removing the "Socialist" adjective from the official name of the country, and on June 7 the same year, the new name Republic of Macedonia was officially established, hence Gligorov continued his presidency as the President of the Republic of Macedonia.[5]

He served for two terms, from January 27, 1991, to November 19, 1999. He was re-elected for his second term in office on November 19, 1994. He led his country to independence proclaimed after the referendum held on September 8, 1991, and tried to keep it out of the Yugoslav wars, a task made difficult by disputes with the Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Bulgaria and Greece who all faced separate issues with the country.[citation needed]

Assassination attemptEdit

 
Assassination attempt

On October 3, 1995, Gligorov was the target of a car bomb assassination attempt in Skopje. While on route from his residence to his office, the vehicle carrying Gligorov was blown up by an explosion from a parked vehicle, killing his driver and injuring several passers-by. Gligorov was seriously injured above his right eye and was immediately conveyed to the hospital.[6]

Since the incident there have been no suspects brought to book and no progress has been made in the investigation of the case. However, there have been short-lived speculations as to who could be the culprits. Shortly after bombing, the Minister of Internal Affairs Ljubomir Frčkovski publicly claimed that "a powerful multinational company from a neighbouring country" was behind the assassination attempt,[7] with the Macedonian media pointing at the Bulgarian Multigroup and the Yugoslav KOS as possible suspects.[7] During a meeting between Multigroup head Iliya Pavlov and Gligorov in Ohrid, Pavlov assured Gligorov that his organisation was not involved.[7] All investigations were futile.[7]

Gligorov was incapacitated until November 17, 1995. He was permanently blind in one eye as a result. Stojan Andov was acting president during Gligorov's recuperation.[citation needed]

The election for Gligorov's successor took place only a few days before the end of his term.

DeathEdit

Gligorov died at the age of 94 in the early hours of January 1, 2012, in his sleep.[8][9] At his own request, the funeral was private with only his closest family in attendance. He was buried in Butel Municipality, Skopje.[10]

Kiro was the father of Vladimir Gligorov, a refounder of the Democratic Party in Serbia.

Personal lifeEdit

In October 1943, Gligorov married Nada Misheva (6 January 1920 – 26 June 2009)[11][12] and had one son and two daughters.

HonoursEdit

  •     Order of the Yugoslav Star with Sash [13]
  •     Order of Brotherhood and Unity with golden wreath
  •     Order of Labours with red flag[14]
  •     Jubilee Medal "65 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945[15]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=G6iBAgAAQBAJ
  2. ^ Sabrina P. Ramet et al., Building Democracy in the Yugoslav Successor States: Accomplishments, Setbacks, and Challenges since 1990, Cambridge University Press, 2017, ISBN 1107180740, p. 290.
  3. ^ The European powers in the First World War: an encyclopedia, Spencer Tucker, Laura Matysek Wood, Taylor & Francis, 1996, ISBN 0-8153-0399-8, p. 150.
  4. ^ Interview, "Utrinski vesnik" daily newspaper, issue 1497, August 31, 2006 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia Archived May 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Gligorov became president on January 27, 1991, when the official name of the country was still Socialist Republic of Macedonia -On This Day - Macedonian Information Agency Archived 2008-01-25 at the Wayback Machine, see: 1991: The official change of the state's name (in Macedonian)
  6. ^ Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso
  7. ^ a b c d "11th anniversary of assassination attempt on Gligorov, perpetrators unknown". MRT. 2006-10-03. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2006-10-22.
  8. ^ Former Macedonian president Kiro Gligorov dies[permanent dead link], charlotteobserver.com, 2 January 2012
  9. ^ https://mobile.nytimes.com/2012/01/03/world/europe/kiro-gligorov-macedonia-president-in-1990s-dies-at-94.html
  10. ^ "Погребан претседателот Глигоров" (in Macedonian). 3 January 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
  11. ^ http://www.utrinski.mk/default.asp?ItemID=A44E963EB41B1149873BE36E3B914CD1[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ http://vecer.mk/makedonija/pochina-nada-gligorova
  13. ^ http://daily.mk/ekonomija/dosie-kiro-gligorov-drzhavnik-prezhivea-atentat-ljubovna-afera
  14. ^ http://sitel.com.mk/dnevnik/makedonija/politichkiot-zivot-na-kiro-gligorov
  15. ^ http://www.vest.mk/DEFAULT.ASP?ItemID=CE993917ED1EBC4EA4AC35D071999969[permanent dead link]

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
Vladimir Mitkov
President of the SR Macedonia
1991
Succeeded by
Post abolished
(himself as President of the Republic of Macedonia)
Preceded by
post created
(himself as President of the SR Macedonia)
President of the Republic of Macedonia
1991–1999
Succeeded by
Boris Trajkovski