Killing of captives by ISIL
Executions by ISIS refers here to killing by beheading, crucifixion, shooting or other means of military and civilian people (such as captives and "criminals") by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). ISIS have released a number of propaganda/publicity videos of beheadings or shootings of captives. Other videos and photos show people being crucified and later dying as a result of crucifixion, or at least in part from the crucifixion. Houtat Sulūk is reported to be a mass grave.
By June 2014, according to United Nations reports, ISIL had killed hundreds of prisoners of war and over 1,000 civilians. Specific incidents involving the killing of military prisoners including the mass killing of up to 250 Syrian Army soldiers near Tabqa Air base, and killings that took place in Camp Speicher (1,095–1,700 Iraqi soldiers shot and "thousands" more "missing") and the Shaer gas field (200 Syrian soldiers shot). ISIL was reported to have beheaded about 100 foreign fighters as deserters who tried to leave Raqqa.
Muath al-Kasasbeh, a Royal Jordanian Air Force pilot whose F-16 fighter aircraft crashed near Raqqa, Syria, on 24 December 2014 during the military intervention against ISIS, was captured by ISIS and on 3 February 2015 the Islamic State released a video showing al-Kasasbeh being burned to death while trapped inside a cage.
Among the known killings of religious and minority group civilians carried out by ISIS are those in the villages and towns of Quiniyeh (70–90 Yazidis killed), Hardan (60 Yazidis killed), Sinjar (200–500 Yazidis killed), Ramadi Jabal (60–70 Yazidis killed), Dhola (50 Yazidis killed), Khana Sor (100 Yazidis killed), Hardan (250–300 Yazidis killed), al-Shimal (dozens of Yazidis killed), Khocho (400 Yazidis killed and 1,000 abducted), Jadala (14 Yadizis killed) and Beshir (700 Shia Turkmen killed), and others committed near Mosul (670 Shia inmates of the Badush prison killed), and in Tal Afar prison, Iraq (205 Yazidis killed for refusing conversion). The UN estimated that 5,000 Yazidis were killed by ISIS during the takeover of parts of northern Iraq in August 2014.
ISIS has tortured and murdered local journalists, creating what Reporters Without Borders calls "news blackholes" in areas controlled by ISIL. ISIL fighters have reportedly been given written directions to kill or capture journalists.
- James Wright Foley (October 18, 1973 – c. August 19, 2014) was an American freelance journalist and photojournalist of the Syrian Civil War when he was abducted on November 22, 2012, in northwestern Syria. Foley was the first American citizen to be killed by "Jihadi John". James Foley's beheading by ISIS received wide condemnation in the United States.
- Steven Joel Sotloff (May 11, 1983 – c. September 2, 2014) was an Israeli-American journalist for Time magazine and The Jerusalem Post, although the Post disavowed any relationship once Sotloff's life was threatened. In 2013, he was kidnapped in Aleppo, Syria, and was held captive by Islamic militants. On September 2, 2014, a video was released purporting to show "Jihadi John" beheading Steven Sotloff.
- On January 8, 2015, ISIL members in Libya claimed to have executed Tunisian journalists Sofiene Chourabi and Nadhir Ktari who disappeared in September 2014.
- In January 2015 ISIL threatened to kill two Japanese hostages, Kenji Goto Jogo, a journalist, and Haruna Yukawa, a military company operator, unless a ransom of 200 million USD is paid. By the end of the month, the group released another video of the beheading of Goto, in which Jihadi John proclaimed to Japanese prime minister Shinzō Abe "because of your reckless decision to take part in an unwinnable war, this knife will not only slaughter Kenji, but will also carry on and cause carnage wherever your people are found. So let the nightmare for Japan begin." Both videos await confirmation of authenticity.
ISIS has also killed aid workers.
- David Haines (May 9, 1970 – c. September 13, 2014) was abducted in March 2013 by ISIL while working in Syria for the humanitarian aid group Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development assessing the Atmeh refugee camp near the Turkish border and the Syrian province of Idlib. A video of the lead-up and aftermath of David Haines' beheading, entitled "A Message to the Allies of America", was released by ISIS on September 13, 2014.
- Hervé Gourdel (September 12, 1959 – c. September 24, 2014) was a French citizen and mountaineering guide. Gourdel was kidnapped on September 21, 2014, while hiking in the Djurdjura National Park in Algeria. The following day, a recently formed ISIL affiliate in Algeria, Jund al-Khilafah, released a video which showed Hervé Gourdel being held hostage. The group threatened to kill Gourdel if the French government continued to conduct airstrikes against ISIS. On September 24, they carried through on threats to behead him after a 24-hour deadline passed. The beheading was captured in a video titled "A Message of Blood for French Government."
