Southern Kurdish

(Redirected from Kermashani Kurdish dialect)

Southern Kurdish (Kurdish: کوردی باشووری ,کوردی خوارین, romanized: Kurdî Başûrî, Kurdî Xwarîn)[1] is one of the dialects of the Kurdish language, spoken predominantly in northeastern Iraq and western Iran.[2] The Southern Kurdish-speaking region spans from Khanaqin in Iraq to Dehloran southward and Asadabad eastward in Iran.[3]

Southern Kurdish
کوردی باشووری
Native toEastern Iraq, Western Iran
RegionKurdistan
Native speakers
3.7 million in Iran (2019)[1]
unknown number in Iraq
Kurdish alphabet (Perso-Arabic script)
Language codes
ISO 639-3sdh
Glottologsout2640
Linguasphere58-AAA-c
SOUTHERN KURDISH.JPG
Kurdish languages map.svg
Geographic distribution of Kurdish dialects and other Iranian languages spoken by Kurds

Name

Southern Kurdish is a new term coined by some Western linguists in order to refer to a group of dialects in Western Iran. According to the same linguists, the speakers of these dialects are not familiar with the term "Southern Kurdish" and do not refer to the language as such.[4] According to the linguists: "When consulted about what kind of Kurdish they speak, respondents generally refer first to a very local variety (Kurdish of a given village), or a mid-level variety such as “Ardalāni” or “Garūsi”".[4]

Variants

Southern Kurdish has many variants, linguist Fattah divides them into 35 varieties. These include:

  • Bicarî
    • The most septentrional variety of Southern Kurdish spoken in and around Bijar in Iran. Bicarî is the only Southern Kurdish variety detached from the greater Southern Kurdish-speaking region.[5]
  • Qorwa (Chahar Dawli xarbi)
    • The Qorwa variety is spoken around Ghorveh in Iran and is related to the variety spoken in Asadabad and other Kurdish-speaking areas in Hamadan Province.[6]
  • Kolyayî
    • The Kolyayî variety is spoken northeast of Kermanshah, principally in Sonqor County and surrounding counties. The variety also spans into the Kolyai Rural District in Hamadan Province.[7]
  • Bilawar
  • Dinawar
    • About 83 villages in Dinavar District speak the Dinawar variety. The differences between the Dinawar and the Kolyayî varieties are anodine.[9]
  • Sahana / Lekî-Kirmaşanî
    • The Sahana variety, or lakî-kirmashanî has many similar characteristics with Laki and is spoken in Harsin County and in Sahneh. What distinguishes it most from Laki is the lack of the ergative case.[9]
  • Kordali a.k.a. Palai is quite distant, and may be a distinct language.[10]

Other variants include: Bîstûnî, Çihrî, Hersîn, Payrawand, Kirmaşanî, Sanjabî, Xalesa, Çemçemal, Qasirî Şîrîn, Serpuli Zuhawî, Harasam, Kelurî, Îwan, Erkewazî, Şêrwanî, Îlamî, Salihabad, Rîka, Badraî, Melikşahî, Mêxasî, Mihran, Xaneqînî, Mendilî, Duşêxî, Kaprat, Warmizyar, Zurbatiya and Feylî.[11]

Alphabet

The Southern Kurdish alphabet is very similar to the Central Kurdish (Sorani) alphabet, which is a derivation of the Arabic alphabet. Southern Kurdish has one additional letter "ۊ"; the Arabic letter waw with two dots above.

ع ش س ژ ز ڕ ر د خ ح چ ج ت پ ب ا ئـ
17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ێ ی ۊ ۆ و ە ھ ن م ڵ ل گ ک ق ڤ ف غ
34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Southern Kurdish at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022)  
  2. ^ "Kurdish language i. History of the Kurdish language". Iranica Online. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  3. ^ Fattah (2000), pp. VII.
  4. ^ a b Anonby, Erik; Mohammadirad, Masour; Sheyholislami, Jaffer (299). "Kordestan Province in the Atlas of the Languages of Iran: Research process, language distribution, and language classification". Current issues in Kurdish linguistics. University of Bamberg Press. p. 26.
  5. ^ Fattah (2000), pp. 16–17.
  6. ^ Fattah (2000), pp. 18–19.
  7. ^ Fattah (2000), p. 19.
  8. ^ Fattah (2000), p. 20.
  9. ^ a b Fattah (2000), p. 21.
  10. ^ Erik Anonby, Mortaza Taheri-Ardali & Amos Hayes (2019) The Atlas of the Languages of Iran (ALI). Iranian Studies 52. A Working Classification
  11. ^ Fattah (2000), pp. 22–40.

Biography

  • Fattah, Ismaïl Kamandâr (2000), Les dialectes Kurdes méridionaux, Acta Iranica, ISBN 9042909188

External links