Kim Jong-un(Redirected from Kim Jong-Un)
Kim Jong-un (Chosŏn'gŭl: 김정은, Korean: [kim.dzɔŋ.ɯn];[a] born 8 January 1982, 1983 or 1984) has been the leader and Supreme Commander of North Korea since 2011. He is the second child of Kim Jong-il (1941–2011) and Ko Yong-hui. The grandson of Kim Il-sung, the first leader of North Korea from 1948 to 1994, he is the first North Korean leader to have been born after the country's founding. Before taking power, Kim was rarely seen in public, and many of the activities of Kim and his government remain unknown. Even details such as what year he was born, and whether he did indeed attend a Western school under a pseudonym, are difficult to confirm.
|Supreme Leader of North Korea|
17 December 2011
|Preceded by||Kim Jong-il|
|Chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea|
9 May 2016
First Secretary: 11 April 2012 – 9 May 2016
|Preceded by||Kim Jong-il|
|Chairman of the State Affairs Commission|
30 June 2016
|Preceded by||Office established|
13 April 2012 – 30 June 2016
National Defence Commission
|Preceded by||Kim Jong-il|
|Succeeded by||Office abolished|
|Chair of the Central Military Commission|
11 April 2012
Acting: 17 December 2011 – 11 April 2012
|Preceded by||Kim Jong-il|
|Chair of the Presidium of the Politburo|
11 April 2012
Acting: 17 December 2011 – 11 April 2012
|Preceded by||Kim Jong-il|
|Supreme Commander of the
Korean People's Army
30 December 2011
|Preceded by||Kim Jong-il|
8 January 1982 |
(North Korean records)
8 January 1983
(South Korean records)
8 January 1984
|Spouse(s)||Ri Sol-ju (m. 2009)|
|Children||Kim Ju-ae and possibly another two|
|Alma mater||Kim Il-sung University
Kim Il-sung Military University
|Service/branch||Korean People's Army|
|Years of service||2010–present|
|Rank||Marshal of the Republic|
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
|Revised Romanization||Gim Jeong(-)eun|
From late 2010, Kim Jong-un was viewed as heir apparent to the leadership of the DPRK, and following the elder Kim's death, he was announced as the "Great Successor" by North Korean state television. Kim holds the titles of Chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea (as First Secretary between 2012 and 2016), Chairman of the Central Military Commission, Chairman of the State Affairs Commission, Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army, and member of the Presidium of the Politburo of the Workers' Party of Korea, the highest decision-making body in North Korea. Kim was promoted to the rank of Marshal of North Korea in the Korean People's Army on 18 July 2012, consolidating his position as the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and is often referred to as Marshal Kim Jong-un or "the Marshal" by state media. Kim obtained two degrees, one in physics at Kim Il-sung University, and another as an Army officer at the Kim Il-sung Military University.
Forbes magazine ranked Kim as the 46th most powerful person in the world in 2013 and the third highest amongst Koreans after Ban Ki-moon and Lee Kun-hee.  On 12 December 2013, North Korean news outlets reported that Kim Jong-un had ordered the execution of his uncle Jang Song-thaek due to "treachery". On 9 March 2014, Kim was elected unopposed to the Supreme People's Assembly. He is widely believed to have ordered the assassination of his half-brother, Kim Jong-nam, in Malaysia in February 2017.
Scarce information on Kim Jong-un's early life comes from North Korean defectors and people who have claimed to witness him abroad, such as during his school attendance in Switzerland. Some of the information has been conflicting and contradictory, perhaps confusing him with his brother, Kim Jong-chul, who also attended school in Switzerland around the same time. North Korean authorities have stated that his birthdate is 8 January 1982, but South Korean intelligence officials believe the actual date is a year later. Former basketball star Dennis Rodman said that the birthdate is 8 January 1983 after meeting Kim in September 2013 in North Korea. Kim Jong-Un was the second of three children Ko Yong-hui bore to Kim Jong-il; his elder brother Kim Jong-chul was born in 1981, while his younger sister, Kim Yo-jong, is believed to have been born in 1987.
According to reports first published in Japanese newspapers, he went to school in Switzerland near Bern. First reports claimed he attended the private English-language International School in Gümligen under the name "Chol-pak" or "Pak-chol" from 1993 to 1998. He was described as shy, a good student who got along well with his classmates and was a basketball fan. He was chaperoned by an older student, who was thought to be his bodyguard.
Later, it was reported that Kim Jong-un attended the Liebefeld Steinhölzli school in Köniz near Bern under the name "Pak-un" or "Un-pak" from 1998 until 2000 as the son of an employee of the North Korean embassy in Bern. Authorities of Köniz confirmed that a student from North Korea, registered as the son of a member of the embassy, attended the school from August 1998 until the autumn of 2000, but were unable to give details about his identity. Pak-un first attended a special class for foreign-language children and later attended the regular classes of the 6th, 7th, 8th, and part of the final 9th year, leaving the school abruptly in the autumn of 2000. He was described as a well-integrated and ambitious student who liked to play basketball. However, his grades and attendance rating are reported to have been poor. The ambassador of North Korea in Switzerland, Ri Chol, had a close relationship with him and acted as a mentor. One of Pak-un's classmates told reporters that he had told him that he was the son of the leader of North Korea. According to some reports, Kim was described by classmates as a shy child who was awkward with girls and indifferent to political issues, but who distinguished himself in sports and had a fascination with the American National Basketball Association and Michael Jordan. One friend claimed that he had been shown pictures of Pak-un with Kobe Bryant and Toni Kukoč.
In April 2012, new documents came to light indicating that Kim Jong-un had lived in Switzerland since 1991 or 1992, earlier than previously thought.
The Laboratory of Anatomic Anthropology at the University of Lyon, France, after comparing the picture of the boy Pak-un taken at the Liebefeld Steinhölzli school in 1999 with a picture of Kim Jong-un from 2012 came to the conclusion that the two faces show a conformity of 95%. The head of the institute, Raoul Perrot, a forensic anthropologist, considers it most likely that the two pictures show the same person.
