Kyiv or Kiev[a] (Ukrainian: Київ, romanized: Kyiv; Russian: Киев, romanized: Kiyev) is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper River. Its population in July 2015 was 2,887,974 (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press), making Kyiv the seventh-most populous city in Europe.
|Municipality||Kyiv City Municipality|
|Founded||AD 482 (officially)|
|City council||Kyiv City Council|
|• Mayor and Head of City State Administration||Vitalii Klychko|
|• City with special status||839 km2 (324 sq mi)|
|Elevation||179 m (587 ft)|
(1 January 2019)
|• City with special status||2,950,800|
|• Density||3,299/km2 (8,540/sq mi)|
|• Metro||3,375,000 of the Kyiv metropolitan area|
|• Total||US$26.29 billion|
|• Per capita||US$8,970|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Area code(s)||+380 44|
|Vehicle registration plate||AA (before 2004: КА, КВ, КЕ, КН, КІ, KT)|
Kyiv is an important industrial, scientific, educational and cultural center of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, and historical landmarks. The city has an extensive system of public transport and infrastructure, including the Kyiv Metro.
The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi, one of its four legendary founders. During its history, Kyiv, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of prominence and obscurity. The city probably existed as a commercial center as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kyiv was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians (Vikings) in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the Kyivan Rus, the first East Slavic state. Completely destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours, first Lithuania, then Poland and Russia.
The city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1918, after the Ukrainian People's Republic declared independence from Soviet Russia, Kyiv became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kyiv was a city of Soviet Ukraine, which was proclaimed by the Red Army, and, from 1934, Kyiv was its capital. The city was almost completely ruined during World War II but quickly recovered in the postwar years, remaining the Soviet Union's third-largest city.
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kyiv remained Ukraine's capital and experienced a steady influx of ethnic Ukrainian migrants from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kyiv has continued to be Ukraine's largest and wealthiest city. Its armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology, but new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kyiv's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kyiv emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine; parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections.
Kiev is the traditional and historically most commonly used English name for the city. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. In September 2020 the English Wikipedia switched from using Kiev to Kyiv. Kyiv is used officially by the city, and it is gaining in frequency in English-language sources.
The first known humans in the region of Kyiv lived there in the late paleolithic period (Stone Age). The population around Kyiv during the Bronze Age formed part of so-called Tripillian culture, as witnessed by objects found in the area. During the early Iron Age certain tribes settled around Kyiv that practiced land cultivation, husbandry and trading with the Scythians, and with ancient states of the northern Black Sea coast. Findings of Roman coins of the 2nd to the 4th centuries suggest trade relations with the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. The carriers of Zarubintsy culture are considered the direct ancestors of the ancient Slavs who later established Kyiv. Notable archaeologists of the area around Kyiv include Vikentiy Khvoyka.
Scholars continue to debate about the period in which the city was founded: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians have preferred a date of 482 AD. In 1982, the city celebrated its 1,500th anniversary. According to archaeological data, the foundation of Kyiv dates to the second half of the 5th century and the first half of the 6th century. There is also a claim to find reference to the city in Ptolemy's 2nd-century work as Metropolity.
Legendary accounts tell of the origin of the city; one legend features a founding family, members of a Slavic tribe (Polans): the leader Kyi, the eldest, his brothers Shchek and Khoryv, and also their sister Lybid, who allegedly founded the city (See the Primary Chronicle). According to the Chronicle, the name Kyiv/Kiev means "belonging to Kyi". Another legend states that Saint Andrew passed through the area (1st century), and where he erected a cross, a church was built.[by whom?] Since the Middle Ages an image of Saint Michael represented the city as well as the duchy.
There is little historical evidence pertaining to the period when the city was founded. Scattered Slavic settlements existed in the area from the 6th century, but it is unclear whether any of them later developed into the city. On the Ptolemy's map there are shown several settlements along the mid-stream of Borysthenes among of which is Azagarium. Some historians believe that it could be the old Kyiv. However, according to the 1773 "Dictionary of Ancient Geography" of Alexander Macbean, the settlement corresponds to modern city of Chernobyl. Just south of Azagarium, there is another settlement of Amadoca, which supposedly was the capital of Amadoci people living in area between marshes of Amadoca in the west and Amadoca mountains in the east.
Another name related Kyiv mentioned in history, origin of which is not completely clear, is Sambat and has something to do with the Khazar Empire. As previously stated the Primary Chronicle mentions that residents of Kyiv told Askold that "there were three brothers Kii, Shchek and Khoriv. They founded this town and died, and now we are staying and paying taxes to their relatives the Khazars". In his book De Administrando Imperio Constantine Porphyrogenitus, mentioning the caravan of small-cargo boats assembled annually before the capital city on the Dnieper, writes, "They come down the river Dnieper and assemble at the strong-point of Kyiv (Kioava), also called Sambatas". In addition to that at least three Arabic speaking 10th century geographers who traveled the area mention the city of Zānbat as the chief city of the Russes, among which are Ahmad ibn Rustah, Abu Sa'id Gardezi, and an author of the Hudud al-'Alam. The texts of those authors were discovered by Russian orientalist Alexander Tumansky. The etymology of Sambat has been argued by many historians including Grigoriy Ilyinsky, Nikolay Karamzin, Jan Potocki, Nikolay Lambin, Joachim Lelewel, Guðbrandur Vigfússon and many others. The historian Julius Brutzkus in his work "The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev" hypothesizes that both Sambat and Kyiv are of Khazar origin meaning "hill fortress" and "lower settlement" respectively. Brutzkus claims that Sambat is not Kyiv, but rather Vyshhorod (High City) which is located nearby.
The Primary Chronicles states that at some point during the late 9th or early 10th century in Kyiv ruled Askold and Dir who may have been of Viking or Varangian descent and later were murdered by Oleg of Novgorod. The Primary Chronicle dates the Oleg's conquest of the town in 882, but some historians, such as Omeljan Pritsak and Constantine Zuckerman, dispute that arguing that Khazar rule continued as late as the 920s (among notable historical documents are the Kyivan letter and Schechter Letter). Other historians suggest that Magyar tribes ruled the city between 840 and 878, before migrating with some Khazar tribes to the Carpathian Basin. The Primary Chronicles also mention movement of Hungarians pass Kyiv. To this day in Kyiv exists a place known as "Uhorske urochyshche" (Hungarian place), which is better known as Askold's Grave. According to the aforementioned scholars the building of the fortress of Kyiv was finished in 840 under the leadership of Keő (Keve), Csák and Geréb, the three brothers, possibly members of the Tarján tribe. The three names appear in the Kyiv Chronicle Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv may be not of Slavic origin as Russian historians have always struggled to account for their meanings and origins. According to Hungarian historian Viktor Padányi, their names were put into the Kyiv Chronicle in the 12th century and they were identified as old-Russian mythological heroes.
The city of Kyiv stood conveniently on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. In 968 the nomadic Pechenegs attacked and then besieged the city. In 1000 AD the city had a population of 45,000.
In March 1169 Grand Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky of Vladimir-Suzdal sacked Kyiv, leaving the old town and the prince's hall in ruins. He took many pieces of religious artwork - including the Theotokos of Vladimir icon - from nearby Vyshhorod. In 1203 Prince Rurik Rostislavich and his Kipchak allies captured and burned Kyiv. In the 1230s the city was besieged and ravaged by different Rus' princes several times. The town had not recovered from Bogolyubsky's sack and the subsequent destruction, when in 1240 the Mongol invasion of Rus', led by Batu Khan, completed the destruction of Kyiv. These events had a profound effect on the future of the city and on the East Slavic civilization. Before Bogolyubsky's pillaging, Kyiv had had a reputation as one of the largest cities in the world, with a population exceeding 100,000 in the beginning of the 12th century.
