Kepler-69 (KOI-172, 2MASS J19330262+4452080, KIC 8692861) is a G-type main-sequence star similar to the Sun in the constellation Cygnus, located about 2,430 ly (750 pc) from Earth. On April 18, 2013 it was announced that the star has two planets.[1][2] Although initial estimates indicated that the terrestrial planet Kepler-69c might be within the star's habitable zone, further analysis showed that the planet very likely is interior to the habitable zone and is far more analogous to Venus than to Earth and thus completely inhospitable.[11]

Kepler-69
Kepler-69 and the Solar System.jpg
Comparison of the Kepler-69 System
and the Solar System underneath.
Credit: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Cygnus[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]
Right ascension 19h 33m 02.6305s[12]
Declination +44° 52′ 08.0203″[12]
Apparent magnitude (V) 13.7[1]
Characteristics
Evolutionary stage Main sequence
Spectral type G4V[1]
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv)−38.7±0.1[1] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: −9.704±0.027[12] mas/yr
Dec.: −6.707±0.028[12] mas/yr
Parallax (π)1.3399 ± 0.0142 mas[12]
Distance2,430 ± 30 ly
(746 ± 8 pc)
Details
Mass0.810+0.090
−0.081
[1] M
Radius0.93+0.018
−0.012
[1] R
Luminosity0.80+0.37
−0.22
[1] L
Surface gravity (log g)4.40±0.15[1] cgs
Temperature5638±168[1] K
Metallicity [Fe/H]−0.29±0.15[1] dex
Age9.80+1.70
−4.10
 Gyr
Other designations
KIC 8692861, KOI-172
Database references
SIMBADdata
Extrasolar Planets
Encyclopaedia
data

Nomenclature and historyEdit

Prior to Kepler observation, Kepler-69 had the 2MASS catalogue number 2MASS J19330262+4452080. In the Kepler Input Catalog it has the designation of KIC 8692861, and when it was found to have transiting planet candidates it was given the Kepler object of interest number of KOI-172.

 
The Kepler Space Telescope search volume, in the context of the Milky Way.

The star's planets were discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission, a mission tasked with discovering planets in transit around their stars. The transit method that Kepler uses involves detecting dips in brightness in stars. These dips in brightness can be interpreted as planets whose orbits move in front of their stars from the perspective of Earth. The name Kepler-69 derives directly from the fact that the star is the catalogued 69th star discovered by Kepler to have confirmed planets.

The designations b, c derive from the order of discovery. The designation of b is given to the first planet orbiting a given star, followed by the other lowercase letters of the alphabet.[13] In the case of Kepler-69, all of the known planets in the system were discovered at one time, so b is applied to the closest planet to the star and c to the farthest.

Stellar characteristicsEdit

Kepler-69 is a G4 star that is approximately 81% the mass of and 93% the radius of the Sun. It has a surface temperature of 5638 ± 168 K and is 9.8 billion years old. In comparison, the Sun has a surface temperature of 5778 K and is 4.6 billion years old.[14]

The star's apparent magnitude, or how bright it appears from Earth's perspective, is 13.7.[1] Therefore, Kepler-69 is too dim to be seen with the naked eye.

Planetary systemEdit

Kepler-69 has two known planets orbiting around it.[1] Kepler-69b is a hot super-Earth-sized exoplanet. Kepler-69c is a super-Earth-sized exoplanet, about 70% larger than Earth. It receives a similar amount of flux from its star as Venus does from the Sun, and is thus a likely candidate for a super-Venus.[11]

The Kepler-69 planetary system[1][11]
Companion
(in order from star)
Mass Semimajor axis
(AU)
Orbital period
(days)
Eccentricity Inclination Radius
b 0.094+0.023
−0.016
13.722341+0.000035
−0.000036
0.16+0.17
−0.0010
89.62+0.26
−0.45
°
2.24+0.44
−0.29
 R🜨
c 2.14 M🜨 0.64+0.15
−0.11
242.4613+0.0059
−0.0064
0.14+0.18
−0.10
85.85+0.03
−0.08
°
1.71+0.34
−0.23
 R🜨
Kepler-69c - a Venus-like exoplanet orbiting a Sun-like star
Kepler-69c, a Super-Earth-size exoplanet orbiting Kepler-69, a star like the Sun.
Comparison of Planet Sizes - Kepler-69c, Kepler-62e, Kepler-62f, and Earth.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Barclay, Thomas; et al. (2013). "A super-Earth-sized planet orbiting in or near the habitable zone around Sun-like star". The Astrophysical Journal. 768 (2): 101. arXiv:1304.4941. Bibcode:2013ApJ...768..101B. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/768/2/101. S2CID 51490784.
  2. ^ a b Johnson, Michele; Harrington, J.D. (18 April 2013). "NASA's Kepler Discovers Its Smallest 'Habitable Zone' Planets to Date". NASA. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  3. ^ Overbye, Dennis (18 April 2013). "2 Good Places to Live, 1,200 Light-Years Away". New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  4. ^ Staff (January 7, 2013). "Kepler KOI Search Results for KOI-172.02". Space Telescope Science Institute. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
  5. ^ Staff. "NASA Exoplanet Archive-KOI-172.02". Caltech. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
  6. ^ Graham, Keith P. (2008). "Star Finder for KIC=8692861". CThreePO.com. Archived from the original on November 2, 2013. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
  7. ^ Harrington, J. D.; Johnson, Michele (January 7, 2013). "NASA'S Kepler Mission Discovers 461 New Planet Candidates". NASA. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
  8. ^ Moskowitz, Clara (January 9, 2013). "Most Earth-Like Alien Planet Possibly Found". Space.com. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
  9. ^ Borucki, William J.; et al. (July 20, 2011). "Characteristics of planetary candidates observed by Kepler, II: Analysis of the first four months of data". The Astrophysical Journal. 736 (1): 19. arXiv:1102.0541. Bibcode:2011ApJ...736...19B. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/19. S2CID 15233153.
  10. ^ Johnston, Wm. Robert (October 2, 2011). "List of Extrasolar Planets". JohnstonArchive.com. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d Kane, Stephen; et al. (2013). "A Potential Super-Venus in the Kepler-69 System". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 770 (2): L20. arXiv:1305.2933. Bibcode:2013ApJ...770L..20K. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/770/2/L20. S2CID 9808447.
  12. ^ a b c d e Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (August 2018). "Gaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 616. A1. arXiv:1804.09365. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051. Gaia DR2 record for this source at VizieR.
  13. ^ Hessman, F. V.; Dhillon, V. S.; Winget, D. E.; Schreiber, M. R.; Horne, K.; Marsh, T. R.; Guenther, E.; Schwope, A.; Heber, U. (2010). "On the naming convention used for multiple star systems and extrasolar planets". arXiv:1012.0707 [astro-ph.SR].
  14. ^ Fraser Cain (15 September 2008). "Temperature of the Sun". Universe Today. Retrieved 19 February 2011.

External linksEdit