Kiautschou Bay (1898–1922)
Geography and ecologyEdit
Jiaozhou Bay is a natural inlet of the Yellow Sea (German: Gelbes Meer), with 10 to 15 meters depth to the seabed and deeper, dredged channels to three major ports around the bay: Qingdao, Huangdao, and Hongdao, all of which are ice-free during winter.
The bay is 32 km long and 27 km wide with a surface area of 362 km², approximately two-thirds the area of 100 years ago. According to official data, the surface area has decreased from 560 km² in 1928 to 362 km² by 2003 due to sustained land reclamation activities in recent decades.
The marine species have also decreased by two-thirds during the last 50 years due to urban and industrial development and growth of adjacent areas around the bay. Out of 170 species of organisms found in the northwestern part of the basin during the 1970s, only 17 were found in 1989. False killer whales still occasionally appear in the waters which were a regular range for the species until the 1980s. On the other hand, Jiaozhou Bay may serve as a suitable location for studying recoveries of coastal marine ecosystems.
Jiaozhou Bay was known formerly as Jiao'Ao. The area became widely known to Europeans after a lease was concluded by the German Empire in March 1898 with the Qing government of China.
In 1898 the area was transferred to Germany on a 99-year lease (or until 1997, as the British did in Hong Kong's New Territories and as the French did in Kouang-Tchéou-Wan), and became known as the Kiautschou Bay concession. The village of Qingdao became the German colony of Tsingtau, and the area became a focus for German commercial development in China, while for the Imperial German Navy it was the naval base for their Far East Squadron.
Because of land speculation in Germany's African colonies, land value tax was introduced as the only tax in the colony. It was a great success, bringing wealth quite rapidly to the colony and also financial stability. The colony was the only government authority ever to exclusively rely on the single tax on land value, and is used as an academic case study to this day about the viability of such a tax system. The German colony also issued currency.
With the outbreak of World War I, the Republic of China canceled the Kiautschou lease with the German Empire. This came into force on 23 August 1914, the day of Japan’s declaration of war on Germany, after a Japanese ultimatum for unconditional German evacuation of the colony had expired. The area was occupied subsequently by British and Japanese forces after the Siege of Tsingtao.
China declared war on Germany on 14 August 1917. As an ally of the victors, China expected the formal return of the region at the end of hostilities. However, the Treaty of Versailles acceded to Japanese claims at the Paris Peace Conference and assigned all confiscated German Pacific territories and islands north of the equator to Japan, including Jiaozhou Bay. This arrangement caused China-wide protests known as the "May Fourth Movement", which is regarded as a significant event of modern Chinese history. As a result, the Beiyang government refused to sign the Treaty.
Jiaozhou Bay is situated wholly within Qingdao prefecture. Counterclockwise, the bordering divisions are Shinan District, Shibei District, Sifang District, Licang District, Chengyang District, Jiaozhou City, Jiaonan City and Huangdao District. The entrance to the bay is 6.17 km wide. In 1993, Qingdao City decided to build a traffic corridor for the Jiaozhou Bay region, which includes a tunnel under the inlet and a bridge across Jiaozhou Bay. In December 2006 the construction process started with an estimated completion target of 2011.
- The Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, at 42.5 kilometres (26.4 mi), is the world's longest bridge over water, surpassing the cross-sea Donghai Bridge in length. The total budget is estimated at approximately 9.938 billion yuan (~US$1.5 billion). It is estimated that it will shorten travel time from Qingdao to the outlying region by more than half and relieve pressure on the existing Jiaozhou Bay Expressway.
- The Qing-Huang Tunnel will connect Qingdao with Huangdao with a length of over 7 km; with 3 billion yuan (~US$440 million) budgeted for its construction. After completion, travel time is estimated at approximately 10 minutes by automobile from Qingdao to Huangdao District.
- China State Oceanic Administration "Chorography of Jiao'Ao"
- http://www.soa.gov.cn/hyjww/zghybnew/ywb/webinfo/2008/11/1225332542195401.htm[permanent dead link]
- Kaiya Z., Leatherwood S., Jefferson A.T. (2002). Perrin F.W., Reeves R.R., Dolar L.L.M., Jefferson A.T., Marsh H., Wang Y.J., Estacion J. (eds.). "Report of the Second Workshop on The Biology and Conservation of Small Cetaceans and Dugongs of South-East Asia" (PDF). CMS Technical Series Publication Nº 9 at Convention on Migratory Species. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-01-06.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
- 一个男人在流浪. 2017. 「北冥有鲲」古人见过鲸么？. Zhihu. Retrieved on October 03, 2017
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- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-01-10. Retrieved 2012-10-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Owen Linzmayer, Bank Note Book - Kiau Chau chapter, 7-page catalogue covering notes issued by the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank (German-Asian Bank) from 1907 to 1914, and the Greater Japan Imperial Government in 1914. Published 19.01.2018.http://www.coinbooks.org/v21/club_nbs_esylum_v21n03.html#article6
- See coins in the British Museum collection. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=3606982&partId=1&place=37200&plaA=37200-2-11&page=1
- per XE.com Universal Currency Converter, July 2009