In the early 1320s a Lithuanian army led by Grand Duke Gediminas defeated a Slavic army led by Stanislav of Kyiv at the Battle on the Irpen' River and conquered the city. The Tatars, who also claimed Kyiv, retaliated in 1324–1325, so while Kyiv was ruled by a Lithuanian prince, it had to pay tribute to the Golden Horde. Finally, as a result of the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, incorporated Kyiv and surrounding areas into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1482 Crimean Tatars sacked and burned much of Kyiv. With the 1569 (Union of Lublin), when the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was established, the Lithuanian-controlled lands of the Kyiv region (Podolia, Volhynia, and Podlachia) were transferred from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and Kyiv became the capital of Kyiv Voivodeship. The 1658 Treaty of Hadiach envisaged Kyiv becoming the capital of the Grand Duchy of Rus' within the Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth, but this provision of the treaty never went into operation. Occupied by the Russian troops since the 1654 (Treaty of Pereyaslav), Kyiv became a part of the Tsardom of Russia from 1667 on (Truce of Andrusovo) and enjoyed a degree of autonomy. None of the Polish-Russian treaties concerning Kyiv have ever been ratified. In the Russian Empire Kyiv was a primary Christian centre, attracting pilgrims, and the cradle of many of the empire's most important religious figures, but until the 19th century the city's commercial importance remained marginal.
In 1834 the Russian government established Saint Vladimir University, now called the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv after the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko (1814–1861). (Shevchenko worked as a field researcher and editor for the geography department). The medical faculty of the Saint Vladimir University, separated into an independent institution in 1919–1921 during the Soviet period, became the Bogomolets National Medical University in 1995.
During the 18th and 19th centuries the Russian military and ecclesiastical authorities dominated city life; the Russian Orthodox Church had involvement in a significant part of Kyiv's infrastructure and commercial activity. In the late 1840s the historian, Mykola Kostomarov (Russian: Nikolay Kostomarov), founded a secret political society, the Brotherhood of Saint Cyril and Methodius, whose members put forward the idea of a federation of free Slavic peoples with Ukrainians as a distinct and separate group rather than a subordinate part of the Russian nation; the Russian authorities quickly suppressed the society.
Following the gradual loss of Ukraine's autonomy, Kyiv experienced growing Russification in the 19th century by means of Russian migration, administrative actions and social modernization. At the beginning of the 20th century the Russian-speaking part of the population dominated the city centre, while the lower classes living on the outskirts retained Ukrainian folk culture to a significant extent. However, enthusiasts among ethnic Ukrainian nobles, military and merchants made recurrent attempts to preserve native culture in Kyiv (by clandestine book-printing, amateur theatre, folk studies etc.)
During the Russian industrial revolution in the late 19th century, Kyiv became an important trade and transportation centre of the Russian Empire, specialising in sugar and grain export by railway and on the Dnieper river. By 1900 the city had also become a significant industrial centre, having a population of 250,000. Landmarks of that period include the railway infrastructure, the foundation of numerous educational and cultural facilities as well as notable architectural monuments (mostly merchant-oriented). In 1892 the first electric tram line of the Russian Empire started running in Kyiv (the 3rd in the world).
Kyiv prospered during the late 19th century Industrial Revolution in the Russian Empire, when it became the third most important city of the Empire and the major centre of commerce of its southwest. In the turbulent period following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Kyiv became the capital of several successive Ukrainian states and was caught in the middle of several conflicts: World War I, during which German soldiers occupied it from 2 March 1918 to November 1918, the Russian Civil War of 1917 to 1922, and the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921. During the last three months of 1919, Kyiv was intermittently controlled by the White Army. Kyiv changed hands sixteen times from the end of 1918 to August 1920.
From 1921 to 1991 the city formed part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which became a founding republic of the Soviet Union in 1922. The major events that took place in Soviet Ukraine during the interwar period all affected Kyiv: the 1920s Ukrainization as well as the migration of the rural Ukrainophone population made the Russophone city Ukrainian-speaking and bolstered the development of Ukrainian cultural life in the city; the Soviet Industrialization that started in the late 1920s turned the city, a former centre of commerce and religion, into a major industrial, technological and scientific centre; the 1932–1933 Great Famine devastated the part of the migrant population not registered for ration cards; and Joseph Stalin's Great Purge of 1937–1938 almost eliminated the city's intelligentsia
In 1934 Kyiv became the capital of Soviet Ukraine. The city boomed again during the years of Soviet industrialization as its population grew rapidly and many industrial giants were established, some of which exist today.
In World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, and Nazi Germany occupied it from 19 September 1941 to 6 November 1943. Axis forces killed or captured more than 600,000 Soviet soldiers in the great encirclement Battle of Kyiv in 1941. Most of those captured never returned alive. Shortly after the Wehrmacht occupied the city, a team of NKVD officers who had remained hidden dynamited most of the buildings on the Khreshchatyk, the main street of the city, where German military and civil authorities had occupied most of the buildings; the buildings burned for days and 25,000 people were left homeless.
Allegedly in response to the actions of the NKVD, the Germans rounded up all the local Jews they could find, nearly 34,000, and massacred them at Babi Yar in Kyiv on 29 and 30 September 1941. In the months that followed, thousands more were taken to Babi Yar where they were shot. It is estimated[by whom?] that the Germans murdered more than 100,000 people of various ethnic groups, mostly civilians, at Babi Yar during World War II.
Kyiv recovered economically in the post-war years, becoming once again the third-most important city of the Soviet Union. The catastrophic accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 occurred only 100 km (62 mi) north of the city. However, the prevailing northward winds blew most of the radioactive debris away from Kyiv.
In the course of the collapse of the Soviet Union the Ukrainian parliament proclaimed the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine in the city on 24 August 1991. In 2004–2005, the city played host to the largest post-Soviet public demonstrations up to that time, in support of the Orange Revolution. From November 2013 until February 2014, central Kyiv became the primary location of Euromaidan.
Geographically, Kyiv is located on the border of the Polesia woodland ecological zone, a part of the European mixed woods area, and the East European forest steppe biome. However, the city's unique landscape distinguishes it from the surrounding region. Kyiv is completely surrounded by Kyiv Oblast.
Originally on the west bank, today Kyiv is located on both sides of the Dnieper, which flows southwards through the city towards the Black Sea. The older and higher western part of the city sits on numerous wooded hills (Kyiv Hills), with ravines and small rivers. Kyiv's geographical relief contributed to its toponyms, such as Podil (means lower), Pechersk (caves), and uzviz (a steep street, "descent"). Kyiv is a part of the larger Dnieper Upland adjoining the western bank of the Dnieper in its mid-flow, and which contributes to the city's elevation change. The northern outskirts of the city border the Polesian Lowland. Kyiv expanded into the Dnieper Lowland on the left bank (to the east) as late as the 20th century. The whole portion of Kyiv on the left bank of the Dnieper is generally referred to as Left bank (Ukrainian: Лівий берег, Livyi bereh). Significant areas of the left bank Dnieper valley were artificially sand-deposited, and are protected by dams.
Within the city the Dnieper River forms a branching system of tributaries, isles, and harbors within the city limits. The city is close to the mouth of the Desna River and the Kyiv Reservoir in the north, and the Kaniv Reservoir in the south. Both the Dnieper and Desna rivers are navigable at Kyiv, although regulated by the reservoir shipping locks and limited by winter freeze-over.
In total, there are 448 bodies of open water within the boundaries of Kyiv, which include the Dnieper itself, its reservoirs, and several small rivers, dozens of lakes and artificially created ponds. They occupy 7949 hectares. Additionally, the city has 16 developed beaches (totalling 140 hectares) and 35 near-water recreational areas (covering more than 1,000 hectares). Many are used for pleasure and recreation, although some of the bodies of water are not suitable for swimming.
