Kilis is a city in south-central Turkey, near the border with Syria, and the administrative centre of Kilis Province.

Kilis
Kilis city center
Kilis city center
Kilis is located in Turkey
Kilis
Kilis
Coordinates: 36°43′N 37°07′E / 36.717°N 37.117°E / 36.717; 37.117Coordinates: 36°43′N 37°07′E / 36.717°N 37.117°E / 36.717; 37.117
CountryTurkey
ProvinceKilis
Government
 • MayorMehmet Abdi Bulut (AKP)
 • KaymakamKadir Duman
Area
 • District575.18 km2 (222.08 sq mi)
Elevation
660 m (2,170 ft)
Population
 (2015)[2]
 • Urban
93,266
 • District
106,293
 • District density180/km2 (480/sq mi)
Post code
79000
Websitewww.kilis.bel.tr

HistoryEdit

 
Exterior of 16th-Century Tekke Mosque
 
Interior of Tekke Mosque

Although there are not any definite information related to its foundation, today's Kilis City mainly developed and became urbanized during the Ottoman Period. However, traces of important cities found in the near surroundings of Kilis and the historical documents prove that important centres were always present here in every period. In the tablets belonging to the Assyrian period, the name 'Ki-li-zi' is written in cuneiform and a city named as "Ciliza Sive Urnagiganti" during the Roman Empire period is mentioned.

In addition to centers such as Kirus antique city, Oylum Höyük, Ravanda Castle, Ilezi and Tarzime Han, many other residential areas starting from the Neolithic period have also been discovered in the surrounding of Kilis as a result of archaeological surface explorations. Hittite, Greek, Persian, Roman, Byzantine, Crusader, Mamluk and Ottoman periods were experienced in the region respectively.

As a result of the researchers, it has been determined that the 2 oldest structures (Ulu Mosque, 1388 and Katrancı Mosque, 1460) in the city center of Kilis belong to the Mamluk Period. Besides these two mosques approximately 135 monumental structures have being constructed since 1516 during the Ottoman Period.

The population of Kilis was 20.000 and it was a city in which production, commerce and cultural functions were developed at the end of the 19th century and it was also a center in which agricultural products (such as grapes, cereals etc.) cultivated in nearly 500 villages around it was processed and industrial products were produced and marketed.

As in the whole Ottoman geography, members of the three major religions are living here together and culture and art are highly developed. 37 mosques, 14 small mosques, 4 Dervish Lodges, 8 madrasahs, 4 churches, 1 synagogue, 31 fountains, 5 Turkish baths, 40 coffee houses, 5 pharmacies and 5 drinking houses that were present in the city at the end of the 19th century give information about the social and cultural structure here. Poetry, music and handicrafts and especially architecture was developed.

Kilis was part of the Aleppo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire until the First World War, after which it passed to the Republic of Turkey. There was also an Armenian and Jewish community.[3] The sizable Armenian population was persecuted and eventually massacred during the Armenian Genocide.

Being a border town, Kilis has long had a reputation for smuggling and drug trafficking. Although this has apparently been reduced, even today cigarettes, spirits and cheap electrical items can be bought for cash at low prices. During the Syrian Civil War, the city became a target of continuous rocket attacks by ISIL. in April 2016, the town was struck by rockets fired by ISIS killing 21 people and injuring others.[4][5]Kilis Oncupinar Accommodation Facility is in the town.

DemographicsEdit

The city and the vicinity seems to have been receiving Turkmen settlement from 13th century and onwards, as Zakariya al-Qazwini mentioned Kilis as a Turkmen village in Athar al-Bilad.[6] In 1850, Francis Rawdon Chesney mentioned that Kilis was chiefly inhabited by Turkomans, who were agriculturists and carriers, and also Armenians, Turks, and Kurds, totaling to 12 thousand people.[7] In 1869, American missionaries noted that the prevalent language in Kilis was Turkish unlike Aleppo, while Arabic was mostly spoken by the Greeks of the town, who also understood Turkish but didn't prefer the language.[8] In Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition from 1911, Kilis was included as a town of 20 thousand inhabitants, mainly composed of Circassians, Turkomans, and Arabs.[9] In 1914, kaza of Kilis consisted of 78,905 Muslims, 434 Greeks, 3,934 Armenians, 775 Jews, 376 Armenian Catholics, and 390 Protestants.[10]

GeographyEdit

Kilis is surrounded by three important cities named Gaziantep, Antakya and Aleppo, in the region in which the Anatolia Plateau ends and the Syria plain begins. As a result of its proximity to the North Mediterranean, it is in a transition region between the Mediterranean climate and the continental climate.It is in the Northwestern part of the Mesopotamia region name as the "Fertile Crescent", which has been a settling area since the very beginning of history.

The Öncüpınar Syrian border crossing is 5 km (3 mi) to the south and the large city of Gaziantep is 60 km (37 mi) to the north. Indeed, until 1996 Kilis was a district of Gaziantep Province, being made into a province by Tansu Çiller following an open vote-winning gambit in the 1995 general election.

ArchitectureEdit

The city in which traditional stone architecture is dominant, has an organic structure. Narrow streets, stone walls and houses with courtyards inside create the structure of the city together with the monumental buildings. The houses of Kilis are shaped depending on the effects of the climate and cultural approaches and are not easily detected from outside as they are surrounded with high walls. You can see the houses as places located around large courtyards when you enter through the door that opens to the street or dead-end street.[citation needed]

CuisineEdit

The local kebab known as Kilis Tava is renowned, and also the breads, baklava, künefe and stuffed vegetables.