It is believed that the student at the Gümligen International School may not have been Kim Jong-un, but his elder brother Kim Jong-chul. It is not known whether the student known as Pak-un in Liebefeld Steinhölzli lived in Switzerland prior to 1998. All the children of Kim Jong-il are said to have lived in Switzerland, as well as the mother of the two youngest sons, who lived in Geneva for some time.
In late February 2018, Reuters reported that Kim and his father had used forged passports—supposedly issued by Brazil and dated 26 February 1996—to apply for visas in various countries. Both 10-year passports carry a stamp saying "Embassy of Brazil in Prague". Kim Jong-un's passport records the name "Josef Pwag" and a date of birth of 1 February 1983.
For many years, only one confirmed photograph of him was known to exist outside North Korea, apparently taken in the mid-1990s, when he was eleven. Occasionally other supposed images of him surfaced but were often disputed. It was only in June 2010, shortly before he was given official posts and publicly introduced to the North Korean people, that more pictures were released of Kim, taken when he was attending school in Switzerland. The first official image of him as an adult was a group photograph released on 30 September 2010, at the end of the party conference that effectively anointed him, in which he is seated in the front row, two places from his father. This was followed by newsreel footage of him attending the conference.
Pre-2010 Party Conference speculation
Kim Jong-un's eldest half-brother, Kim Jong-nam, had been the favorite to succeed, but reportedly fell out of favor after 2001, when he was caught attempting to enter Japan on a fake passport to visit Tokyo Disneyland. Kim Jong-nam was killed in Malaysia in 2017 by suspected North Korean agents.
Kim Jong-il's former personal chef, Kenji Fujimoto, revealed details regarding Kim Jong-un, with whom he had a good relationship, stating that he was favored to be his father's successor. Fujimoto also said that Jong-un was favored by his father over his elder brother, Kim Jong-chul, reasoning that Jong-chul is too feminine in character, while Jong-un is "exactly like his father". Furthermore, Fujimoto stated that "if power is to be handed over then Jong-un is the best for it. He has superb physical gifts, is a big drinker and never admits defeat." Also, according to Fujimoto, Jong-un smokes Yves Saint Laurent cigarettes, loves Johnnie Walker whisky and has a Mercedes-Benz 600 luxury sedan. When Jong-un was 18, Fujimoto described an episode where Jong-un once questioned his lavish lifestyle and asked, "we are here, playing basketball, riding horses, riding jet skis, having fun together. But what of the lives of the average people?" On 15 January 2009, the South Korean news agency Yonhap reported that Kim Jong-il had appointed Kim Jong-un to be his successor.
On 8 March 2009, BBC News reported that Kim Jong-un was on the ballot for elections to the Supreme People's Assembly, the rubber stamp parliament of North Korea. Subsequent reports indicated that his name did not appear on the list of lawmakers, but he was later elevated to a mid-level position in the National Defense Commission, which is a branch of the North Korean military.
From 2009, it was understood by foreign diplomatic services that Kim was to succeed his father Kim Jong-il as the head of the Korean Workers' Party and de facto leader of North Korea. He has been named "Yŏngmyŏng-han Tongji" (영명한 동지), which loosely translates to "Brilliant Comrade". His father had also asked embassy staff abroad to pledge loyalty to his son. There have also been reports that citizens in North Korea were encouraged to sing a newly composed "song of praise" to Kim Jong-un, in a similar fashion to that of praise songs relating to Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung. Later, in June, Kim was reported to have visited China secretly to "present himself" to the Chinese leadership, who later warned against North Korea conducting another nuclear test. The Chinese foreign ministry has strongly denied that this visit occurred.
In September 2009, it was reported that Kim Jong-il had secured support for the succession plan, after a propaganda campaign. It is believed by some that Kim Jong-un was involved in the Cheonan sinking and the bombardment of Yeonpyeong to strengthen his military credentials and facilitate a successful transition of power from his father.
Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission
Kim Jong-un was made a daejang, the equivalent of a four-star general in the United States, on 27 September 2010, a day ahead of a rare Workers' Party of Korea conference in Pyongyang, the first time North Korean media had mentioned him by name and despite him having no previous military experience. Despite the promotion, no further details, including verifiable portraits of Kim, were released. On 28 September 2010, he was named vice chairman of the Central Military Commission and appointed to the Central Committee of the Workers' Party, in an apparent nod to become the successor to Kim Jong-il.
On 10 October 2010, alongside his father, Kim Jong-un attended the ruling Workers' Party's 65th anniversary celebration. This was seen as confirming his position as the next leader of the Workers' Party. Unprecedented international press access was granted to the event, further indicating the importance of Kim Jong-un's presence. In January 2011, the regime reportedly began purging around 200 protégés of both Jong-un's uncle-in-law Jang Song-thaek and O Kuk-ryol, the vice chairman of the National Defence Commission, by either detention or execution to further prevent either man from rivaling Jong-un.
Leader of North Korea
On 17 December 2011, Kim Jong-il died. Despite the elder Kim's plans, it was not immediately clear after his death whether Jong-un would in fact take full power, and what his exact role in a new government would be. Some analysts had predicted that when Kim Jong-il died, Jang Song-thaek would act as regent, as Jong-un was too inexperienced to immediately lead the country.
Following his father's death, Kim Jong-un was hailed as the "great successor to the revolutionary cause of Juche", "outstanding leader of the party, army and people" and "respected comrade who is identical to Supreme Commander Kim Jong-il", and was made chairman of the Kim Jong-il funeral committee. The Korean Central News Agency described Kim Jong-un as "a great person born of heaven", a propaganda term only his father and grandfather had enjoyed. And the ruling Workers' Party said in an editorial, "We vow with bleeding tears to call Kim Jong-un our supreme commander, our leader."
He was publicly declared Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army on 24 December 2011 and formally appointed to the position on 30 December 2011 when the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party "courteously proclaimed that the dear respected Kim Jong Un, vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission of the WPK, assumed the supreme commandership of the Korean People's Army".
On 26 December 2011, the leading North Korean newspaper Rodong Sinmun reported that Kim Jong-un had been acting as chairman of the Central Military Commission, and supreme leader of the country, following his father's demise.