Kyiv has a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). The warmest months are June, July, and August, with mean temperatures of 13.8 to 24.8 °C (56.8 to 76.6 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with mean temperatures of −4.6 to −1.1 °C (23.7 to 30.0 °F). The highest ever temperature recorded in the city was 39.4 °C (102.9 °F) on 30 July 1936. The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was −32.9 °C (−27.2 °F) on 11 January 1951. Snow cover usually lies from mid-November to the end of March, with the frost-free period lasting 180 days on average, but surpassing 200 days in some years.
|Climate data for Kyiv (1981–2010, extremes 1881–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.1
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−32.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||35
|Average rainy days||8||7||9||13||14||15||14||11||14||12||12||9||138|
|Average snowy days||17||17||10||2||0.2||0||0||0||0.03||2||9||16||73|
|Average relative humidity (%)||83||80||74||64||62||67||68||67||74||77||85||86||74|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||42||64||112||162||257||273||287||252||189||123||51||31||1,843|
|Average ultraviolet index||1||1||2||4||6||7||6||6||4||2||1||1||3|
|Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net, Central Observatory for Geophysics (extremes)|
|Source 2: Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960) and Weather Atlas|
Legal status, local government and politics
Legal status and local government
The municipality of the city of Kyiv has a special legal status within Ukraine compared to the other administrative subdivisions of the country. The most significant difference is that the city is considered as a region of Ukraine (see Regions of Ukraine). It is the only city that has double jurisdiction. The Head of City State Administration — the city's governor, is appointed by the President of Ukraine, while the Head of the City Council – the Mayor of Kyiv, is elected by local popular vote.
The Mayor of Kyiv is Vitalii Klychko who was sworn in on 5 June 2014; after he had won the 25 May 2014 Kyiv mayoral elections with almost 57% of the votes. Since 25 June 2014 Klitschko is also Head of Kyiv City Administration.
Most key buildings of the national government are located along Hrushevskoho Street (vulytsia Mykhaila Hrushevskoho) and Institute Street (vulytsia Instytutska). Hrushevskoho Street is named after the Ukrainian academician, politician, historian, and statesman Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, who wrote an academic book titled: "Bar Starostvo: Historical Notes: XV-XVIII" about the history of Bar, Ukraine. That portion of the city is also unofficially known as the government quarter (Ukrainian: урядовий квартал).
The city state administration and council is located in the Kyiv City council building on Khreshchatyk Street. The oblast state administration and council is located in the Kyiv Oblast council building on ploshcha Lesi Ukrayinky (Lesya Ukrayinka Square). The Kyiv-Sviatoshyn Raion state administration is located near Kiltseva doroha (Ring Road) on prospekt Peremohy (Victory Parkway), while the Kyiv-Svyatoshyn Raion local council is located on vulytsia Yantarna (Yantarnaya Street).
- Government buildings in Kyiv
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2013)
The growing political and economic role of the city, combined with its international relations, as well as extensive internet and social network penetration, have made Kyiv the most pro-Western and pro-democracy region of Ukraine; (so called) National Democratic parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union receive most votes during elections in Kyiv. In a poll conducted by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology in the first half of February 2014, 5.3% of those polled in Kyiv believed "Ukraine and Russia must unite into a single state", nationwide this percentage was 12.5.
The Dnieper River naturally divides Kyiv into the Right Bank and the Left Bank areas. Historically located on the western right bank of the river, the city expanded into the left bank only in the 20th century. Most of Kyiv's attractions as well as the majority of business and governmental institutions are located on the right bank. The eastern 'Left Bank' is predominantly residential. There are large industrial and green areas in both the Right Bank and the Left Bank.
Kyiv is further informally divided into historical or territorial neighbourhoods, each housing from about 5,000 to 100,000 inhabitants.
The first known formal subdivision of Kyiv dates to 1810 when the city was subdivided into 4 parts: Pechersk, Starokyiv, and the first and the second parts of Podil. In 1833–1834 according to Tsar Nicholas I's decree, Kyiv was subdivided into 6 police raions (districts); later being increased to 10. In 1917, there were 8 Raion Councils (Duma), which were reorganised by bolsheviks into 6 Party-Territory Raions.
During the Soviet era, as the city was expanding, the number of raions also gradually increased. These newer districts of the city, along with some older areas were then named in honour of prominent communists and socialist-revolutionary figures; however, due to the way in which many communist party members eventually, after a certain period of time, fell out of favour and so were replaced with new, fresher minds, so too did the names of Kyiv's districts change accordingly.
The last raion reform took place in 2001 when the number of raions has been decreased from 14 to 10.
Under Oleksandr Omelchenko (mayor from 1999 to 2006), there were further plans for the merger of some raions and revision of their boundaries, and the total number of raions had been planned to be decreased from 10 to 7. With the election of the new mayor-elect (Leonid Chernovetsky) in 2006, these plans were shelved.
Each raion has its own locally elected government with jurisdiction over a limited scope of affairs.
|at 1 January of respective year.|
According to the All-Ukrainian Census, the population of Kyiv in 2001 was 2,611,300. The historic changes in population are shown in the side table. According to the census, some 1,393,000 (53.3%) were female and 1,219,000 (46.7%) were male. Comparing the results with the previous census (1989) shows the trend of population ageing which, while prevalent throughout the country, is partly offset in Kyiv by the inflow of working age migrants. Some 1,069,700 people had higher or completed secondary education, a significant increase of 21.7% since 1989.
According to the 2001 census data, more than 130 nationalities and ethnic groups reside within the territory of Kyiv. Ukrainians constitute the largest ethnic group in Kyiv, and they account for 2,110,800 people, or 82.2% of the population. Russians comprise 337,300 (13.1%), Jews 17,900 (0.7%), Belarusians 16,500 (0.6%), Poles 6,900 (0.3%), Armenians 4,900 (0.2%), Azerbaijanis 2,600 (0.1%), Tatars 2,500 (0.1%), Georgians 2,400 (0.1%), Moldovans 1,900 (0.1%).
Both Ukrainian and Russian are commonly spoken in the city; approximately 75% of Kyiv's population responded "Ukrainian" to the 2001 census question on their native language, roughly 25% responded "Russian". According to a 2006 survey, Ukrainian is used at home by 23% of Kyivans, 52% use Russian and 24% switch between both. In the 2003 sociological survey, when the question 'What language do you use in everyday life?' was asked, 52% said 'mostly Russian', 32% 'both Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure', 14% 'mostly Ukrainian', and 4.3% 'exclusively Ukrainian'.
According to the census of 1897, of Kyiv's approximately 240,000 people approximately 56% of the population spoke the Russian language, 23% spoke the Ukrainian language, 13% spoke Yiddish, 7% spoke Polish and 1% spoke the Belarusian language.
A 2015 study by the International Republican Institute found that 94% of Kyiv was ethnic Ukrainian, and 5% ethnic Russian. The languages spoken at home were Ukrainian (27%), Russian (32%), and an equal combination of Ukrainian and Russian (40%).
The Jews of Kyiv are first mentioned in a 10th century letter, but the Jewish population remained relatively small until the nineteenth century. A series of pogroms was carried out in 1882, and another in 1905. On the eve of World War I, the city's Jewish population was over 81,000, and by 1939 there were approximately 224,000 Jews in Kyiv, some of whom fled the city ahead of the German invasion of the Soviet Union that began in June 1941. On 29 and 30 September 1941, nearly 34,000 Kyivan Jews were massacred at Babi Yar by the German Wehrmacht, SS, Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, and local collaborators. Jews began returning to Kyiv at the end of the war, but experienced another pogrom in September 1945. In the 21st century, Kyiv's Jewish community numbers about 20,000. There are two major synagogues in the city: the Great Choral Synagogue and the Brodsky Choral Synagogue.
