Kata-vari dialect

Kata-vari is a dialect of the Kamkata-vari language spoken by the Kata in parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The most used alternative names are Kati, Kativiri or Bashgali.

Kata-vari
Kati
Native toAfghanistan, Pakistan
RegionNuristan, Kunar, Chitral
Native speakers
134,010 (2017)[1]
Arabic script
Language codes
ISO 639-3bsh
Glottologkati1270
ELPKati

It is spoken by approximately 40,000 people (mostly in Afghanistan, just over 3,700 in Pakistan), and its speakers are Muslim. Literacy rates are low: below 1% for people who have it as a first language, and between 15% to 25% for people who have it as a second language.

There are two main sub-dialects: Eastern Kata-vari and Western Kata-vari. In Afghanistan, Western Kata-vari is spoken in the Ramgal, Kulam, Ktivi and Paruk valleys of Nuristan. Eastern Kata-vari is spoken in the upper Landai Sin Valley. In Pakistan, Eastern Kata-vari is spoken in Chitral District, in Gobar and the upper Bumboret Valley.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palato-
alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar
Plosive voiceless p t ʈ k
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ʃ t͡ʂ
voiced (d͡z) d͡ʒ d͡ʐ
Fricative voiceless (f) s ʃ ʂ (x)
voiced v z (ʒ) ʐ (ɣ)
Nasal m n ɳ ŋ
Tap ɾ (ɽ)
Approximant lateral l
central ɻ (j)
  • Sounds /ʒ ɽ ɣ/ occur from neighboring languages. /f d͡z x/ are borrowed from loanwords.
  • /ʈ/ can also be heard as an allophone [ɽ].
  • [j] is heard as an allophone of /i/.
  • /v/ can also be heard as bilabial [β] or a labial approximant [w].

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i ə u
Mid e o
Low a
  • Mid /ə/ can be heard as a close central [ɨ].

VocabularyEdit

Pronouns:

1sg. uze (nominative), ie (accusative), iema (genitive)

1pl. imu (nominative/accusative/genitive)

2sg. tiu (nominative), tu (accusative), tuma (genitive)

2pl. šo (nominative/accusative/genitive)

Numbers:

1: ev

2: diu

3: tre

4: štavo

5: puč

6: ṣu

7: sut

8: uṣṭ

9: nu

10: duć

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Simons, Gary F; Fennig, Charles D, eds. (2018). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (21st ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
  • Grjunberg, Aleksandr L. (1980). Jazyk Kati: Teksty, Grammatičeskij Očerk. Moskva: Glavnaya Redaktsija Vostočnoj Literatury.
  • Strand, Richard F. (1973). Notes on the Nūristāni and Dardic Languages. Journal of the American Oriental Society.
  • Strand, Richard F. (2010). "Nurestâni Languages". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Archived from the original on 2016-11-06. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
  • Strand, Richard F. (2011). "Kâtʹa-vari Lexicon". Retrieved 2020-11-22.

External linksEdit