Assuming official titles
On 27 March 2012, Kim was elected to the Fourth Conference of the Workers' Party of Korea. On 11 April, that conference wrote the post of general secretary out of the party charter and instead designated Kim Jong-un as the party's "Eternal General Secretary." The conference then elected Kim Jong-un as leader of the party under the newly created title of First Secretary. Kim Jong-un also took his father's post as Chairman of the Central Military Commission, as well as his father's old seat on the Politburo Presidium. In a speech made prior to the Conference, Kim Jong-un declared that "Imbuing the whole society with Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism is the highest programme of our Party". On 13 April 2012, the 5th Session of the 12th Supreme People's Assembly appointed Kim Jong-un Chairman of the National Defence Commission.
On 15 April 2012, during a military parade to commemorate Kim Il-sung's centenary, Kim Jong-un made his first public speech. That speech became the basis of a hymn dedicated to him, "Onwards Toward the Final Victory".
In July 2012, Kim Jong-un was promoted to wonsu (roughly translated to marshal), the highest active rank in the military. The decision was jointly issued on by the Central Committee and the Central Military Commission of the Workers' Party of Korea, the National Defence Commission, and the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly, the Korean Central News Agency subsequently announced. The only higher rank is Dae Wonsu (roughly translated as Grand Marshal or Generalissimo) which was held by Kim's grandfather, Kim Il-sung, and which was awarded posthumously to his father, Kim Jong-il, in February 2012. The promotion confirmed Kim's role as top leader of the North Korean military and came days after the replacement of Chief of General Staff Ri Yong-ho by Hyon Yong-chol.
|Satellite imagery show the message "Long Live General Kim Jong-un, the Shining Sun!" in Korean on a hillside.|
In November 2012, satellite photos revealed a half-kilometer-long (1,600 ft) propaganda message carved into a hillside in Ryanggang Province, reading, "Long Live General Kim Jong-un, the Shining Sun!"
Kim Jong-il's personal chef Kenji Fujimoto stated, "Stores in Pyongyang were brimming with products and people in the streets looked cheerful. North Korea has changed a lot since Kim Jong-un assumed power. All of this is because of leader Kim Jong-un."
Officially, Kim Jong-un is part of a triumvirate heading the executive branch of the North Korean government along with Premier Pak Pong-ju and parliament chairman Kim Yong-nam (no relation). Each nominally holds powers equivalent to a third of a president's powers in most presidential systems. Kim Jong-un commands the armed forces, Pak Pong-ju heads the government, and Kim Yong-nam handles foreign relations. Nevertheless, it is generally understood that Kim Jong-un, like his father and grandfather before him, exercises absolute control over the government and the country. Indeed, a constitutional amendment enacted by his father explicitly named the NDC (first) chairman as "the supreme leader of the Democratic People's Republic of North Korea".
On 30 November 2012, Kim met with Li Jianguo, who "briefed Kim on the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China", according to the state's official news agency, the Korean Central News Agency. A letter from Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, was hand-delivered during the discussion.
In 2013, Kim re-established his grandfather's style when he made his first New Year's address, a break from the approach of his father. Kim Jong-il never made televised addresses during his 17 years in power. In lieu of delivering a speech, Kim Jong-il contributed to and approved a New Year's Day editorial, jointly published by Rodong Sinmun (the daily newspaper of the Korean Workers' Party), Joson Inmingun (the newspaper of the Korean People's Army), and Chongnyon Jonwi (the newspaper of the Kimilsungist-Kimjongilist Youth League). At the extraordinary meeting with his top defense and security officials on 26 January 2013, Kim issued orders on preparations for a new nuclear test and introduced martial law in North Korea effective from 29 January.
On 9 March 2014, Kim Jong-un was elected to a seat in the Supreme People's Assembly, the country's unicameral legislature. He ran unopposed, but voters had the choice of voting yes or no. There was a record turnout of voters and, according to government officials, all voted "yes" in his home district of Mount Paekdu. The Supreme People's Assembly subsequently elected him first chairman of the National Defense Commission.
In May 2014, following the collapse of an apartment building in Pyongyang, Kim Jong-un was said to be very upset at the loss of life that resulted. A statement issued by the country's official news agency the Korean Central News Agency used the rare expression "profound consolation and apology". An unnamed government official was quoted by the BBC as saying Kim Jong-un had "sat up all night, feeling painful". While the height of the building and the number of casualties was not released, media reports described it is a 23-story building and indicated that more than a hundred people may have died in the collapse.
A set of comprehensive economic measures, the "Socialist Corporate Responsible Management System", were introduced in 2013. The measures increase the autonomy of enterprises by granting them "certain rights to engage in business activities autonomously and elevate the will to labor through appropriately implementing the socialist distribution system". Another priority of economic policies that year was agriculture, where the pojon (vegetable garden) responsibility system was implemented. The system reportedly achieved a major increase in output in some collective farms.
North Korean media were describing the economy as a "flexible collectivist system" where enterprises were applying "active and evolutionary actions" to achieve economic development. These reports reflect Kim's general economic policy of reforming management, increasing the autonomy and incentives for economic actors. This set of reforms known as the "May 30th measures" reaffirms both socialist ownership and "objective economic laws in guidance and management" to improve living standards. Other objectives of the measures are to increase the availability of domestically manufactured goods on markets, introduction of defence innovations into the civilian sector and boost international trade.
Under Kim Jong-un, North Korea has continued to develop nuclear weapons. At a plenary meeting of the WPK Central Committee held on 31 March 2013, Kim Jong-un announced that North Korea will adopt "a new strategic line on carrying out economic construction and building nuclear armed forces simultaneously". According to several analysts, North Korea sees the nuclear arsenal as vital to deter an attack, and it is unlikely that North Korea would launch a nuclear war. According to a RAND Corporation senior researcher, Kim Jong-un believes that nuclear weapons are his guarantee of regime survival. During the 7th Congress of the Workers' Party of Korea in 2016, Kim Jong-un stated that North Korea would "not use nuclear weapons first unless aggressive hostile forces use nuclear weapons to invade on our sovereignty". However, on other occasions, North Korea has threatened "pre-emptive" nuclear attacks against a US-led attack. In December 2015, Kim stated that his family "turned the DPRK into a powerful nuclear weapons state ready to detonate a self-reliant A-bomb and H-bomb to reliably defend its sovereignty and the dignity of the nation".