Modern Kyiv is a mix of the old (Kyiv preserved about 70 percent of more than 1,000 buildings built during 1907–1914) and the new, seen in everything from the architecture to the stores and to the people themselves. When the capital of the Ukrainian SSR was moved from Kharkiv to Kyiv many new buildings were commissioned to give the city "the gloss and polish of a capital". In the discussions that centered on how to create a showcase city center, the current city center of Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) were not the obvious choices. Some of the early, ultimately not materialised, ideas included a part of Pechersk, Lypky, European Square and Mykhailivska Square. The plans of building massive monuments (of Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin) were also abandoned; due to lack of money (in the 1930s–1950s) and because of Kyiv's hilly landscape. Experiencing rapid population growth between the 1970s and the mid-1990s, the city has continued its consistent growth after the turn of the millennium. As a result, Kyiv's central districts provide a dotted contrast of new, modern buildings among the pale yellows, blues and greys of older apartments. Urban sprawl has gradually reduced, while population densities of suburbs has increased. The most expensive properties are located in the Pechersk, and Khreshchatyk areas. It is also prestigious to own a property in newly constructed buildings in the Kharkivskyi Raion or Obolon along the Dnieper.
Ukrainian independence at the turn of the millennium has heralded other changes. Western-style residential complexes, modern nightclubs, classy restaurants and prestigious hotels opened in the centre. And most importantly, with the easing of the visa rules in 2005, Ukraine is positioning itself as a prime tourist attraction, with Kyiv, among the other large cities, looking to profit from new opportunities. The centre of Kyiv has been cleaned up and buildings have been restored and redecorated, especially Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti. Many historic areas of Kyiv, such as Andriyivskyy Descent, have become popular street vendor locations, where one can find traditional Ukrainian art, religious items, books, game sets (most commonly chess) as well as jewellery for sale.
Kyiv's most famous historical architecture complexes are the St. Sophia Cathedral and the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra (Monastery of the Caves), which are recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Noteworthy historical architectural landmarks also include the Mariyinsky Palace (designed and constructed from 1745 to 1752, then reconstructed in 1870), several Orthodox churches such as St. Michael's Cathedral, St. Andrew's, St. Vladimir's, the reconstructed Golden Gate and others.
One of Kyiv's widely recognized modern landmarks is the highly visible giant Mother Motherland statue made of titanium standing at the National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War on the Right bank of the Dnieper River. Other notable sites is the cylindrical Salut hotel, located across from Glory Square and the eternal flame at the World War Two memorial Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and the House with Chimaeras.
Among Kyiv's best-known monuments are Mikhail Mikeshin's statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky astride his horse located near St. Sophia Cathedral, the venerated Vladimir the Great (St. Vladimir), the baptizer of Rus', overlooking the river above Podil from Volodymyrska Hill, the monument to Kyi, Schek and Khoryv and Lybid, the legendary founders of the city located at the Dnieper embankment. On Independence Square in the city centre, two monuments elevate two of the city protectors; the historic protector of Kyiv Michael Archangel atop a reconstruction of one of the old city's gates and a modern invention, the goddess-protector Berehynia atop a tall column.
Brodsky Choral Synagogue - Moorish Revival architecture
Kyiv was the historic cultural centre of the East Slavic civilization and a major cradle for the Christianization of Kyivan Rus. Kyiv retained through centuries its cultural importance and even at times of relative decay, it remained the centre of primary importance of Eastern Orthodox Christianity . Its sacred sites, which include the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra (the Monastery of the Caves) and the Saint Sophia Cathedral are probably the most famous, attracted pilgrims for centuries and now recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site remain the primary religious centres as well as the major tourist attraction. The above-mentioned sites are also part of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine collection.
Kyiv's theatres include, the Kyiv Opera House, Ivan Franko National Academic Drama Theater, Lesya Ukrainka National Academic Theater of Russian Drama, the Kyiv Puppet Theater, October Palace and National Philharmonic of Ukraine and others. In 1946 Kyiv had four theatres, one opera house and one concert hall, but most tickets then were allocated to "privileged groups".
Other significant cultural centres include the Dovzhenko Film Studios, and the Kyiv Circus. The most important of the city's many museums are the Kyiv State Historical Museum, National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War, the National Art Museum, the Museum of Western and Oriental Art, the Pinchuk Art Centre and the National Museum of Russian art.
Numerous songs and paintings were dedicated to the city. Some songs became part of Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish folklore, less known are German and Jewish. The most popular songs are "How not to love you, Kyiv of mine?" and "Kyiv Waltz". Renowned Ukrainian composer Oleksandr Bilash wrote an operetta called "Legend of Kyiv".
It is said that one can walk from one end of Kyiv to the other in the summertime without leaving the shade of its many trees. Most characteristic are the horse-chestnuts (Ukrainian: каштани, kashtany).
Kyiv is known as a green city with two botanical gardens and numerous large and small parks. The National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War is located here, which offers both indoor and outdoor displays of military history and equipment surrounded by verdant hills overlooking the Dnieper river.
Among the numerous islands, Venetsianskyi (or Hydropark) is the most developed. It is accessible by metro or by car, and includes an amusement park, swimming beaches, boat rentals, and night clubs. The Victory Park (Park Peremohy) located near Darnytsia subway station is a popular destination for strollers, joggers, and cyclists. Boating, fishing, and water sports are popular pastimes in Kyiv. The area lakes and rivers freeze over in the winter and ice fishermen are a frequent sight, as are children with their ice skates. However, the peak of summer draws out a greater mass of people to the shores for swimming or sunbathing, with daytime high temperatures sometimes reaching 30 to 34 °C (86 to 93 °F).
The centre of Kyiv (Independence Square and Khreschatyk Street) becomes a large outdoor party place at night during summer months, with thousands of people having a good time in nearby restaurants, clubs and outdoor cafes. The central streets are closed for auto traffic on weekends and holidays. Andriyivskyy Descent is one of the best known historic streets and a major tourist attraction in Kyiv. The hill is the site of the Castle of Richard the Lionheart; the baroque-style St Andrew's Church; the home of Kyiv born writer, Mikhail Bulgakov; the monument to Yaroslav the Wise, the Grand Prince of Kyiv and of Novgorod; and numerous other monuments.
A wide variety of farm produce is available in many of Kyiv's farmer markets with the Besarabsky Market located in the very centre of the city being most famous. Each residential region has its own market, or rynok. Here one will find table after table of individuals hawking everything imaginable: vegetables, fresh and smoked meats, fish, cheese, honey, dairy products such as milk and home-made smetana (sour cream), caviar, cut flowers, housewares, tools and hardware, and clothing. Each of the markets has its own unique mix of products with some markets devoted solely to specific wares such as automobiles, car parts, pets, clothing, flowers, and other things.
At the city's southern outskirts, near the historic Pyrohiv village, there is an outdoor museum, officially called the Museum of Folk Architecture and Life of Ukraine It has an area of 1.5 square kilometres (1 sq mi). This territory houses several "mini-villages" that represent by region the traditional rural architecture of Ukraine.
Kyiv also has numerous recreational attractions like bowling alleys, go-cart tracks, paintball venues, billiard halls and even shooting ranges. The 100-year-old Kyiv Zoo is located on 40 hectares and according to CBC "the zoo has 2,600 animals from 328 species".
Museums and galleries
The National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War is a memorial complex commemorating the Eastern Front of World War II located in the hills on the right-bank of the Dnieper River in Pechersk. Kyiv fortress is the 19th-century fortification buildings situated in Ukrainian capital Kyiv, that once belonged to western Russian fortresses. These structures (once a united complex) were built in the Pechersk and neighbourhoods by the Russian army. Now some of the buildings are restored and turned into a museum called the Kyiv Fortress, while others are in use in various military and commercial installations. The National Art Museum of Ukraine is a museum dedicated to Ukrainian art. The Golden Gate is a historic gateway in the ancient city's walls. The name Zoloti Vorota is also used for a nearby theatre and a station of the Kyiv Metro. The small Ukrainian National Chernobyl Museum acts as both a memorial and historical center devoted to the events surrounding the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and its effect on the Ukrainian people, the environment, and subsequent attitudes toward the safety of nuclear power as a whole.
Kyiv has many professional and amateur football clubs, including Dynamo Kyiv, Arsenal Kyiv and FC Obolon Kyiv but only Dynamo Kyiv play in the Ukrainian Premier League. Of these three, Dynamo Kyiv has had the most success over the course of its history. For example, up until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the club won 13 USSR Championships, 9 USSR Cups, and 3 USSR Super Cups, thus making Dynamo the most successful club in the history of the Soviet Top League.