 
Kilis Tava

EducationEdit

Kilis 7 Aralık University is located in Kilis and has around 8,000 undergraduate and graduate students.

 
Kilis 7 Aralık University

Places of interestEdit

Sights in the town include a number of Ottoman era mosques and stone houses with courtyards and elaborate carved wooden fittings.

MosquesEdit

  • Canbolat or Tekke, built in the 16th century.[11]
  • Muallak, built in the 16th century.[11]
  • Hacı Derviş, built in 1551.[11]
  • Şeyhler or Şeyh Süleyman, built in 1655.[11]
  • Hindioğlu, built in 1664.[11]
  • Akcurun, built in the 16th or 17th century.[11]
  • Şeyh, built in 1569.[11]
  • Şeyh Hilal, the minaret was built in 1641.[11]
  • Katrancı or Alacalı, the present structure was rebuilt in 1962.[11]
  • Murtaza, built in 1659 repaired in 1948.[11]
  • Cüneyne, built in 1569.[11]

Mausoleums (Türbe)Edit

  • The Mausoleum of Sheikh Mansur
  • The Mausoleum of Sheikh Muhammed Bedevi (Rıttali)
  • The Mausoleum of Sheikh Muhammed Ensari

Dervish Lodges (Tekke)Edit

  • Shurahbil bin Hasanah Dervish Lodge and Mausoleum

Turkish Baths (Hamam)Edit

  • Old (Eski) Baths
  • Paşa Baths
  • Tuğlu (Daltaban Pasha) Baths

ClimateEdit

Kilis has a hot summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa), with very hot, dry and long summers and cool and rainy winters, with occasional snowfall.

Climate data for Kilis
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.9
(69.6)
22.5
(72.5)
28.8
(83.8)
35.4
(95.7)
40.2
(104.4)
41.0
(105.8)
44.2
(111.6)
45.0
(113.0)
41.4
(106.5)
36.4
(97.5)
29.6
(85.3)
25.7
(78.3)
45.0
(113.0)
Average high °C (°F) 9.7
(49.5)
11.4
(52.5)
15.9
(60.6)
21.2
(70.2)
27.3
(81.1)
32.6
(90.7)
36.0
(96.8)
36.0
(96.8)
32.6
(90.7)
26.3
(79.3)
17.8
(64.0)
11.4
(52.5)
23.2
(73.7)
Average low °C (°F) 2.2
(36.0)
3.1
(37.6)
6.0
(42.8)
10.0
(50.0)
14.4
(57.9)
18.4
(65.1)
21.2
(70.2)
21.2
(70.2)
18.6
(65.5)
14.3
(57.7)
8.2
(46.8)
3.8
(38.8)
11.8
(53.2)
Record low °C (°F) −11.0
(12.2)
−8.4
(16.9)
−6.8
(19.8)
−1.3
(29.7)
5.4
(41.7)
10.0
(50.0)
14.6
(58.3)
13.2
(55.8)
10.2
(50.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−3.5
(25.7)
−8.0
(17.6)
−11.0
(12.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 84.8
(3.34)
73.7
(2.90)
69.2
(2.72)
49.9
(1.96)
25.5
(1.00)
7.4
(0.29)
1.2
(0.05)
2.8
(0.11)
5.9
(0.23)
33.8
(1.33)
58.4
(2.30)
88.1
(3.47)
500.7
(19.7)
Average rainy days 12 11 11 9 6 2 0 0 2 5 8 12 78
Average relative humidity (%) 71 69 63 60 52 40 34 35 43 54 64 70 55
Mean monthly sunshine hours 130.2 140.0 195.3 231.0 288.3 339.0 359.6 344.1 300.0 235.6 168.0 120.9 2,852
Source 1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [1]
Source 2: Weather2 [2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ p. 40.
  4. ^ ABC News Australia: "Four dead as rockets hit teachers' dormitory in Turkish town of Kilis near Syria border" 18 Apr 2016
  5. ^ Reuters: "Anger, fear sweeps Turkish border town under attack from Islamic State" BY HUMEYRA PAMUK May 16, 2016
  6. ^ Budak, Mustafa (2000). "MÜTAREKE DÖNEMİNDE BİR A YDlN-HALK İŞBİRLİGİ: KİLİS'İN TÜRKLÜGÜ OSMANLI HÜKÜMETi'NE BAGLlLlGI HAKKINDA BİR MUHTIRA". İlmi Araştırmalar. 9: 71. Retrieved 5 September 2021.
  7. ^ Chesney, Francis Rawdon (1850). The Expedition for the Survey of the Rivers Euphrates and Tigris: Carried on by Order of the British Government in the Years 1835, 1836, and 1837; Preceded by Geographical and Historical Notices of the Regions Situated Between the Rivers Nile and Indus. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. p. 422. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  8. ^ Sproull, Thomas; Sproull, John W. (1869). The Reformed Presbyterian and Covenanter (7 ed.). Pittsburgh: Bakewell & Marthens. p. 223. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  9. ^ Kruse, Paul Robert (1911). "Aintab" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 796.
  10. ^ Karpat, Kemal H. (1985). Ottoman population, 1830-1914: demographic and social characteristics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Pres. p. 176. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k T.A. Sinclair (31 December 1990). Eastern Turkey: An Architectural & Archaeological Survey, Volume IV. Pindar Press. pp. 114–119. ISBN 978-1-904597-79-7.

External linksEdit