In January 2018, estimates of North Korea's nuclear arsenal ranged between 15 and 60 bombs, probably including hydrogen bombs. In the opinion of analysts, the Hwasong-15 missile is capable of striking anywhere in the United States.
In March 2018, South Korean official Chung Eui-Yong announced at the White House that Kim Jong-un told the South Koreans that he is "committed to denuclearisation" and "North Korea will refrain from any further nuclear or missile tests."
Purges and executions
As with all reporting on North Korea, reports of purges and executions are difficult to verify. In May 2016, analysts were surprised to find that General Ri Yong-gil, reported by South Korea to have been executed earlier in the year, was, in fact, alive and well.
In December 2013, Kim Jong-un's uncle Jang Song-thaek was arrested and executed for treachery. Jang is believed to have been executed by firing squad. Yonhap has stated that, according to multiple unnamed sources, Kim Jong-un has also put to death members of Jang's family, to completely destroy all traces of Jang's existence through "extensive executions" of his family, including the children and grandchildren of all close relatives. Those reportedly killed in Kim's purge include Jang's sister Jang Kye-sun, her husband and ambassador to Cuba, Jon Yong-jin, and Jang's nephew and ambassador to Malaysia, Jang Yong-chol. The nephew's two sons were also said to have been killed. At the time of Jang's removal, it was announced that "the discovery and purge of the Jang group ... made our party and revolutionary ranks purer ..." and after his execution on 12 December 2013 state media warned that the army "will never pardon all those who disobey the order of the Supreme Commander".
O Sang-hon (Chosŏn'gŭl: 오상헌; RR: O Sangheon; MR: O Sanghŏn) was a deputy security minister in the Ministry of People's Security in the government of North Korea who was reportedly killed in a political purge in 2014. According to the South Korean newspaper The Chosun Ilbo, O was executed by flamethrower for his role in supporting Kim Jong-un's uncle Jang Song-taek.
Human rights violations
The 2013 report on the situation of human rights in North Korea by United Nations Special Rapporteur Marzuki Darusman proposed a United Nations commission of inquiry to document the accountability of Kim Jong-un and other individuals in the North Korean government for alleged crimes against humanity. The report of the commission of inquiry was published in February 2014 and recommends making him accountable for crimes against humanity at the International Criminal Court.
In July 2016, the United States Department of the Treasury imposed personal sanctions on Kim. Although his involvement in human rights abuses was cited as the reason, officials said the sanctions target the country's nuclear and missile programs.
Alleged 2017 CIA assassination attempt
In May 2017, the North Korean government stated that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the United States and the South Korean National Intelligence Service (NIS) hired a North Korean lumberjack who worked in Russia to assassinate Kim Jong-un with a "biochemical weapon" that was both radioactive and nano-poisonous, and whose effect would have been delayed by a few months. North Korea said that it would seek extradition of anyone involved in the assassination attempt.
Kim Jong-un made three foreign trips since he assumed office as Supreme Leader of North Korea. Kim went to China twice, and South Korea once.
Détente in 2018
In his 2018 New Year Speech, Kim said that he was open to dialogue with South Korea with a view to take part in the upcoming Winter Olympics in the South. The Seoul–Pyongyang hotline was reopened after almost two years. North and South Korea marched together in the Olympics opening ceremony, and fielded a united women's ice hockey team that finished eighth. In addition to the athletes, Kim sent an unprecedented high-level delegation headed by his sister, Kim Yo-jong, and de facto head of state Kim Yong-nam, including performers such as the Samjiyon Orchestra. On 5 March, he arranged a meeting with South Korea's Chief of the National Security Office, Chung Eui-yong. Chung then traveled to Washington and passed on an invitation to U.S. President Donald Trump to meet with Kim, which Trump accepted.
Chinese media announced that Kim had visited Beijing on 26 March. This was confirmed by DPRK state press outlet Korean Central News Agency on 28 March. This was his first trip abroad as the leader of the DPRK. At the 2018 inter-Korean summit, Kim and South Korean President Moon Jae-in signed the Panmunjom Declaration, pledging to convert the Korean Armistice Agreement into a full peace treaty, formally ending the Korean War, by the end of the year.
Kenji Fujimoto, a Japanese chef who claims to have worked as Kim Jong-il's personal cook, described Kim Jong-un as "a chip off the old block, a spitting image of his father in terms of face, body shape, and personality".
The Washington Post reported in 2009 that Kim Jong-un's school friends recalled he "spent hours doing meticulous pencil drawings of Chicago Bulls superstar Michael Jordan". He was obsessed with basketball and computer games. On 26 February 2013, Kim Jong‑un met Dennis Rodman, leading many reporters to speculate that Rodman was the first American that Kim had met. Rodman described his trip to Kim Jong-un's private island, "It's like Hawaii or Ibiza, but he's the only one that lives there." Kim Jong-un’s net worth is estimated at US$5 billion.
In July 2012, Kim Jong-un showed a change in cultural policy from his father by attending a Moranbong Band concert. The concert contained several elements of pop culture from the West, particularly the United States. Kim used this event to debut his wife to the public, an unprecedented move in North Korea.
Kim Jong-un did not appear in public for six weeks in September and October 2014. State media reported that he was suffering from an "uncomfortable physical condition". Previously he had been seen limping. When he reappeared, he was using a walking stick.
In September 2015, the South Korean government commented that Kim appeared to have gained 30 kg in body fat over the previous five years, reaching a total estimated body weight of 130 kg (290 lb).
On 25 July 2012, North Korean state media reported for the first time that Kim Jong-un is married to Ri Sol-ju (리설주). Ri, who appears to be in her early 20s, had been accompanying Kim Jong-un to public appearances for several weeks prior to the announcement. According to a South Korean analyst, Kim Jong-il had hastily arranged the marriage after suffering a stroke in 2008, the two married in 2009, and they had a child in 2010. Dennis Rodman, after visiting in 2013, reported that they had a daughter named Ju-ae. However, South Korean sources speculated that they could have many children.