Other prominent non-football sport clubs in the city include: the Sokil Kyiv ice hockey club and BC Budivelnyk basketball club. Both of these teams play in the highest Ukrainian leagues for their respective sports. Budivelnyk was founded in 1945, Sokil was founded in 1963, during the existence of the Soviet Union. Both these teams play their home games at the Kyiv Palace of Sports.
During the 1980 Summer Olympics held in the Soviet Union, Kyiv held the preliminary matches and the quarter-finals of the football tournament at its Olympic Stadium, which was reconstructed specially for the event. From 1 December 2008 stadium the stadium underwent a full-scale reconstruction in order to satisfy standards put in place by UEFA for hosting the Euro 2012 football tournament; the opening ceremony took place in the presence of president Viktor Yanukovich on 8 October 2011, with the first major event being a Shakira concert which was specially planned to coincide with the stadium's re-opening during Euro 2012. Other notable sport stadiums/sport complexes in Kyiv include the Valeriy Lobanovskyi Dynamo Stadium, the Palace of Sports, among many others.
Since introducing a visa-free regime for EU-member states and Switzerland in 2005, Ukraine has seen a steady increase in the number of foreign tourists visiting the country. Before the 2008–09 recession the average annual growth in the number of foreign visits in Kyiv was 23% over a three-year period. In 2009 a total of 1.6 million tourists stayed in Kyiv hotels, of whom almost 259,000 (ca. 16%) were foreigners. After UEFA Euro 2012, the city became the most popular destination for European tourists. A record number of 1.8 million foreign tourists was registered then along with about 2.5 million domestic tourists. More than 850,000 foreign tourists visited Kyiv in the first half of 2018, as compared to 660,000 tourists over the same period in 2013. As of 2018 the hotel occupancy rate from May to September averages 45–50%. Hostels and three-star hotels are approximately 90% full, four-star hotels 65-70%. Six five-star hotels average 50-55% occupancy. Ordinary tourists generally come from May to October, business tourists from September to May.
Kyiv city anthem
In 2014 the Kyiv city's council established the city's anthem. It became a 1962 song, "Yak tebe ne lyubyty, Kyieve miy!" (Ukrainian: Як тебе не любити, Києве мій!, roughly "How one cannot love you, Kyiv, my dear!").
As with most capital cities, Kyiv is a major administrative, cultural and scientific centre of the country. It is the largest city in Ukraine in terms of both population and area and enjoys the highest levels of business activity. On 1 January 2010 there were around 238,000 business entities registered in Kyiv.
Official figures show that between 2004 and 2008 Kyiv's economy outstripped the rest of the country's, growing by an annual average of 11.5%. Following the global financial crisis that began in 2007, Kyiv's economy suffered a severe setback in 2009 with gross regional product contracting by 13.5% in real terms. Although a record high, the decline in activity was 1.6 percentage points smaller than that for the country as a whole. The economy in Kyiv, as in the rest of Ukraine, recovered somewhat in 2010 and 2011. Kyiv is a middle-income city, with prices comparable to many mid-size American cities (i.e., considerably lower than Western Europe).
Because the city boasts a large and diverse economic base and is not dependent on any single industry and/or company, its unemployment rate has historically been relatively low – only 3.75% over 2005–2008. Indeed, even as the rate of joblessness jumped to 7.1% in 2009, it remained far below the national average of 9.6%.
Kyiv is the undisputed center of business and commerce of Ukraine and home to the country's largest companies, such as Naftogaz Ukrainy, Energorynok and Kyivstar. In 2010 the city accounted for 18% of national retail sales and 24% of all construction activity. Indeed, real estate is one of the major forces in Kyiv's economy. Average prices of apartments are the highest in the country and among the highest in eastern Europe. Kyiv also ranks high in terms of commercial real estate for it is here where the country's tallest office buildings (such as Gulliver and Parus) and some of Ukraine's biggest shopping malls (such as Dream Town and Ocean Plaza) are located.
In May 2011 Kyiv authorities presented a 15-year development strategy which calls for attracting as much as EUR82 billion of foreign investment by 2025 to modernize the city's transport and utilities infrastructure and make it more attractive for tourists.
|Nominal GRP (UAH bn)||61.4||77.1||95.3||135.9||169.6||169.5||196.6||223.8||275.7|
|Nominal GRP (USD bn)**||11.5||15.0||18.9||26.9||32.2||21.8||24.8||28.0||34.5|
|Nominal GRP per capita (USD)**||4,348||5,616||6,972||9,860||11,693||7,841||8,875||10,007||12,192||13,687|
|Monthly wage (USD)**||182||259||342||455||584||406||432||504||577|
|Unemployment rate (%)***||n/a||4.6||3.8||3.3||3.3||7.1||6.4||6.1||6.0||5.7|
|Retail sales (UAH bn)||n/a||n/a||n/a||34.87||46.50||42.79||50.09||62.80||73.00||77.14|
|Retail sales (USD bn)||n/a||n/a||n/a||6.90||8.83||5.49||6.31||7.88||9.14||9.65|
|Foreign direct investment (USD bn)||2.1||3.0||4.8||7.0||11.7||16.8||19.2||21.8||24.9||27.3|
Primary industries in Kyiv include utilities – i.e., electricity, gas and water supply (26% of total industrial output), manufacture of food, beverages and tobacco products (22%), chemical (17%), mechanical engineering (13%) and manufacture of paper and paper products, including publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media (11%). The Institute of Oil Transportation is headquartered here.
- Kuznya na Rybalskomu, naval production
- Antonov Serial Production Plant (former Aviant), airplanes manufacturing
- Aeros, small aircraft production
- Kyiv Roshen Factory, confectionery
- Kyiv Arsenal (former arms manufacturer), specializes in production of optic-precision instruments
- Obolon, brewery
- Kyiv Aircraft Repair Plant 410, repair factory located at Zhulyany Airport
Education and science
Scientific research is conducted in many institutes of higher education and, additionally, in many research institutes affiliated with the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Kyiv is home to Ukraine's ministry of education and science, and is also noted for its contributions to medical and computer science research.
In 2016 UNIT Factory (Ukrainian National IT Factory) opened. It offers a completely new format of IT education. The education is completely free for all trainees subject to compliance with the terms of the program. Within this project are the Technology Companies' Development Center (TCDC), BIONIC University open inter-corporate IT-university, as well as two hi-tech laboratories—VR Lab (Crytek) and Smart City lab.
Kyiv hosts many universities, the major ones being Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, the National Technical University "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute", Kyiv-Mohyla Academy and the Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics. Of these, the Mohyla Academy is the oldest, founded as a theological school in 1632, but Shevchenko University, founded in 1834, is the oldest in continuous operation. The total number of institutions of higher education in Kyiv approaches 200, allowing young people to pursue almost any line of study. While education traditionally remains largely in the hands of the state there are several accredited private institutions in the city.
There are about 530 general secondary schools and ca. 680 nursery schools and kindergartens in Kyiv. Additionally, there are evening schools for adults, specialist technical schools and the Evangel Theological Seminary.
There are many libraries in the city with the Vernadsky National Library, which is Ukraine's main academic library and scientific information centre, as well as one of the world's largest national libraries, being the largest and most important one. The National Library is affiliated with the Academy of Sciences in so far as it is a deposit library and thus serves as the academy's archives' store. The national library is the world's foremost repository of Jewish folk music recorded on Edison wax cylinders. Their Collection of Jewish Musical Folklore (1912–1947) was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2005.
Local public transport
The publicly owned and operated Kyiv Metro is the fastest, the most convenient and affordable network that covers most, but not all, of the city. The Metro is expanding towards the city limits to meet growing demand, having three lines with a total length of 66.1 kilometres (41.1 miles) and 51 stations (some of which are renowned architectural landmarks). The Metro carries around 1.422 million passengers daily accounting for 38% of the Kyiv's public transport load. In 2011, the total number of trips exceeded 519 million.
