Kirkuk Governorate

Kirkuk Governorate (Arabic: محافظة كركوك‎, romanizedMuḥāfaẓat Karkūk,[3] Turkish: Kerkük ili,[4][5] Kurdish: پارێزگای کەرکووک‎, romanized: Parêzgeha Kerkûkê/Parêzgayi Kerkûk,[6][7] Syriac: ܗܘܦܪܟܝܐ ܕܟܪܟܘܟ‎, romanizedHoparkiya d’Kerkouk[8]) or Kirkuk Province is a governorate in northern Iraq. The governorate has an area of 9,679 square kilometres (3,737 sq mi). In 2017 the estimated population was 1,259,561 people.[9] The provincial capital is the city of Kirkuk. It is divided into four districts.

Kirkuk Governorate
Location of Kirkuk Governorate
Coordinates: 35°22′N 44°8′E / 35.367°N 44.133°E / 35.367; 44.133Coordinates: 35°22′N 44°8′E / 35.367°N 44.133°E / 35.367; 44.133
Country Iraq (Disputed territories of Northern Iraq)[1]
CapitalKirkuk
Government
 • TypeProvincial municipality
Area
 • Total9,679 km2 (3,737 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)
 • Total1,597,876
Official language(s)Arabic, Turkish, Kurdish, Syriac
HDI (2018)0.708[2]
high · 1st of 17

From 1976 to 2006, it was named At-Ta'mim Governorate,[10] which means "Nationalization" and refers to the national ownership of the regional oil and natural gas reserves. Prior to 1976 it had been named Kirkuk Governorate. In 2006, the name "Kirkuk Governorate" was restored.[10]

Governorate governmentEdit

 
Districts of Kirkuk Governorate

DistrictsEdit

District Total population, 2006
Dibis 34,254
Daquq 40,237
Hawija 450,267
Kirkuk 402,249

DemographicsEdit

Kirkuk Governorate borders were altered in 1976; when 4 districts were added to the Sulaymaniya, Diyala and Saladin Governorates. With these 4 districts, in the Kirkuk Governorate the Kurds would form a clear majority.[13] The Kirkuk Governorate as well received the Arab populated Zab District from the Mosul Governorate.[14]

With the Arabization policies of the Ba'ath party, the number of Arabs in official censuses increased fivefold within 40 years, however the most reliable data indicative of the ethnic breakdown of the governorate are those of the 1957 census.[15] The number of Kurds remained relatively constant from 1957 until 1977, decrease in their numbers coincides with the Arabization process in the 1990s.[16] The Turkmens were seriously affected by the Ba'ath changing Kirkuk borders their percentage fell from 21% to 7%.

Starting from 1977, 2,000 Christians (Assyrians) were registered as Arabs. From the end of the Gulf War to 1999, about 11,000 Kurdish families were deported from Kirkuk.[17][18] Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, 100,000 Kurds have returned to the city of Kirkuk.[19]

Census results for Kirkuk Governorate[15]
Mother tongue 1947 (Ethnicity) Percentage 1957 Percentage 1977 Percentage 1997 Percentage
Arabic 109,620 28% 218,755 45% 544,596 72%
Kurdish 151,575[20] 53% 187,593 48% 184,875 38% 155,861 21%
Turkish 83,371 21% 80,347 17% 50,099 7%
Syriac 1,605 0.4% N/A N/A N/A N/A
Hebrew 4,042[21] 1.05% 123 0.003% N/A N/A N/A N/A
Other 6,545 1.77% N/A N/A N/A N/A
Total 285,900[20] 388,829 483,977 752,745

A report by the International Crisis Group points out that figures from 1977 and 1997 censuses "are all considered highly problematic, due to suspicions of regime manipulation" because Iraqi citizens were only allowed to indicate belonging to either the Arab or Kurdish ethnic groups;[22] consequently, this skewed the number of other ethnic minorities, such as Iraq's third largest ethnic group – the Iraqi Turkmen.[22]

2018 election resultsEdit

The following is the results of the 2018 Iraqi parliamentary election in the Kirkuk governorate. Election results are often used to estimate the demographics of the region. However, Iraqi citizens do not necessary vote for parties based on its ethnic affiliation.