Kim is sometimes accompanied by his younger sister Kim Yo-jong, who is said to be instrumental in creating his public image and organising public events for him. According to Kim Yong-hyun, a professor of North Korean studies at Dongguk University in Seoul, and others, the promotion of Kim Yo-jong and others is a sign that "the Kim Jong-un regime has ended its co-existence with the remnants of the previous Kim Jong-il regime by carrying out a generational replacement in the party’s key elite posts".
- "Rodman Gives Details on Trip to North Korea". The New York Times. 9 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "We finally know the age of North Korean dictator Kim Jong Un". www.msn.com. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "The secret life of Kim Jong-un's aunt, who has lived in the U.S. since 1998". The Washington Post. 27 May 2016. Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
They can reveal, for example, that Kim Jong-un was born in 1984 – not 1982 or 1983, as has been widely believed. The reason they're certain? It was the same year that their first son was born. "He and my son were playmates from birth. I changed both of their diapers", Ko said with a laugh.
- [北 막오른 김정은 시대]조선중앙통신 보도, 金正銀(Ｘ) 金正恩 (in Korean). Naver. 2 October 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Moore, Malcolm. Kim Jong-un: a profile of North Korea's next leader Archived 5 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. The Daily Telegraph. 2 June 2009
- 김일성, 쿠바의 ‘혁명영웅’ 체게바라를 만난 날 . DailyNK (in Korean). 15 April 2008. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011.
- News, World (5 April 2013). "Who is North Korea's secretive Kim Jong Un? Here is what we know". NBC News. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016.
- Alastair Gale (18 December 2011). "Kim Jong Il Has Died". The Wall Street Journal Asia. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- "N.Korea declares Kim Jong-Un commander of military". Agence France-Presse. 30 December 2011. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- North Korea tells rival SKorea and other nations not to expect any change, despite new leader. The Associated Press (via Yahoo! News). 29 December 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- "North Korea's Kim Jong-un named 'marshal'". BBC News. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "North Korean leader orders to turn armed forces into elite revolutionary army". Information Telegraph Agency of Russia. 2 December 2014. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
"Kim Jong-un's latest no-show fuels further health rumours". The Guardian. London, UK. 10 October 2014. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- "Kim Jong Un makes first appearance since father's death". Los Angeles Times. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- Powell, Bill (22 December 2011). "The Generals Who Will Really Rule North Korea". Time. New York. ISSN 0040-781X. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015.
- Howard, Caroline. "No. 46: Kim Jong Un - pg.48". Forbes.
- Ahn, JH (10 August 2016). "Kim Jong Un's executed uncle Jang Song Thaek reappears on N.Korean media". NKNews. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- DNA Confirms Assassination Victim Was Half Brother of Kim Jong-un, Malaysia Says New York Times. By Russell Goldman. 15 March 2017. Downloaded 6 May 2017.
- Kim Jong-un risks vital ties with China Korea Times. By Jun Ji-hye. 16 February 2017. Downloaded 6 May 2017.
- Lee, Young-jong; Kim, Hee-jin (8 August 2012). "Kim Jong-un's sister is having a ball". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.
- "Kim Yo Jong". North Korea Leadership Watch. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- Blaine Harden (3 June 2009). "Son Named Heir to North Korea's Kim Studied in Switzerland, Reportedly Loves NBA". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 February 2011.
Peter Foster (8 June 2010). "Rare photos of Kim Jong-il's youngest son, Kim Jong-un, released". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010.
Hall, Allan (25 November 2010). "Profile". The Sun. London, UK. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010.
- "North Korean leader Kim Jong‑il 'names youngest son as successor'". The Guardian. London, UK. Associated Press. 2 June 2009. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.
- Henckel, Elisalex (24 June 2009). "Kim Jong-un und sein Unterricht bei den Schweizern". Die Welt (in German). Berlin. ISSN 0173-8437. Archived from the original on 27 July 2015.
- "Weitere nordkoreanische Spuren in Bern". Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in German). 16 June 2009. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- "Poor school marks of North Korea's Kim Jong-un exposed". Irish Independent. 2 April 2012. ISSN 0791-685X. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015.
"Kim Jong-un's poor marks exposed". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. 2 April 2012. Archived from the original on 6 May 2012.
- "Kim Jong-un : une éducation suisse entourée de mystères". Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- Shubert, Atika (29 September 2010). "North Korea: Nuclear Tension". CNN. Archived from the original on 9 June 2015.
- Bernhard Odenahl (29 September 2009). "Mein Freund, der zukünftige Diktator Nordkoreas". Tages-Anzeiger (in German). Archived from the original on 2 October 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "Classmates Recall Kim Jong-un's Basketball Obsession". The Chosun Ilbo. 17 July 2009. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Titus Plattner (21 April 2012). "Kim Jong-un est resté neuf ans en Suisse". Le Matin (in French). Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- Titus Plattner; Daniel Glaus; Julian Schmidli (1 April 2012). "Der Diktator aus Liebefeld". SonntagsZeitung (in German). p. 17. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
"Der Schüler Un Pak ist identisch mit Kim Jong-un."
- Plattner, Titus; Zaugg, Julie (8 May 2009). "Der Diktator spricht Deutsch". Cicero (in German). ISSN 1613-4826. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015.
- Choe Sang-Hun and Martin Fackler (14 June 2009). "North Korea's Heir Apparent Remains a Mystery". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
- Kim Jong-un and father used fake Brazilian passports to apply for Western visas, Reuters per ABC News Online. 28 February 2018. Accessed on 12 April 2018.
- "Tales of starvation and death in North Korea". BBC. 22 September 2010. Archived from the original on 30 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- Profile: Kim Jong-un Archived 5 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine., BBC News, 2 June 2009
Martin Fackler (24 April 2010). "North Korea Appears to Tap Leader's Son as Enigmatic Heir". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
"Confusion Over Photo of N. Korean Leader‑to‑Be". The Chosun Ilbo. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- "The son also rises". JoongAng Daily. 9 June 2010. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012.
Peter Foster (8 June 2010). "Rare photos of Kim Jong-il's youngest son, Kim Jong-un, released". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010.
