King of Kings (1961 film)
King of Kings is a 1961 American Biblical epic film made by Samuel Bronston Productions and distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Directed by Nicholas Ray, the film is a dramatization of the story of Jesus of Nazareth from his birth and ministry to his crucifixion and resurrection, with much dramatic license.
|King of Kings|
DVD cover by Reynold Brown
|Directed by||Nicholas Ray|
|Produced by||Samuel Bronston|
|Written by||Philip Yordan|
Ray Bradbury (uncredited)
|Narrated by||Orson Welles (uncredited)|
|Music by||Miklós Rózsa|
Milton R. Krasner
|Edited by||Harold F. Kress|
In 63 BC, Pompey conquered Jerusalem and the city was sacked. He entered the Temple to seize the treasure of Solomon and massacred the priests there. He discovered that the treasure is only a collection of scrolls of the Torah. These Pompey held over a fire until an old priest reached for them imploringly. Pompey relented and handed them to the old man and left to carry out massacres of enemy villages and towns.
A carpenter named Joseph and his wife Mary, who is about to give birth, arrive in Bethlehem for the census. Not having found accommodation for the night, they take refuge in a stable, where the child, Jesus, is born. The shepherds, who have followed the Magi from the East, gather to worship him. However, Herod, informed of the birth of a child-king, orders the centurion Lucius to take his men to Bethlehem and kill all the newborn male children.
Mary and Joseph flee to Egypt with the child. The Massacre of the Innocents occurs, Herod dies, killed in his death throes by his son Herod Antipas, who then takes power. In Nazareth, Jesus, who is now twelve years old, is working with Joseph when soldiers arrive under the command of Lucius, who realizes that Jesus escaped the massacre of the infants. But Lucius does nothing and only asks that Mary and Joseph register their son's birth before the year's end.
Years pass and Jewish rebels led by Barabbas and Judas Iscariot prepare to attack a caravan carrying the next governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate and his wife Claudia. The ambush fails, partly due to the diligence of Lucius, and Barabbas and Judas flee for their lives.
Pilate and Herod Antipas meet on the banks of the River Jordan, where John the Baptist preaches to the crowds. Jesus arrives here, now 30 years of age. He is baptized by John, who recognizes that he is the Messiah. Jesus goes into the desert, where he is tempted by Satan. After forty days, Jesus travels to Galilee, where he recruits his Apostles.
In Jerusalem, Herod Antipas arrests John the Baptist, who is visited by Jesus in prison. Judas leaves the rebel Barabbas and joins the Apostles. Jesus begins to preach and gather crowds, among which are Claudia, Pilate's wife, and Lucius. Herod reluctantly beheads John on a whim of his stepdaughter, Salome, who despises him.
Herod, Pilate and the High Priest Caiaphas are terrorized by the works and miracles of Jesus. Barabbas plots a revolt in Jerusalem during Passover, during which time Jesus enters the holy city in triumph and goes to the Temple to preach. The rebels storm the Antonia Fortress, but the legions of Pilate, having learned of the plot, ambush and crush the revolt, massacring the rebels. Barabbas ends up arrested.
Jesus meets the disciples on the evening of Thursday, having supper one last time with them and afterwards goes to pray at Gethsemane. In the meantime, Judas wants Jesus to free Judea from the Romans, and, to force his hand, Judas delivers him to the Jewish authorities. Jesus is brought before Caiaphas and then brought before Pilate. Pilate starts the trial, but sensing that the issue is one of Jewish sensibilities, sends him to Herod Antipas, who, in turn, sends him back.
Pilate is infuriated by Antipas' returning of Jesus and commands his soldiers to scourge Jesus. The people demand the release of Barabbas, and Pilate bows to their pressure and sentences Jesus to be crucified. Jesus, wearing a crown of thorns on his head, carries his cross to Golgotha where he is crucified with two thieves, one of them being the penitent thief Dismas.
Desperate because he has betrayed Jesus to his death, Judas hangs himself and his body is found by Barabbas. Jesus dies in front of his mother, the apostle John, a few soldiers, Claudia (Pilate's wife), and Lucius (who utters the fateful words: "He is truly the Christ"). His body is taken down from the cross and is carried to a rock tomb. Two days later, Mary Magdalene finds the tomb empty, and encounters the Risen Jesus.