Party Total vote[23] Percentage Seats
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan 183,283 37.8% 6
Arab Alliance of Kirkuk 84,102 17.4% 3
Turkman Front of Kirkuk 79,694 16.4% 3
Victory Coalition 24,328 5% 0
Conquest Alliance 18,427 3.8% 0
National Coalition 14,979 3.1% 0
Nishtiman coalition
Movement for Change
Coalition for Democracy and Justice
Kurdistan Islamic Group
14,118 2.9% 0
New Generation Movement 13,096 2.7% 0
Chaldean Coalition
Reserved Christian Seat
4,864 1% 1
Kurdistan Islamic Group 4,631 1% 0
Chaldean Syriac Assyrian Popular Council 3,810 0.8% 0
Others 39,286 8.1% 0
Total 484,618 100% 12(+1)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hanish, Shak (1 March 2010). "The Kirkuk Problem and Article 140 of the Iraqi Constitution: The Kirkuk Problem . ". Digest of Middle East Studies: 15–25. doi:10.1111/j.1949-3606.2010.00002.x. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  2. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  3. ^ "الرئيسية". kirkuk.gov.iq (in Arabic). Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  4. ^ "Bir Türkmen Şehri Kerkük". Dergipark. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  5. ^ Yawooz Hameed Mahmood,1Murat Kütük, Tawis Mohammed Kamel Ahmed. "Kerkük (Irak) İli̇ İçme Suyunun Ki̇myasal Parametreleri̇ Açisindan Değerlendi̇ri̇lmesi̇" (in Turkish). Retrieved 21 December 2019. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ "کۆبوونەوەی ئەنجوومەنی پارێزگای کەرکووک شکستی هێنا" (in Kurdish). Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  7. ^ "Hevpeymanîya Kurdistanî bi 96 namzedan dikeve hilbijartinan". Rûpela nû (in Turkish). 17 October 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  8. ^ "Kirkuk council passes province's controversial 2019 budget bill". kurdistan24.net. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  9. ^ Central Organization for Statistics and Information Technology, Iraq
  10. ^ a b Connors, Peter. "The US Army in Kirkuk, Governance Operations on the Fault Lines of Iraqi Society, 2003-2009" (PDF). Armyupress. p. 8. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  11. ^ Kurdistan24. "Iraqi court issues arrest warrant for acting gov. of Kirkuk on 'corruption involvement'". Kurdistan24. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2011-03-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ Mohammed, Ihsan (2017). Nation Building in Kurdistan. London: Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 9781315597393.
  14. ^ Mohammed, Ihsan (2017). Nation Building in Kurdistan. London: Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 9781315597393.
  15. ^ a b Anderson, Liam D.; Stansfield, Gareth R. V. (2009), Crisis in Kirkuk: The Ethnopolitics of Conflict and Compromise, University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 43, ISBN 978-0-8122-4176-1
  16. ^ Anderson, Liam D.; Stansfield, Gareth R. V. (2009), Crisis in Kirkuk: The Ethnopolitics of Conflict and Compromise, University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 44, ISBN 978-0-8122-4176-1
  17. ^ "An ancient tragedy". The Economist. 20 February 1999. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  18. ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/Kurd#ref966597
  19. ^ http://www.themilitant.com/2005/6912/691204.html
  20. ^ a b C. J. Edmonds (1957). Kurds, Turks and Arabs, Politics, Travel and Research in North-Eastern Iraq, 1919-1925. Oxford University Press. p. 438. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  21. ^ Abbas Shiblak (1986). The lure of Zion: the case of the Iraqi Jews. p. 21.
  22. ^ a b "Turkey and the Iraqi Kurds: Conflict or Cooperation?" (PDF). International Crisis Group. 2008. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  23. ^ "IHEC results - Kirkuk" (PDF) (in Arabic). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.

External linksEdit