- New images of North Korea's heir apparent Kim Jong-un Archived 1 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine., BBC News, 30 September 2010.
- "Kim Jong Il's Teen Grandson Spotted at Concert of S. Korean Pop Star". Fox News. Associated Press. 18 July 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "Kim Jong-un's half-brother 'assassinated with poisoned needles at airport'". The Independent. 14 February 2017.
- Lynn, Hyung Gu. (2007). Bipolar orders: the two Koreas since 1989. Zed Books. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-84277-743-5.
- Sang-hun, Choe; Fackler, Martin. North Korea's Heir Apparent Remains a Mystery Archived 29 December 2013 at WebCite. The New York Times. 14 June 2009
- The Chosun Ilbo "Kim Jong-un 'Loves Nukes, Computer Games and Johnny Walker" Archived 17 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. (20 December 2010). Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- North Korea Newsletter No. 38 Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Yonhap. 22 January 2009.
- "N Korea holds parliamentary poll". BBC News. Retrieved 8 March 2009.
- Heejin Koo (9 March 2009). "Kim Jong Il's Son, Possible Successor, Isn't Named as Lawmaker". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011.
- Rosen, James (1 May 2009). "In North Korea, Ailing Kim Begins Shifting Power to Military". Fox News Channel. Archived from the original on 4 May 2009.
- North Korea pays homage to the Kim dynasty, past, present (and future?). Justin McCurry. The Guardian. London. 17 December 2012. Accessed 18 August 2017.
- "N Korea names Kim's successor named". BBC. 2 June 2009. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "North Korean leader's son is 'Brilliant Comrade". The Jakarta Post. 13 June 2009. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
- "Kim Jong-un: North Korea's Kim Anoints Youngest Son As Heir". The Huffington Post. 2 June 2009. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- Willacy, Mark (22 July 2009). "North Koreans sing praises of dynastic dictatorship". AM. Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 25 July 2009.
- Kim Jong Il's son 'made secret visit to China'. The Times. 16 June 2009.
- China Dismisses Reports of Kim Jong-un Visit. The Chosun Ilbo. 19 June 2009
Harden, Blaine. North Korea's Kim Jong Il Chooses Youngest Son as Heir Archived 4 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine., The Washington Post, 3 June 2009.
- Lim, Chang-Won (6 September 2009). "NKorea backs Kim's succession plan: analysts". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014.
- Gayathri, Amrutha (24 December 2011). "North Korean Propagandists Say Kim Jong‑il's Son Planned South Korea Attacks". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015.
- "Kim Jong-un 'Masterminded Attacks on S. Korea'". The Chosun Ilbo. 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- Chun, Kwang Ho (2011). "Korean Peninsula: After Cheonan Warship Sinking and Yeonpyeong Incidents". Jeju Peace Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2015.
- "Is North Korea following the Chinese model?". BBC News. 29 September 2010. Archived from the original on 30 September 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- "North Korea sets date for rare leadershipconference". BBC News. 21 September 2010. Archived from the original on 24 September 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
"North Korean leader Kim Jong-il's son 'made a general'". BBC News. 28 September 2010. Archived from the original on 28 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
"North Korea's Kim paves way for family succession". BBC News. 28 September 2010. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- Matt Negrin (28 September 2010). "N. Korean leader promotes his son". Politico.com. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- "North Korea leader's son given key party posts". BBC News. 28 September 2010. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010.
- Mark McDonald (9 October 2010). "Kim Jong-il's Heir Attends Parade". The New York Times.
- "N.Korea 'Purging Proteges of the Old Guard'". The Chosun Ilbo. 10 January 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- Branigan, Tania (19 December 2011). "Kim Jong-il, North Korean leader, dies". The Guardian. London, UK. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015.
- Wallace, Rick; Sainsbury, Michael (29 September 2010). "Kim Jong‑il's heir Kim Jong‑un made general". The Australian. ISSN 1038-8761. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013.
- Shim, Sung-won; Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Buckley, Chris (25 December 2011). Nishikawa, Yoko, ed. "North Korean power‑behind‑throne emerges as neighbors meet". Reuters. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016.
- "Notice to All Party Members, Servicepersons and People". Korean Central News Agency. 19 December 2011. Archived from the original on 11 March 2015.
- "We Are under Respected Kim Jong Un". Korean Central News Agency. 19 December 2011. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014.
- Associated Press (19 December 2011). NKorea grieves Kim Jong Il, state media hails son, Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Lee, Jiyeun (24 December 2011). "N. Korea Media Begins Calling Kim Jong Un Supreme Commander". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016.
- "North Korea: Kim Jong-un hailed 'supreme commander'". BBC News. 24 December 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- N. Korean newspaper refers to successor son as head of key party organ Archived 26 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Yonhap News Agency, 26 December 2011.
- Scott McDonald (30 December 2011). "North Korea vows no softening toward South". USA Today. Archived from the original on 30 December 2011.
- So Yeol Kim. "Military Rallies in Keumsusan Square". Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- Howard, Caroline (30 October 2013). "The World's Most Powerful People 2013: No. 46: Kim Jong Un". Forbes. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015.
- Chris Green. "Kim Takes More Top Posts". Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Kim Jong-un (6 April 2012). Let Us Brilliantly Accomplish the Revolutionary Cause of Juche, Holding Kim Jong Il in High Esteem as the Eternal General Secretary of Our Party: Talk to Senior Officials of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea (PDF). [Pyongyang]: Foreign Languages Publishing House. p. 6. OCLC 988748608. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- Mansourov, Alexandre (19 December 2012). "Part II: The Kim Family Reigns: Preserving the Monarchy and Strengthening the Party-State". 38 North. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "N Korea's Kim Jong-un speaks publicly for first time". BBC. 14 April 2012. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- Branigan, Tania (6 July 2012). "North Korea's Kim Jong-un gets new official theme song". The Guardian. London, UK. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2 August 2015.
- Green, Chris (18 July 2012). "Kim Jong Eun Promoted to Marshal". Daily NK. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Half-kilometre long Kim Jong-un propaganda message visible from space". National Post. 23 November 2012. ISSN 1486-8008. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017.
