Khorasani Turkic

Khorasani Turkic (خراسان تركچىسى, pronounced [xorɑsɑn tyrktʃesi]) is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken in the North Khorasan Province and the Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. Nearly all Khorasani Turkic speakers are also bilingual in Persian.[4]

Khorasani Turkic
خراسان تركچىسى
Pronunciation[xorɑsɑn tyrktʃesi]
Native toIran
RegionGreater Khorasan
Native speakers
400,000[1]
886,000 (2014)[2]
over 1,000,000[3]
Turkic
Persian alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3kmz
Glottologkhor1269
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Geographic distributionEdit

Khorasani Turkic is spoken in the Iranian provinces of North Khorasan near Bojnord and Razavi Khorasan near Sabzevar, Quchan. The Oghuz dialect spoken in Western Uzbekistan is sometimes considered a dialect of Khorasani Turkic.

DialectsEdit

Khorasani Turkic is split into North, South and West dialects. The northern dialect is spoken in North Khorasan near Quchan; the southern in Soltanabad, near Sabzevar; the western, around Bojnord.

Classification and related languagesEdit

Khorasani Turkic belongs to the Oghuz group of Turkic languages, which also includes Turkish, Azerbaijani, Gagauz, Balkan Gagauz Turkish, Turkmen and Salar.

Khorasani Turkic was first classified as a separate dialect by Iranian Azerbaijani linguist Javad Heyat in the book Tārikh-e zabān o lahcayā-ye Türki (History of the Turkic dialects).[5] According to some linguists, it should be considered intermediate linguistically between Azerbaijani and Turkmen, although it is sufficiently distinct not to be considered a dialect of either.[6]

Consonant phonemes
  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p b t d     k ɡ q      
Affricate         t͡ʃ d͡ʒ            
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ     h  
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ        
Flap     r                
Lateral     l                
Approximant         j            

VowelsEdit

Vowels
Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i y ɯ u
Mid e ø o
Open æ ɑ ɒ

The open back vowel is rounded when followed by /u/ or /i/: muxabbat love /muxɒbbɑt/, insan human /insɒn/, but yoldaşlık friendship /joldɑʃlɯk/. It can also be rounded by a following long /o/. This may not happen for all speakers, and plurals never have any rounding.

MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

PluralizationEdit

Pluralization is marked on nouns with the suffix /-lar/, which has the two forms /-lar/ and /-lær/, depending on vowel harmony. Plural /ɑ/ is never rounded, even when it follows /u/ or /i/.

CaseEdit

Nouns in Khorasani Turkic take a number of case endings that change based on vowel harmony and whether they follow a vowel or a consonant:

Case
After Vowels After Consonants
Nominative No Ending
Genitive niŋ/nin iŋ/in
Dative ja/jæ a/æ
Accusative ni/nɯ i/ɯ
Locative da/dæ
Ablative dan/dæn
Instrumental nan/næn

PossessionEdit

Possession is marked with a suffix on the possessed noun.

Singular Plural
1st Person (I)m (I)mIz
2nd Person (I)ŋ (I)ŋIz
3rd Person (s)I lArI

PronounsEdit

Khorasani Turkic has six personal pronouns. Occasionally, personal pronouns take different case endings from regular nouns.

Singular Plural
1st Person mæn bɯz
2nd Person sæn siz
3rd Person o olar

VerbsEdit

Verbs are declined for tense, aspect, mood, person, and number. The infinitive form of the verb ends in -max.

ExamplesEdit

Excerpt from Tulu (1989) p. 90
Translation IPA In Latin Alphabet Arabic script (Iran)
Thus, there was a padishah named Ziyad. ɑl ɣəssa bir ziyæːd pæːdiʃæːhiː bæːɾɨdɨ Al ğässa bir ziüäd pädişähi bärıdı .ال غسا بیر زیود پدیشهی بـهریدی
Almighty God had given him no son. xodɒːʷændi æːlæm ona hit͡ʃ ɔɣul ataː elæmɑmiʃdi Xodavändi äläm ona hiç oğul ata elämamişdi. .خوداوندی آلم اونا هیچ اوغول اتا ایلهمامیشدی
There he spoke to his vizier: "O Vizier, I have no son. What shall I do about it?" bæːdæn vaziːɾæ dədi, ej vaziːɾ, mændæ ki ɔɣul joxdɨ, mæn næ t͡ʃaːɾæ ejlem Bädän vazirä dädi: "Ey vazir, mändä ki oğul yoxdı. Män nä çarä eylem?" بدن وازیره دهدی: «ای وازیر, منده کی اوغول یوخدی. من نه چاره ایولیم»؟
The vizier said: "Ruler of the whole world, what will you do with this possession?" vaziːɾ dədi, pɒːdiʃaː-i ɢɨblæ-ji ɒːlæm, sæn bu mɒːlɨ-æmwɒːlɨ næjlijæsæn Vazir dädi: "Padişai qıbläyi aläm, sän bu malıämvalı näyliyäsän?" وازیر دهدی: «پادیشای قیبلنهیی آلم, سن بو مالیموالی نیلیسن»؟

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The Turkic Languages, By Lars Johanson, Éva Ágnes Csató Johanson, page 13, Routledge, 2015
  2. ^ Ethnologue - Khorasani Turkish - (2014 J. Leclerc)
  3. ^ "TURKIC LANGUAGES OF PERSIA: AN OVERVIEW". 1993. Ḵorāsāni (Khorasani Turkish). Khorasani Turkish is spoken by more than one million people in the northeast of Persia (in the province of Khorasan) and in the neighboring regions of Turkmenistan up to beyond the Amu Darya River
  4. ^ "Ethnologue report for Khorasani Turkic"
  5. ^ [1] Horasan Türkçesi ne İlgili Folklor Çalışmaları
  6. ^ "Sultan Tulu, "Horasan Türkçesi ile İlgili Folklor Çalışmaları", Atatürk Üniversitesi Türkiyat Araştırmaları Enstitüsü Dergisi, Sayı 1, 1994, s. 48-51". Archived from the original on 2013-03-16. Retrieved 2016-12-05.

Tulu, Sultan (1989). Chorasantürkische Materialien aus Kalāt bei Esfarāyen. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag. ISBN 3-922968-88-0.

Doerfer, Gerhard; Hesche, Wolfram (1993). Chorasantürkisch: Wörterlisten, Kurzgrammatiken, Indices. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-03320-7.

External linksEdit