The film ends on the shores of Lake Tiberias when Jesus appears to the Apostles for "a final time" according to the narration, and tells them to bring his message to the ends of the world. Only his shadow is visible, forming the shape of a cross where it falls on the stretched-out fishing nets. The apostles then leave, and, as the shadow of Jesus falls across the screen, it could be assumed that he is ascending to Heaven.
- Jeffrey Hunter as Jesus
- Siobhán McKenna as Mary
- Robert Ryan as John the Baptist
- Ron Randell as Lucius
- Hurd Hatfield as Pontius Pilate
- Viveca Lindfors as Claudia
- Rita Gam as Herodias
- Frank Thring as Herod Antipas
- Royal Dano as Peter
- Rip Torn as Judas Iscariot
- Harry Guardino as Barabbas
- Carmen Sevilla as Mary Magdalene
- Brigid Bazlen as Salomé
- Guy Rolfe as Caiaphas
- Gregoire Aslan as Herod the Great
- Gerard Tichy as Joseph
- Luis Prendes as the Penitent thief
- Barry Keegan as Gestas, the Impenitent thief
- Orson Welles (uncredited) as the Narrator
- Ray Milland (uncredited) as Satan (voice)
With the death of Rip Torn on July 9, 2019, Carmen Sevilla is the last surviving primary cast member.
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An earlier silent film about Jesus Christ entitled The King of Kings directed by Cecil B. DeMille and starring H.B. Warner as Jesus was released in 1927. That film, however, begins when Christ is already an adult. Director Nicholas Ray's 1961 version tells the story from the beginning and places Jesus' life in the political context of Roman conquest. As Jesus becomes an active preacher and healer, his activities are contrasted with the political stance of Barabbas and his insurgents who battle against the Roman occupiers.
In contrast to other film versions of the life of Christ, which show Barabbas only as the murderer whose freedom is offered in exchange for Jesus' life, in King of Kings Barabbas plays a major role, being depicted as an incendiary figure fighting Roman domination and as a good friend of Judas Iscariot. Judas believes that he can persuade Barabbas to embrace Christ as a liberator and that he can influence Christ to take up arms against Rome, but Barabbas becomes disillusioned after listening to the Sermon on the Mount. It is then that Judas decides to betray Christ to the Romans. When Lucius frees Barabbas, Lucius pointedly commands Barabbas to go look at Christ as he carries his cross.
The film features scenes of Jesus' miracles and his Sermon on the Mount (shot with many thousands of extras), as well as a scene where Jesus visits John the Baptist in his dungeon during his imprisonment by Herod Antipas. Ray staged the scene in such a way that John the Baptist must crawl up an incline inside the dungeon, holding out his hand to reach for Jesus' hand, a vivid example of Ray's architectural sense of composition and visual drama: Ray had been the Theatre Apprentice in the original Taliesin Fellowship set up in Wisconsin by the architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1970: conversation with James Leahy; see also article and interview in Movie No. 9, May 1963.).
Nicholas Ray's direction balances majestic spectacle with more mundane and small-scale drama, such as Jesus' relationships with his mother and the apostles. The Sermon on the Mount sequence is nearly at the exact center of the film, conveying the core moral and spiritual message of Jesus, which plays a pivotal role in the subplot of Barabbas' mixed attitude towards Jesus.
The production was photographed in Technirama by Manuel Berenguer, Milton R. Krasner and Franz Planer, and was presented in 70mm Super Technirama at selected first-run engagements. It was the first film of the life of Christ to be presented in 70mm.
Not credited at the time, Orson Welles did the voice-over of the narration, written by Ray Bradbury. Welles insisted on pronouncing the word 'apostles' with a hard 't', instead of the normally silent 't'.