- McCurry, Justin (10 August 2012). "Kim Jong‑il's personal Japanese chef returns to land he fled". The Guardian. London, UK. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015.
- Petrov, Leonid (12 October 2009). "DPRK has quietly amended its Constitution". Leonid Petrov's KOREA VISION. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
"Article 100". Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (PDF). Amended and supplemented on 1 April, Juche 102 (2013), at the Seventh Session of the Twelfth Supreme People's Assembly. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 2014. p. 22. ISBN 978-9946-0-1099-1. Archived from the original on 8 June 2016.
- "Kim Jong-un Gets Letter from China's New Leader". Chosun.com. 3 December 2012. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- In first New Year speech, North Korea's Kim Jong Un calls for economic revamp Archived 5 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine., CNN, 2 January 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "KJU Delivers New Year's Day Address" Archived 8 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Nkleadershipwatch.wordpress.com. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "North Korea 'under martial law'". The Daily Telegraph. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 31 January 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
В КНДР в преддверии ядерных испытаний введено военное положение (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 31 January 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "North Korea's Kim Jong-un elected to assembly without single vote against". The Guardian. Associated Press. 10 March 2014. Archived from the original on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- Sang-Hun, Choe (9 April 2014). "Leader Tightens Hold on Power in North Korea". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- Chasmar, Jessica (18 May 2014). "North Korea offers rare apology after apartment building collapses". The Washingtion Times. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- "North Korea: Apology over Pyongyang building collapse". BBC News. 18 May 2014. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- ""Socialist Enterprise Management System" under Full Implementation". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 24 February 2015. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- "Kim Jong Un Stresses the Principles of Market Economy through 'May 30th Measures'". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 15 January 2015. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- "Report on Plenary Meeting of WPK Central Committee". Korean Central News Agency. 31 March 2013. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015.
- Bell, Markus; Milani, Marco (16 February 2017). "Should we really be so afraid of a nuclear North Korea?". The Independent. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017.
Hunt, Edward (31 October 2017). "North Korea's Nuclear Ticket to Survival". Foreign Policy in Focus. Archived from the original on 25 March 2017.
- "What's the Status of North Korea's Nuclear Program?". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- "Kim Jong Un Says Pyongyang Won't Use Nukes First; Associated Press". ABC. 7 May 2016. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016.
- "North Korea threatens nuclear strike over U.S.-South Korean". CNN. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
"UN passes sanctions despite North Korea threat of 'pre-emptive nuclear attack'". NBC News. 7 March 2013. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013.
- "Kim Jong-Un claims North Korea has a hydrogen bomb". Fox News Channel. Archived from the original on 13 December 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Albert, Eleanor (3 January 2018). "North Korea's Military Capabilities". Council on Foreign Relations.
- "UN Security Council Resolutions on North Korea". Arms Control Association. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- "North Korea nuclear news". 9News. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
- Trianni, Francesca (27 January 2014). "Did Kim Jong Un Really Execute His Uncle's Extended Family?". Time. 1:04–1:10 in embedded video. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "Ri Yong-gil, North Korean general thought to be executed, is actually alive". The Washingtion Times. 10 May 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- Crying uncle Archived 12 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. The Economist, 14 December 2013.
- "Jang Sung-taek's remaining family executed by Kim Jong-un". Want China Times. 27 January 2014. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015.
"N Korea executes relatives of Kim Jong-Un's dead uncle: reports". ABC News. 27 January 2014. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- Kim’s uncle stripped of all posts, expelled from WPK Archived 12 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Xinhua News Agency
- N. Korea executes leader's uncle for 'treason': KCNA Archived 22 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Yonhap 13 December 2013.
- Julian Ryall (7 April 2014). "North Korean official 'executed by flame-thrower'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016.
"N.Korea Shuts Down Jang Song-taek's Department". Chosun Ilbo. 7 April 2014. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015.
- "UN General Assembly slams Pyongyang's human rights record". China Post. 21 December 2011. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "North Korea's Kim Jong Un wages defector crackdown". Los Angeles Times. 5 January 2012. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
"N. Korea's killing of 3 would-be defectors". The Dong-A Ilbo. 4 January 2012. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
"Boomerangs Usually Come Back". Daily NK. 11 January 2011. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
"Harsh Punishments for Poor Mourning". Daily NK. 11 January 2011. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Marzuki Darusman" (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Council. 1 February 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "North Korea human rights probe urged by UN". The Christian Science Monitor. 5 February 2013. Archived from the original on 25 February 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- "U.N.'s Pillay says may be crimes against humanity in North Korea". Reuters. 14 January 2013. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Michael Kirby; Marzuki Darusman; Sonja Biserko (17 February 2014). "Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea". United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Archived from the original on 17 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Nick Cumming-Bruce (17 February 2014). "U.N. Panel Says North Korean Leader Could Face Trial". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Kim Jong-un placed on sanctions blacklist for the first time by US". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 6 July 2016. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- Solomon, Jay (6 July 2016). "U.S. Puts First Sanctions on North Korean Leader Kim Jong Un". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016.
- CNN, James Griffiths. "North Korea claims US 'biochemical' plot to kill Kim Jong Un". CNN. Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "North Korea will seek extradition of anyone involved in alleged Kim assassination". 11 May 2017. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "Kim Jong Un says he's 'open to dialogue' with South Korea so North Korea can compete in the Olympics — and Seoul wants to talk". Business Insider. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- Kim, Hyung-Jin (3 January 2018). "North Korea reopens cross-border communication channel with South Korea". Chicago Tribune. AP. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- Gregory, Sean (10 February 2018). "'Cheer Up!' North Korean Cheerleaders Rally Unified Women's Hockey Team During 8-0 Loss". Gangneug: Time.
- Ji, Dagyum (12 February 2018). "Delegation visit shows N. Korea can take "drastic" steps to improve relations: MOU". NK News.