The historic Kyiv tram system was the first electric tramway in the former Russian Empire and the third one in Europe after the Berlin Straßenbahn and the Budapest tramway. The tram system consists of 139.9 km (86.9 mi) of track, including 14 km (8.7 mi) two Rapid Tram lines, served by 21 routes with the use of 523 tram cars. Once a well maintained and widely used method of transport, the system is now gradually being phased out in favor of buses and trolleybuses.
The Kyiv Funicular was constructed during 1902–1905. It connects the historic Uppertown, and the lower commercial neighborhood of Podil through the steep Volodymyrska Hill overseeing the Dnieper River. The line consists of only two stations.
All public road transport (except for some minibuses) is operated by the united Kyivpastrans municipal company. It is heavily subsidized by the city.
The Kyiv public transport system, except for taxi, uses a simple flat rate tariff system regardless of distance traveled: tickets or tokens must be purchased each time a vehicle is boarded. Digital ticket system is already established in Kyiv Metro, with plans for other transport modes. Discount passes are available for grade school and higher education students. Pensioners use public transportation free. There are monthly passes in all combinations of public transportation. Ticket prices are regulated by the city government, and the cost of one ride is far lower than in Western Europe.
The taxi market in Kyiv is expansive but not regulated. In particular, the taxi fare per kilometer is not regulated. There is a fierce competition between private taxi companies.
MAZ-215 Bus in Kyiv
A ship near the Kyiv River Port passenger terminal
The Novo-Darnytskyi Bridge over the Dnieper river
Roads and bridges
Kyiv represents the focal point of Ukraine's "national roads" system, thus linked by road to all cities of the country. European routes , and intersect in Kyiv.
There are 8 over-Dnieper bridges and dozens of grade-separated intersections in the city. Several new intersections are under construction. There are plans to build a full-size, fully grade-separated ring road around Kyiv.
In 2009, Kyiv's roads were in poor technical condition and maintained inadequately.
Traffic jams and lack of parking space are growing problems for all road transport services in Kyiv.
Kyiv is served by two international passenger airports: the Boryspil Airport located 30 kilometres (19 miles) away, and the smaller, municipally owned Zhulyany Airport on the southern outskirts of the city. There are also the Gostomel cargo airport and additional three operating airfields facilitating the Antonov aircraft manufacturing company and general aviation.
Railways are Kyiv's main mode of intracity and suburban transportation. The city has a developed railroad infrastructure including a long-distance passenger station, 6 cargo stations, depots, and repairing facilities. However, this system still fails to meet the demand for passenger service. Particularly, the Kyiv Passenger railway station is the city's only long-distance passenger terminal (vokzal).
Construction is underway for turning the large Darnytsia Railway Station on the left-bank part of Kyiv into a long-distance passenger hub, which may ease traffic at the central station. Bridges over the Dnieper River are another problem restricting the development of city's railway system. Presently, only one rail bridge out of two is available for intense train traffic. A new combined rail-auto bridge is under construction, as a part of Darnytsia project.
In 2011 the Kyiv city administration established a new 'Urban Train' for Kyiv. This service runs at standard 4- to 10-minute intervals throughout the day and follows a circular route around the city centre, which allows it to serve many of Kyiv's inner suburbs. Interchanges between the Kyiv Metro and Fast Tram exist at many of the urban train's station stops.
Suburban 'Elektrichka' trains are serviced by the publicly owned Ukrainian Railways. The suburban train service is fast, and unbeatably safe in terms of traffic accidents. But the trains are not reliable, as they may fall significantly behind schedule, may not be safe in terms of crime, and the elektrichka cars are poorly maintained and are overcrowded in rush hours.
There are 5 elektrichka directions from Kyiv:
- Nizhyn (north-eastern)
- Hrebinka (south-eastern)
- Myronivka (southern)
- Fastiv (south-western)
- Korosten (western)
More than a dozen of elektrichka stops are located within the city allowing residents of different neighborhoods to use the suburban trains.
Twin towns – sister cities
- Ankara, Turkey (1993)
- Ashgabat, Turkmenistan (2001)
- Athens, Greece (1996)
- Baku, Azerbaijan (1997)
- Beijing, China (1993)
- Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (1997)
- Brasília, Brazil (2000)
- Bratislava, Slovakia (1969)
- Brussels, Belgium (1997)
- Buenos Aires, Argentina (2000)
- Chicago, United States (1991)
- Chișinău, Moldova (1993)
- Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (1989)
- Florence, Italy (1967)
- Havana, Cuba (1994)
- Jakarta, Indonesia (2005)
- Kraków, Poland (1993)
- Kyoto, Japan (1971)
- Leipzig, Germany (1956)
- Lima, Peru (2005)
- Mexico City, Mexico (1997)
- Munich, Germany (1989)
- Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan (1998)
- Odense, Denmark (1989)
- Osh Region, Kyrgyzstan (2002)
- Pretoria, South Africa (1993)
- Riga, Latvia (1998)
- Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2000)
- Santiago, Chile (1998)
- Sofia, Bulgaria (1997)
- Suzhou, China (2005)
- Tallinn, Estonia (1994)
- Tampere, Finland (1954)
- Tashkent, Uzbekistan (1998)
- Tbilisi, Georgia (1999)
- Toulouse, France (1975)
- Tripoli, Libya (2001)
- Vilnius, Lithuania (1991)
- Warsaw, Poland (1994)
- Wuhan, China (1990)
Other cooperation agreements
Notable people from Kyiv
This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Nikolai Amosov, Soviet and Ukrainian heart surgeon and inventor
- Oleg Blokhin, Ukrainian football player
- Leonid Bronevoy, Soviet and Russian actor
- Nikolai Berdyaev, Russian Orthodox religious and political philosopher
- Mikhail Bulgakov, Russian writer
- Konstantin Buteyko, creator of the Buteyko method for the treatment of asthma and other breathing disorders
- Zino Davidoff (born Sussele-Meier Davidoff), Swiss premium tobacco manufacturer; known as "King of Cigars"
- Ilya Ehrenburg, Soviet writer, journalist, translator, and cultural figure
- André Grabar, historian of Romanesque art and the art of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Bulgarian Empire
- Eugeniusz Horbaczewski, Polish fighter pilot
- Milton Horn, Russian American sculptor
- Vladimir Horowitz, classical pianist
- Milla Jovovich, American actress
- Jan Koum, American computer programmer, CEO and co-founder of WhatsApp
- Viktor Kaspruk, political scientist
- Ana Layevska, Ukrainian-Mexican actress
- Serge Lifar, French ballet dancer
- Valeriy Lobanovskyi, Soviet and Ukrainian football coach
- Kazimir Malevich, pioneer of geometric abstract art and the originator of the avant-garde Suprematist movement
- Jonathan Markovitch, Chief Rabbi of Kyiv
- Golda Meir, Israeli politician, the fourth Prime Minister of Israel
- Moses of Kiev, 12th century Talmudist
- Alexander Ostrowski, mathematician
- Nicholas Pritzker, scion of the Pritzker Family
- Lev Shestov, Russian existentialist philosopher
- Andriy Shevchenko, Ukrainian footballer
- Igor Sikorsky, Russian-American aviation pioneer
- Alexander Vertinsky, Russian and Soviet singer, composer, poet, cabaret artist, and actor
- Brutzkus, J. “The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev.” Slavonic and East European Review. American Series, vol. 3, no. 1, 1944, pp. 108–124. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3020228. Accessed 16 June 2020.
- Чисельність населення м.Києва [Population of Kyiv city] (in Ukrainian). UkrStat.gov.ua. 1 November 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- Oksana Lyachynska (31 May 2012). "Kyiv's 1,530th birthday marked with fun, protest". Kyiv Post.