- Alan Henning (August 15, 1967 – c. October 3, 2014) was a British humanitarian aid worker. Henning was the fourth Western hostage killed by ISIL. Henning was captured during ISIL's occupation of the Syrian city of Al-Dana in December 2013, where he was helping with humanitarian relief. The British Foreign Office withheld news of Henning's capture while they attempted to negotiate his release. Alan Henning was shown at the end of David Haines's beheading video, released on September 13, 2014, and referred to by "Jihadi John" as the next victim. A video of Henning's beheading was released by ISIL on October 3, 2014.
- Peter Edward Kassig (February 19, 1988 – 2014), also known by the name Abdul-Rahman Kassig which he assumed in captivity, was 26 years old at the time he was beheaded. He was the adopted child of Ed, a school teacher, and Paula Kassig, a nurse. On October 1, 2013, as he was on his way to Deir Ezzour in eastern Syria to deliver food and medical supplies to refugees, Kassig was taken captive by ISIL. While in captivity, Kassig – formerly a Methodist – converted to Islam and changed his name to Abdul-Rahman Kassig, sometime between October and December 2013. On October 3, 2014, his parents released a video in which they stressed that his conversion to Islam was not forced, and that his path to conversion began before he was taken captive. On November 16, 2014, ISIL posted a video showing "Jihadi John" standing over a severed human head. The beheading itself was not shown in the video. The White House later confirmed the person killed was Kassig.
- ISIL claimed that U.S. hostage Kayla Mueller was killed in the Jordanian airstrike on Raqqa on 5 February 2015. However, some experts believe that she may have been killed before the date of the video's release, in order for ISIL to try to drive a wedge between the U.S. and Jordan by blaming her death on the Jordanian airstrikes. Shortly thereafter President Obama confirmed the death of Mueller by ISIL.
- On November 19, 2015, Chinese national Fan Jinghui (樊京辉) and Norwegian national Ole Johan Grimsgaard-Ofstad were killed by shooting by ISIS and pictures were released in ISIS' magazine Dabiq.
- "Video shows Islamic State executes scores of Syrian soldiers". Reuters. 28 August 2014.
- "ISIL Militants Killed More Than 1000 Civilians In Recent Onslaught In recent Onslaught in Iraq: UN". RT News. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "Iraq violence: UN confirms more than 2000 killed, injured since early June". UN News Centre. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "UN warns of war crimes as ISIL allegedly executes 1,700". Today's Zaman. 15 June 2014. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- ""داعش"، "أزلام صدام" أم "طرف ثالث".. من يقف وراء قتل 1700 جندي في "مجزرة سبايكر" بالعراق؟ ("Daash", "Saddam's henchmen" or "third party.". Who is behind murder of 1,700 in massacre Spyker "in Iraq?)" (in Arabic). CNN. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "البغدادية - قاسم عطا: 11000 مفقوداً من قاعد سبايكر وهناك مقابر جماعية للجنود في القصور الرئاسية والبوعجيل بتكريت (Qassim Atta: 11,000 missing from Spyker massacre are the mass graves of soldiers at the Presidential Palace in Tikrit)" (in Arabic). Al Baghdadia. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "Syria fights to free gas field from Islamic State". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Erika Solomon (19 December 2014). "Isis morale falls as momentum slows and casualties mount". Financial Times. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
- Adam Chandler (4 February 2015). "Jordan's King Abdullah Vows Revenge for Death of Mouath al-Kasaesbeh, Who Was Burned Alive by ISIS". The Atlantic.
- Report on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict in Iraq: 6 July – 10 September 2014 (PDF). ohchr.org (Report). Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq.
- "UN: ISIS Massacred 700 Turkmen--Including Women, Children, Elderly". CNS News. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "UN confirms 5,000 Yazidis men were executed and 7,000 women are now sex slaves". Daily Mail. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Al Fares, Zaid (5 September 2014). "The Forgotten Isis Beheadings: The World Mourns Steven Sotloff, but who Remembers Bassam al-Rayes?". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- Kestler-D'Amours, Jillian (6 October 2014). "Syria journalists 'on the margins of history'". aljzeera.com. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- "Areas controlled by Islamic State are news 'black holes' - Reporters Without Borders".
- Alyssa Newcomb (August 20, 2014). "Another American hostage threatened with death". CBS News. World News. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- Paul Hirschson (September 3, 2014). "Steven Sotloff, Journalist Beheaded by ISIS, Was Also Israeli Citizen". NBC News. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Raf Sanchez (September 2, 2014). "Steven Sotloff 'beheaded by Islamic State' – latest". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
- "After James Foley, ISIS beheads another US journalist Steven Sotloff". The Times of India. September 3, 2014. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- "Libya's ISIS branch claims execution of two Tunisian journalists". Al Akhbar English.
- Tomlinson, Simon (20 January 2015). "ISIS executioner 'Jihadi John' threatens to kill Japanese hostages unless they receive $200m in 72-hour ultimatum after their Prime Minister pledged the same amount to countries fighting ISIS". Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Laub, Karin (January 31, 2015). "Japanese hostage Kenji Goto seen beheaded in ISIS video, bringing abrupt end to negotiations to free him". National Post. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- "David Haines – obituary". The Daily Telegraph. London. September 14, 2014.