At the time of its release, the film received negative reviews from publications such as Time magazine and The New York Times. Bosley Crowther in the latter felt that the movie had "the nature of an illustrated lecture" and was a "peculiarly impersonal film that constructs a great deal of random action around Jesus and does very little to construct a living personality for Him." A positive review came from Variety, which praised the film as "a major motion picture by any standard" that not only "succeeds as spectacle" but also "succeeds in touching the heart." Philip K. Scheuer of the Los Angeles Times wrote, "It is not great art, nor is it the definitive photoplay about Jesus (will there ever be one?), but it is at least permeated by a soberness of purpose that, allowing for ordinary human fallibility, can be tacitly felt and respected. Technically, of course, it is far glossier than the C. B. DeMille movie of 1927, and very probably at least its equal in effectiveness. Dramatically, I think, it falls somewhere between the theatrical entertainment that was 'Ben-Hur' and the spiritual but spiritless 'Francis of Assisi.'" Harrison's Reports awarded its top grade of "Excellent" and declared that the film "will not only stamp its enduring imprint on the glorious history book of the motion picture industry, but will leave its memorable impact on the minds of all those millions who see it." Richard L. Coe of The Washington Post, however, panned the film as "a picture which never should have been made" due to the filmmakers' decision to present Jesus as "a universal, non-controversial figure," explaining that "to excise His dynamic, revolutionary concepts is to make His journey on earth a hollow ritual, a pointless fairy tale, an essay on How to Live Dangerously and Still Win." The Monthly Film Bulletin stated: "As, simply, a version of the infinitely well-known story, it has some curious interpolations (Christ's visit to John the Baptist in his cell) and omissions. The overwhelming failure, though, is in finding any kind of style, in imagery, dialogue or music, which goes beyond the most insipidly conventional kind of Bible illustrations."
Among later reviews, Leonard Maltin's home video guide awarded the film three-and-a-half stars out of four, and Geoff Andrew called it "one of the most interesting screen versions of the Gospels, adding that "some of the performances appear to lack depth, but one can't deny the effectiveness of Miklós Rózsa's fine score, and of Ray's simple but elegant visuals which achieve a stirring dramatic power untainted by pompous bombast." Musicians such as Grammy Award-winning Art Greenhaw have cited the movie as being an influence in their work and even their favorite film of all time. As of July 2019, the film holds a "fresh" 85% on Rotten Tomatoes.
King of Kings music score, composed by Miklós Rózsa, was nominated for a Golden Globe Award. Rózsa's most recent work at the time was the score for MGM's hugely successful religious epic Ben-Hur (1959), for which he won his third Oscar. Rózsa composed the scores for many of MGM's epic films, including Quo Vadis (1951).
According to MGM records, the film earned $8 million in North America and $5.4 million overseas, earning a profit of $1,621,000.
Most films at the time, except for the 1935 French film Golgotha, did not show Jesus' face, preferring to do shots of his hands (as in Ben-Hur) or over-the-shoulder views. King of Kings was the first large-budget, major-studio sound film in English to actually show Christ's face.
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:
King of Kings was released to DVD by Warner Home Video in February 6, 2003 and Blu-ray by Warner Home Video on July 28, 2009 and on March 29, 2011, respectively as a Region 1 widescreen disc and TWC/Anchor Bay in 2013. It has since been available for online streaming and download through Amazon, Apple iTunes Store and Vudu.
- The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study.
- "King of Kings (1961)". IMDb. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "King of Kings (1961) – Trivia". IMDb. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "$ign of the Cross – TIME". TIME.com. 27 October 1961. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Bosley Crowther, King of Kings (1961), The New York Times, October 12, 1961, Accessed December 25, 2010.
- "Film Reviews: King of Kings". Variety. October 11, 1961. 6.
- Scheuer, Philip K. (October 13, 1961). "Reverence Shines in 'King of Kings'". Los Angeles Times. Part I, p. 29.
- "'King of Kings'". Harrison's Reports. October 14, 1961. 162.
- Coe, Richard L. (November 5, 1961). "Mammon Is King In Film at Warner". The Washington Post. G25.
- "King of Kings". The Monthly Film Bulletin. 29 (336): 7. January 1962.
- Maltin, Leonard, ed. (1995). Leonard Maltin's 1996 Movie & Video Guide. Signet. p. 701. ISBN 0-451-18505-6.
- Andrew, Geoff. "King of Kings". Time Out London. Archived from the original on 2012-11-08. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- Mesquite News (Texas) newspaper, 1994 Volume
- "King of Kings". 30 October 1961. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- Awards for King of Kings. Archived 2012-08-02 at Archive.today Hollywood Foreign Press Association.
- "AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-14.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-14.