- Vitali Klitschko sworn in as mayor of Kiev, Interfax-Ukraine (5 June 2014)
- Poroshenko appoints Klitschko head of Kyiv city administration – decree, Interfax-Ukraine (25 June 2014)
Poroshenko orders Klitschko to bring title of best European capital back to Kyiv, Interfax-Ukraine (25 June 2014)
- "Major Agglomerations of the World". Citypopulation.de. 1 April 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- kyivan, Wiktionary.com (28 November 2017)
- kievan. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged, retrieved 29 May 2013 from Dictionary.com
- Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
- Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
- Zraick, Karen (13 November 2019). "Wait, How Do You Pronounce Kiev?". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- The most recent Ukrainian census, conducted on 5 December 2001, gave the population of Kyiv as 2 611 300 (Ukrcensus.gov.ua – Kyiv city Web address accessed on 4 August 2007). Estimates based on the amount of bakery products sold in the city (thus including temporary visitors and commuters) suggest a minimum of 3.5 million. "There are up to 1.5 mln undercounted residents in Kiev", Korrespondent, 15 June 2005 (in Russian)
- "City Mayors: The 500 largest European cities (1 to 100)". www.citymayors.com.
- "Kiev". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "Kyiv - History". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
- Magocsi, Paul Robert (2010). A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples (2nd, Revised ed.). University of Toronto Press. p. 481. ISBN 978-1-4426-9879-6.
- (in Ukrainian) Виборчі комісії фіксують перемогу опозиційних кандидатів у Києві
- Битва за Київ: чому посада мера вже не потрібна Кличку і чи будуть вибори взагалі (in Ukrainian). Kontrakty. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- У кожного киянина в голові – досвід Майдану (in Ukrainian). 20 April 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- (in Ukrainian) Interactive parliamentary election 2012 result maps by Ukrayinska Pravda
(in Ukrainian) Election results in Ukraine since 1998, Central Election Commission of Ukraine
Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview, ABC-CLIO, 2008, ISBN 1851099077 (page 1629)
Ukraine on its Meandering Path Between East and West by Andrej Lushnycky and Mykola Riabchuk, Peter Lang, 2009, ISBN 303911607X (page 122)
After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)
Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe by Uwe Backes and Patrick Moreau, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, ISBN 978-3-525-36912-8 (page 396)
Party of Regions gets 185 seats in Ukrainian parliament, Batkivschyna 101 – CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2012)
UDAR submits to Rada resolution on Ukraine’s integration with EU, Interfax-Ukraine (8 January 2013)
(in Ukrainian) Electronic Bulletin "Your Choice – 2012". Issue 4: Batkivshchyna Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research (24 October 2012)
Ukraine's Party System in Transition? The Rise of the Radically Right-Wing All-Ukrainian Association "Svoboda" by Andreas Umland, Centre for Geopolitical Studies (1 May 2011)"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- As of March 2020, the Oxford English Dictionary included 30 entries having quotations using Kiev (dating between 1913 and 2018), five using Kiow (1716–1797), five using Kieff (1888–1938), one using Kiew (1878), and one using Kyiv (2017). The spelling Kiev is also given by the 2000 Columbia Encyclopedia.
- "Resolution of the ukrainian commission for legal terminology No. 5". Ukrainian Commission for Legal Terminology. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Kyiv, а не Kiev: у Вікіпедії змінено написання столиці України, Вікімедіа Україна, September, 18, 2020
- The Encyclopædia Britannica renamed its article about the city from Kiev to Kyiv on 25 November 2019, with alternative titles "Kiev, Kiyev, Kyyiv". The Oxford English Dictionary added a standalone entry for "Kiev, n." in December 2019, citing the name of the city as "Kiev (now also Kyiv)."
- Kiev at Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia
- Kiev in the Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia: "Населення періоду мідного віку на тер. К. було носієм т. з. трипільської культури; відомі й знахідки окремих предметів бронзового віку."
- Rabinovich GA From the history of urban settlements in the eastern Slavs. In the book.: History, culture, folklore and ethnography of the Slavic peoples. M. 1968. 134.
- "Kyiv", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
- Tolochko, P., Ivakin, G., Vermenych, Ya. Kiev. Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine.
- Wilson, Andrew (2000). The Ukrainians. Unexpected Nation. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08355-6
- Roman Kiev: or Castrum Azagarium at Kievan Podil (Римский Киев: или Castrum Azagarium на Киево-Подоле
- The Classical Gazetteer: A Dictionary of Ancient Geography, Sacred and Profane
- Sigfús Blöndal. "The Varangians of Byzantium".
- History. Pechersk Raion in the Kiev City.
- dr. Viktor Padányi – Dentu-Magyaria p. 325, footnote 15
- Lowe, Steven; Ryaboy, Dmitriy V. "The Pechenegs". Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
- Paul M. HOHENBERG; Lynn Hollen Lees; Paul M Hohenberg (2009). The Making of Urban Europe, 1000–1994. Harvard University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-674-03873-8.
- Plokhy, Serhii (2006). The Origins of the Slavic Nations (PDF). Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN 9780521864039. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2017.
- Martin, Janet L. B. (2004) . Treasure of the Land of Darkness: The Fur Trade and Its Significance for Medieval Russia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 127. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511523199. ISBN 9780521548113.
- Janet Martin, Medieval Russia:980–1584, (Cambridge University Press, 1996), 100.
- The Destruction of Kiev, University of Toronto Research Repository
- Orest Subtelny (1989). Ukraine. A History. [Illustr.] (Repr.). CUP Archive. p. 38.
- Jones, Michael (2000). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 6, c.1300–c.1415. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36290-0
- Jerzy Lukowski, W. H. Zawadzki (2006). A concise history of Poland. Cambridge University Press. p.53. ISBN 0-521-61857-6
- Davies, Norman (1982). God's Playground: A History of Poland, Vol. 1: The Origins to 1795. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-05351-8
- Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine, University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97580-6
- Т.Г. Таирова-Яковлева, Иван Выговский // Единорогъ. Материалы по военной истории Восточной Европы эпохи Средних веков и Раннего Нового времени, вып.1, М., 2009: Под влиянием польской общественности и сильного диктата Ватикана сейм в мае 1659 г. принял Гадячский договор в более чем урезанном виде. Идея Княжества Руського вообще была уничтожена, равно как и положение о сохранении союза с Москвой. Отменялась и ликвидация унии, равно как и целый ряд других позитивных статей.
- Eugeniusz Romer, O wschodniej granicy Polski z przed 1772 r., w: Księga Pamiątkowa ku czci Oswalda Balzera, t. II, Lwów 1925, s. .
- Eksteins, Modris (1999). Walking Since Daybreak. Houghton Mifflin. p. 87. ISBN 0-618-08231-X.
- "The Great Purge under Stalin 1937–38". brama.com. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- Orlando Figes The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia, 2007, ISBN 0805074619, pages 227–315.
- Robert Gellately, Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Knopf, 2007: ISBN 1-4000-4005-1), 720 pages.
- Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners (p. 290) – "2.8 million young, healthy Soviet POWs" killed by the Germans, "mainly by starvation... in less than eight months" of 1941–42, before "the decimation of Soviet POWs... was stopped" and the Germans "began to use them as laborers".
- "Babi Yar". Jewish Virtual Library. 2012.
- Andy Dougan, Dynamo: Triumph and Tragedy in Nazi-Occupied Kiev (Globe Pequot, 2004: ISBN 1-59228-467-1), p. 83.
