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Karol Stanisław Olszewski
29 January 1846
|Died||24 March 1915 (aged 69)|
|Education||Jagiellonian University in Kraków|
Heidelberg University PhD
|Known for||First to liquefy oxygen and nitrogen.|
First Polish X-ray Photographs
Olszewski was a graduate of Kazimierz Brodziński High School in Tarnów (I Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Kazimierza Brodzińskiego). He studied at Kraków's Jagiellonian University in the departments of mathematics and physics, and chemistry and biology. He carried out his first experiments using a personally improved compressor, compressing and condensing carbon dioxide.
In 1883, Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski were the first in the world to liquefy oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in a stable state (not, as had been the case up to then, in a dynamic state in the transitional form as vapor).
In 1884, in his Kraków laboratory, Olszewski was the first to liquefy hydrogen in a dynamic state, achieving a record low temperature of −225 °C (48 K). In 1895 he liquefied argon. He then failed only to liquefy the newly discovered helium element.
- "Polish Ministry of Culture, Science and Media website". Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- "Olszewski, Karol Stanisław," Encyklopedia Polski, p. 464.
- "Krakow Chair of Radiology History". Archived from the original on 2012-02-10. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- Stanisław Leszczyński and Andrzej Urbanik. "History of Polish Radiology". Archived from the original on 2008-07-25. Retrieved 2008-03-05.