- Robinson, Nick (September 3, 2014). "British hostage: PM says UK will not be 'cowed' by threats". BBC News. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Haberman, Zach (September 13, 2014). "David Haines video: Full transcript of ISIS footage that allegedly depicts beheading of British aid worker". New York Times. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- "Niçois enlevé en Algérie: Fabius confirme l'authenticité de la vidéo". Nice Matin. September 22, 2014.
- Hall, John; Allen, Peter (September 25, 2014). "Beheaded French hostage will be avenged, country vows as tributes paid to married father of two". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
- "Algerian extremists behead French hostage". Associated Press. September 24, 2014. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- "Legal View". CNN (September 24, 2014).
- "Jund al-Khilafah in Algeria Beheads French Hostage in Video". SITE Intelligence Group. September 24, 2014. Archived from the original on September 24, 2014. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- "Alan Henning 'killed by Islamic State'". BBC. October 3, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- "Special forces hunt for IS hostage Alan Henning". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- Harper, Tom (September 14, 2014). "Alan Henning: Second British hostage in Isis beheading video named as 'kind and funny' aid worker". The Independent. London. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- Botelho, Greg; Pearson, Michael; Taylor, Phillip (September 13, 2014). "ISIS executes British aid worker David Haines; Cameron vows justice". CNN.com. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- Cobain, Ian (September 14, 2014). "Isis hostage: Alan Henning described as 'a big man with a big heart'". The Guardian. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- "Remembering Abdul-Rahman (Peter) Kassig". Butler University. November 19, 2014. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
- "BBC News - Abdul-Rahman Kassig killing is pure evil, says Obama". BBC News. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- Eason, Brian; Wang, Stephanie; Adams, Michael Anthony (October 3, 2014). "Indianapolis native Peter Kassig named next ISIS target". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- Wagner, Meg (October 9, 2014). "'On our own, with no help from the government': Peter Kassig's mom claims U.S. won't help kidnapped son, tweets to ISIS for his release". New York Daily News. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- "US hostage Kassig letter: 'I am scared to die'". BBC News. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Parents of US hostage Peter Kassig appeal to Isis for his release". the Guardian. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Peter Kassig's parents in video plea to ISIS: 'Show mercy'". October 4, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Brian Eason (November 20, 2014). "Peter Kassig's birth family breaks silence". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
The Kassigs acknowledged on Thursday that they adopted Peter as an infant.
- "Indianapolis native Peter Kassig named next ISIS target". October 3, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Peter Kassig: Idealistic aid worker who converted to Islam in captivity". Telegraph.co.uk. October 4, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "The back story of the former Ranger held captive by Islamic State". Military Times. October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- "Peter Kassig's Conversion Unlikely to Halt ISIS Headsman, Experts Say". US News & World Report. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "IS Beheads Peter Kassig, Challenges U.S. to Send Ground Troops". SITE Monitoring Service. 2014-11-16. (transcript of the video, largely based on the original English subtitles)
- Hjelmgaard, Kim (November 16, 2014). "U.S. review of Islamic State video confirms American's death". USA Today. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
- Doug Stanglin; Jim Michaels; Jessica Estepa; Shaun McKinnon (February 7, 2015). "Officials: No proof U.S. hostage killed in airstrike". USA Today. (Arizona) Republic, Associated Press. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
- Rukmini Callimachi; Rick Gladstone (February 6, 2015). "ISIS Declares Airstrike Killed a U.S. Hostage". Eric Schmitt and Julie Hirschfeld Davis from Washington; Rana F. Sweis and Ranya Kadri from Amman, Jordan; Anne Barnard from Beirut, Lebanon; and Sheri Fink from New York. New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
- "Islamic State says female US hostage killed in Syria". Press Association. Independent.ie. February 6, 2015. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
- Peter Foster, "US female hostage held by Isil is dead, confirms Obama," The Telegraph, 10 Feb 2015
- "Kayla Mueller, American ISIL hostage, is dead,", Al Jazeera America, February 10, 2015
- Rukmini Callimachi, "Death of Kayla Mueller, ISIS Hostage, Confirmed by Family and White House,", New York Times, FEB. 10, 2015
- "被IS扣押中国人质为樊京辉 在京从事广告行业." Sina. September 10, 2015. Retrieved on November 19, 2015.
- "Islamic State claims it has killed two more hostages". BBC News. 2015-11-19.
- "ISIS: Executes Chinese, Norwegian Captives, According To Claims, Both Countries Condemn Killings". Headlines & Global News (HNGN). 2015-11-19.
- "IS group says it has killed Norwegian, Chinese captives". Yahoo News. 2015-11-18.