- "Kiev and Babi Yar". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- Design by Maxim Tkachuk; web-architecture by Volkova Dasha; templated by Alexey Kovtanets; programming by Irina Batvina; Maxim Bielushkin; Sergey Bogatyrchuk; Vitaliy Galkin; Victor Lushkin; Dmitry Medun; Igor Sitnikov; Vladimir Tarasov; Alexander Filippov; Sergei Koshelev. "Где в Киеве лучше не купаться " Новости в Киеве – Корреспондент". Korrespondent.net. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- "Urban agglomerations with 750,000 inhabitants or more in 2011 and types of natural risks". United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. April 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF). Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. Bibcode:2006MetZe..15..259K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
- "Archived copy" Кліматичні дані по м.Києву (in Ukrainian). Central Observatory for Geophysics. Archived from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Кліматичні рекорди (in Ukrainian). Central Observatory for Geophysics. Archived from the original on 4 August 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- "Weather and Climate – The Climate of Kiev" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Archived from the original on 13 December 2019. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
- Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. "Ukraine – Kiev" (PDF). Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931–1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. p. 332. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Kiev, Ukraine - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- Klitschko officially announced as winner of Kiev mayor election, Interfax-Ukraine (4 June 2014)
- Hrushevsky, M., Bar Starostvo: Historical Notes: XV-XVIII, St. Vladimir University Publishing House, Bol'shaya-Vasil'kovskaya, Building no. 29-31, Kiev, Ukraine, 1894; Lviv, Ukraine, ISBN 5-12-004335-6, pp. 1 – 623, 1996.
- Сюмар, Вікторія (22 May 2012). "Київ: стратегічна позиція чи "чемодан" без ручки?". Ukrayinska Pravda. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- How relations between Ukraine and Russia should look like? Public opinion polls’ results, Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (4 March 2014)
- Vilenchuk, S. R.; Yatsuk, T.B. (eds.) (2009). Kyiv Statistical Yearbook for 2008. Kiev: Vydavnytstvo Konsultant LLC. p. 213. ISBN 978-966-8459-28-3.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Kudritskiy, A. V. (1982). KIEV entsiklopedicheskiy spravochnik. Kiev: Glavnaya redaktsia Ukrainskoy Sovetskoy Entsiklopedii. p. 30.
- "There are up to 1.5 mln undercounted residents in Kiev". Korrespondent (in Russian). 15 June 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- According to the official 2001 census data: "Всеукраїнський перепис населення 2001 | Результати | Основні підсумки | Національний склад населення | місто Киів". ukrcensus.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 14 December 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2010. & "Всеукраїнський перепис населення 2001 | Результати | Основні підсумки | Мовний склад населення | місто Київ". ukrcensus.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- "Kiev: the city, its residents, problems of today, wishes for tomorrow.", Zerkalo Nedeli, 29 April – 12 May 2006. in Russian Archived 17 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine, in Ukrainian Archived 17 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "What language is spoken in Ukraine?". Welcome to Ukraine. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам. г. Киев 
- "Ukrainian Municipal Survey, March 2–20 2015" (PDF). IRI.
- "Kiev". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- "The Jewish Community of Kiev". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot.
- "Kiev and Babi Yar". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 3 January 2007.
- Gutman, Israel (1990). Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, vol. 1. Macmillan. pp. 133–6.
- "State-sponsored Anti-Semitism in Postwar USSR. Studies and Research Perspectives; Antonella Salomoni". Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History / Questioni di storia ebraica contemporanea. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- alla levy. "Jewish People Around the World". Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- Forgotten Soviet Plans For Kyiv Archived 4 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (28 July 2011)
- Workpermit.com. Retrieved 30 July 2006.
- Kiev.info. Retrieved 20 June 2006.
- Kyiv found among greenest cities in Europe, Emirates News Agency (10 December 2009)
- The Ukraine, Life, 28 October 1946
- "Andreyevskiy Spusk". Hotels-Kiev.com. Optima Tours. Retrieved 20 June 2006.
- "Andreevsky spusk". Kyiv Guide (in Russian). Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2006.
- "Kiev zoo a 'concentration camp for animals'". CBC news. Associated Press. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "Culture and Arts" (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Statistics Office. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Trophies of Dynamo Archived 18 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine – Official website of Dynamo Kyiv
- "Kyiv opens host stadium for Euro 2012 final". Kyiv Post. 9 October 2011. Archived from the original on 22 October 2011.
- "Туристичні потоки". Ukrstat.gov.ua. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- "Головне управління статистики м.Києва – Туристичні потоки". Gorstat.kiev.ua. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- https://www.unian.info/kiev/10240080-number-of-foreign-tourists-in-kyiv-growing-city-official.html |title=Number of foreign tourists in Kyiv growing – city official
- The Kiev council approved the Kiev city anthem (Київрада затвердила гімн Києва). Ukrayinska Pravda. 13 November 2014
- "Thujoy Khreshchatyk". Why Kyivans miss chestnuts and how they became a symbol of the capital, Ukrayinska Pravda (29 May 2019) (in Ukrainian)
- Vilenchuk, R. G.; Mashkova, L. O. (eds.) (2010). Kyiv Statistical Yearbook for 2009. Kiev: Vydavnytstvo Konsultant LLC. p. 58. ISBN 978-966-8459-28-3.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "Gross Regional Product" (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Statistics Office. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- "Gross Domestic Product" (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Committee. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- "Labour Market" (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Statistics Office. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
- "Labour Market" (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Statistics Office. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
- https://index.minfin.com.ua/ua/labour/salary/average/Київ/ https://uteka.ua/calculator/salary-calculator
- "Retail Sales" (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Statistics Office. Retrieved 22 January 2010.
- "Retail Sales" (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Committee. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Construction Works" (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Statistics Office. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Construction Works" (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Committee. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Square Metre Prices in Ukraine". Global Property Guide. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- Santarovich, Andrey (27 May 2011). "Kiev Development Strategy Calls for EUR82 billion in foreign investment" (in Russian). Business Information Network. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "Statistical Bulletin (May 2012)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). National Bank of Ukraine. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "Average Monthly Wage Dynamics" (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Statistics Office. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Labour Market Indicators" (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Statistics Office. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- "Foreign Direct Investment" (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Statistics Office. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- "Industrial Production by Economic Activity" (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Statistics Office. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- https://kfund.ua/en/unit-factory-a-key-element-of-the-future-innovation-park-opened-in-kyiv/%7Ctitle=UNIT FACTORY, A KEY ELEMENT OF THE FUTURE INNOVATION PARK, OPENED IN KYIV
- See also:Kiev University official website. Retrieved 28 July 2006.
- See also: KPI official website Archived 16 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 28 July 2006.
- See also: Kyiv-Mohyla Academy official website Archived 13 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). Retrieved 28 July 2006.
- See also: Osvita.org URL accessed on 20 June 2006
- Vilenchuk, S. R.; Yatsuk, T.B. (eds.) (2009). Kyiv Statistical Yearbook for 2008. Kiev: Vydavnytstvo Konsultant LLC. p. 283. ISBN 978-966-8459-28-3.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "The Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine". Nbuv.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
- "Collection of Jewish Musical Folklore (1912–1947)". UNESCO Memory of the World Programme. 16 May 2008. Archived from the original on 23 June 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- (in Ukrainian) Kyiv General Department of Statistics, 2011
- For a 2004 plan of the Kyiv tram, please see mashke.org
- "Азаров дал добро на строительство кольцевой дороги вокруг Киева – Газета "ФАКТЫ и комментарии"". Fakty.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Вторая кольцевая дорога вокруг Киева обойдется в $5-5,5 млрд. – Последние новости Киева – Однако в направлении окружной дороги уже вся земля выкуплена | СЕГОДНЯ". Segodnya.ua. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Азаров прогнозирует начало строительства второй кольцевой дороги вокруг Киева в 2012 году | Новости Киева". Korrespondent.net. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Kyiv Administration: Roads Are In Poor Technical State Because They Have Reached End Of Their Service Lives And Annual Maintenance Volume Is Low Archived 16 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrainian News Agency (12 June 2009)
- (in Russian) Archunion.com.ua Archived 6 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 20 June 2006.
- "Азаров запустил в Киеве городскую электричку | Экономика | РИА Новости – Украина". Ua.rian.ru. 13 August 2012. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Перелік міст, з якими Києвом підписані документи про поріднення, дружбу, співробітництво, партнерство" (PDF). kyivcity.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). Kiev. 15 February 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- Kiev Peninsula. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica.
- Київська міська державна адміністрація – official web portal of the Kyiv City State Administration (in Ukrainian)
- Kyiv—Official Tourist Guide
| Eurovision Song Contest Hosts
| Eurovision Song Contest Hosts