Kasauli (Hindi: कसौली) is a cantonment and town, located in Solan district in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. The cantonment was established by the British Raj in 1842 as a Colonial hill station, 77 km from Shimla, 65 km from Chandigarh, and 94 km from Ambala Cantt (Haryana), an important railway junction of North India.
Kasauli Circuit House, British period heritage building
|Elevation||1,800 m (5,900 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
According to the 2011 India census, Kasauli had a population of 4,994. The male population constituted 56% of the population while the female population was 44%. Kasauli had an average literacy rate of 80%, higher than the then national average of 75.5%; male literacy was 84%, and female 76%. 10% of the population was under 6 years of age.
Kasauli has a moderate climate. Winter temperature is approximately 2 degrees Celsius, the summer temperatures rarely exceeds 32 degrees Celsius or more. The general wind direction is south-west to north-east. Total rainfall for the year is 1020 millimetres, with humidity at 90% in September and 28% in April. Sometimes snowfall is also there during early January and in winters are chilly, there are a couple of frosty nights. Minimum temperature recorded in Kasuli was -6° Celcius.
Central Research InstituteEdit
The Central Research Institute (CRI), originally the Pasteur Institute of India, was established at Kasauli in 1904 under its first director Sir David Semple, as an institute working in the fields of immunology and virological research.
The CRI works as a World Health Organization ‘Collaborating Centre’, and as an immuno-biological laboratory producing vaccines for measles and polio, and the DTP group of vaccines. It also provides a Master of Science programme in Microbiology.
Kasauli Baptist Church is a 1923 brick and wood building, situated close to the Sadar Bazzar. According to The Indian Express it is "considered a unique example of colonial architecture of the British era". In 2008 the church was damaged by a fire which destroyed all the internal furnishings.
Since 1970 it has been under the auspices of the Church of North India (CNI) in the diocese of Amritsar. The church contains Spanish and Italian imported stained glass windows depicting Christ, Mary, Saint Barnabas and Saint Francis.
Gurudwara Shri Guru Nanak JiEdit
The Gurudwara (Sikh house of worship and hospitality) Shri Guru Nanak Ji is located in the Garkhal bazaar near Kasauli. A further Sikh Gurudwara lies on the Kasauli-Mashobra (old Hindustan-Tibet) Road near the Air Force Radar Station.
Krishna Bhavan MandirEdit
Krishna Bhawan Mandir, a Hindu shrine, was located in the middle of the town. Dedicated to Lord Krishna, the temple exhibits blend of European and Indian architecture. The mandir is situated in the town and attracts tourists throughout the year. Krishna Bhawan Mandir was built in the year 1926 during the British regime. Imperial rulers, specialists of grand buildings came together with local craftsmen to construct this beautiful shrine. Keeping in mind the principles of Vastu Shastra, the designers and craftsmen built this religious monument.
The Kasauli Brewery and distillery, founded in the 1820s before the establishment of the Kasauli cantonment, is the oldest extant distillery for scotch whisky in Asia. The Kasauli brewery is also known as Mohan Meakin.
The Kasauli Club was established by civilians and service personnel in 1880, as the Kasauli Reading and Assembly Rooms. It gained its present name in 1898 when a limited liability company and constitution were established; its first director was Sir David Semple of Kasauli's Pasteur Institute. At the time the Club was for the exclusive use of the British Raj, and held social meetings, tea and dinner dances, and galas. In 1915 regimental officers at Dagshai, Solan and Subathu could be admitted as honorary members. At Independence in 1947, plans to sell the then loss-making Club failed.
The Club was originally constructed of wood and plaster, and was typical of hill architecture. In 2001, after a 2000 restoration, it was destroyed by fire, losing "elegant, old-world furniture, [and] precious and rare books". By 2005 it had been redesigned and rebuilt in stone, and plans were put forward for a new attached gymnasium.
It is currently located within Indian Army premises and managed by a regular Indian Army Officer as Club Secretary, aided by civilian staff.
The Nahri Temple, devoted to the Goddess Durga and Lord Shiva, is thought to have been constructed around a hundred and fifty years ago. Also known as 'Jantar Mantar' and 'Choo Mantar Mahadev Temple', the temple is renowned for its festive celebration of Dushera and Shivratri. The temple boasts striking idols of the goddess Durga and Lord Shiva placed in the chamber of temple. Near this temple, there is century-old bauri which still offers sweet potable water. This temple is known to be visited by hundreds of pilgrims each year to present their prayers.
Hanuman Mandir (Monkey Point)Edit
Monkey Point is situated in the Air Force Station near the Lower Mall region about 4 km from the center of town. According to the Ramayana, when Lord Hanuman was returning from the Himalayas after acquiring the "Sanjivani Booty", one of his feet touched the hill; that's why the top of the hill is in the shape of a foot. On clear nights a view of Chandigarh can be seen from Monkey Point.
Beja State was one of the 18 Simla Hill States, situated just below Kasauli to the west and bordered by Mahlog, Patiala, Kuthar and the Bharauli tract of Simla District around Sabathu. Beja included 45 villages, over an area of 13 km2 or 5 mi2 with 1,131 subjects.
The state of Mahlog was founded in 1183. Its original rulers were ruling earlier near Kalka when Mohamad Gauri attacked that area then they shifted to the Mahlog area. Initially 193 villages were in its jurisdiction but later over 300 villages were included. It was the one of the biggest Princely State of Simla Hill States under the British Raj.
Educational institutions in or near Kasauli are the Lawrence School Sanawar, The Pinegrove School, St. Mary's Convent School, all co-educational, and the school at Kasauli's K.V. Air Force Station. These schools are affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education also
- Sir Braj Kumar Nehru, former Governor of Assam and Jammu and Kashmir, Ambassador of India to the United States (1961–1968) and Indian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom (1973–1977) was a former resident.
- Michael Baines, English cricketer and British Army officer, born in Kasauli
- Frank Blaker, Victoria Cross recipient, born in Kasauli
- Ruskin Bond – Anglo-Indian author, born in Kasauli
- Nathuram Godse – assassin of Mahatma Gandhi, held in a Kasauli barrack during his trial
- Andy Mulligan – Irish rugby international, born in Kasauli
- Giles Radice, Baron Radice – resident of Kasauli, 1942–46
- Khushwant Singh - part-time resident of Kasauli and inspiration for the annual Kushwant Singh Literary Festival hosted in Kasauli since 2012.
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- Sharma, Ambika; "An exclusive retreat in the hills"; The Tribune, Online edition, 29 May 2005. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Rhythm and Blues festival ends with resolve to work for a cause", The Times of India, 9 April 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012
- Kapoor, Jaskiran; "Music in the Mountains"; The Indian Express, 30 March 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
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- "Lord Radice on mission total recall", The Times of India, 29 April 2004. Retrieved 7 July 2012
- "Writing on the Wall". The Indian Express. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
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