- Sang-Hun, Choe (7 March 2018). "Kim Jong-un, a Mystery to the World, Surprises in Diplomatic Debut". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- Landler, Mark (8 March 2018). "North Korea Asks for Direct Nuclear Talks, and Trump Agrees". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Xi Jinping, Kim Jong Un hold talks in Beijing - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
- CNN, Steven Jiang and Joshua Berlinger,. "North Korea's Kim Jong Un met Xi Jinping on surprise visit to China". CNN. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
- "Kim Jong Un Pays Unofficial Visit to China". KCNA. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
- "Kim Jong Un Is Making a Surprise China Visit, Sources Say". Bloomberg.com. 2018-03-26. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
- "Kim Jong-un was in Beijing, China and NK confirm". 27 March 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
- Klug, Foster. "Kim Jong Un makes historic walk across border to meet South Korea's Moon Jae-in". Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Kim Jong-un crosses into South Korea". 27 April 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Koreas make nuclear pledge after summit". BBC News. 27 April 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- McCurry, Justin (19 December 2011). "Kim Jong‑un, 'great successor' poised to lead North Korea". The Guardian. London, UK. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015.
- Higgins, Andrew (16 July 2009). "Who Will Succeed Kim Jong Il?". The Washington Post. p. A01. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015.
- Freeman, Colin; Sherwell, Philip (26 September 2010). "North Korea leadership: 'My happy days at school with North Korea's future leader'". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
Fisher, Max (1 March 2013). "Kim Jong Eun inherited an eccentric obsession with basketball from father Kim Jong Il". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Dennis Rodman: North Korea’s Kim Jong Un is an ‘awesome guy,’ and his father and grandfather were ‘great leaders’ Archived 4 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Daily News. 1 March 2013.
- Joohee Cho (28 February 2013). "Rodman Worms His Way into Kim Jong Un Meeting". ABC News. Archived from the original on 28 February 2013.
- "Dennis Rodman: North Korean leader Kim Jong-un is a 'good-hearted kid'". The Guardian. London, UK. 2 November 2013. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016.
- "Kim Jong Un Net Worth 2017: The North Korean Dictator Worth Billions Of Dollars". International Business Times. 22 February 2017. Archived from the original on 22 April 2017.
- Lankov, Andrei (10 April 2013). The Real North Korea: Life and Politics in the Failed Stalinist Utopia (pp. 139–141). Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition.
- Silverman, Justin Rocket (29 May 2013). "'Vice' season finale on HBO gives fresh look at Dennis Rodman's meeting with North Korea's Kim Jong-un". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on 8 June 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Song Sang-ho (27 June 2012). "N.K. leader seen moving toward economic reform". The Korea Herald. Archived from the original on 3 July 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- Kim Jong-un (Kim Jong Woon) – Leadership Succession Archived 25 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. Global Security.org. 3 July 2009
- CNN, Chieu Luu. "Kim Jong Un caught smoking during anti-smoking drive". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Justin McCurry and Enjoli Liston (26 September 2014). "North Korea admits to Kim Jong-un's ill-health for first time". The Guardian. London, UK. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017.
- Fifield, Anna (13 October 2014). "North Korean media report that Kim Jong Un is back at work". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
"North Korea says leader has reappeared". CNN. 13 October 2014. Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- Kyodo News, "Kim has gained 30 kg, weighs 130 now: Seoul", Japan Times, 28 September 2015, p. 5
- "North Korea leader Kim Jong-un married to Ri Sol-ju". BBC. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- "North Korea leader Kim Jong Un projects new image by showing off wife". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 26 July 2012. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "North Korea leader Kim Jong-un married to Ri Sol-ju". BBC. 25 July 2012. Archived from the original on 7 November 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
Ms Ri is believed to have married Mr Kim in 2009 and given birth to a child the following year, analyst Cheong Seong-chang told the South Korean Korea Times newspaper.
- "Dennis Rodman lets the world know Kim Jong-un has a daughter". National Post. Associated Press. 19 March 2013. ISSN 1486-8008. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Walker, Peter (9 September 2013). "Dennis Rodman gives away name of Kim Jong‑un's daughter". The Guardian. London, UK. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015.
- "Kim Jong-un 'Has a Little Daughter'". Chosun. 20 March 2013. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
Kim Jong-un 'Has 2 Daughters' Archived 21 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Chosun.com, 16 May 2013.
- Sherwell, Phillip (8 January 2017). "Sister helps Kim strut his stuff as key missile test looms". The Times. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- McCurry, Justin (2017-10-09). "Meet Kim Yo-jong, the sister who is the brains behind Kim Jong-un's image". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- "Kim Jong-un's sister sits just yards from the tyrant after promotion". Mail Online. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- "Kim Jong-nam killing: VX nerve agent 'found on his face'". BBC News. 24 February 2017. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017.
- Bechtol, Bruce E., Jr. (2014). North Korea and Regional Security in the Kim Jong-un Era: A New International Security Dilemma. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-40007-9.
- Kim Jong Un Aphorisms (PDF). 1. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 2016. ISBN 978-9946-0-1430-2.
- Lee, Kyo-Duk; Lim, Soon-Hee; Cho, Jeong-Ah; Song, Joung-Ho (2013). Study on the Power Elite of the Kim Jong Un Regime (PDF). Study Series 13-01. Seoul: Korea Institute for National Unification. ISBN 978-89-8479-708-6.
- Thak Song-il; An Su-yong, eds. (January 2014). Supreme Leader Kim Jong Un in the Year 2012 (PDF). Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. ISBN 978-9946-0-1192-9.
- An Chol-gang, ed. (November 2014). Supreme Leader Kim Jong Un in the Year 2013 (PDF). Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. ISBN 978-9946-0-1192-9.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Kim Jong-un|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kim Jong-un.|
- North Korea's Young Leader on Show – video report by The New York Times
- NSA Archive Kim Jong-Il: The "Great Successor"
- Official short biography at Naenara
- Kim Jong-un's works at Publications of the DPRK
|Party political offices|
|Chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea
First Secretary: 2012–2016
|Chairman of the Central Military Commission
|Chairman of the Presidium of the Politburo
of the Workers' Party of Korea
|New office||Vice Chairman of the
Central Military Commission
Served alongside: Ri Yong-ho
& Ri Yong-ho
|Supreme Leader of North Korea
|Chairman of the State Affairs Commission
National Defence Commission: 2012–2016
|Supreme Commander of the
Korean People's Army