Karluk Yabghu

The Karluk Yabghu State (simplified Chinese: 葛逻禄叶护国; traditional Chinese: 葛邏祿葉護國; pinyin: Géluólù Yèhùguó; Kazakh: Қарлұқ қағанаты) was a polity ruled by Karluk tribes.

Karluk Yabghu State
756–840
CapitalSuyab later Balasagun
Common languagesKarluk Turkic
Religion
Tengriism
GovernmentMonarchy
History 
• Established
756
• Disestablished
840
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Türgesh
Karakhanids
Today part ofChina
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan

HistoryEdit

The Karluks were part of First Turkic and Uyghur khaganates. They were composed of three tribes, therefore their ruler mostly called Sanxing Yabghu (Chinese: 三姓葉護; lit. 'Yabghu of Three Tribes') in 8th century.[1] In 742, they were named "Right Yabghu" by Basmyl khagan Ashina Shi. Like Basmyls, they were ruled by a branch of Ashina tribe.[2]

Karluk chief Bilge Yabghu Apa Yigen Chor (Chinese: 毗伽葉護頓阿波移健啜; pinyin: Píjiā Yèhù Dùn ābō Yíjiàn Chuài) submitted to Uyghur khaganate in 746.[3] He may be same person as Yigen Chor (𐰘𐰃𐰏𐰤𐰲𐰆𐰺) mentioned in Kul-Chor stele.[4]

He was succeeded by Tun Bilge Yabghu (Chinese: 頓毗伽葉護; pinyin: Dùn Píjiā Yèhù) in 753.[3] A ruler of Karluks were mentioned in Turco-Manichean book "Sacred book of two fundamentals" (Iki Jïltïz Nom), fragments of which were found in 1907 at Kara-Khoja in the Turpan oasis by Albert von Le Coq. The book was dedicated to the ruler of the Chigil tribes, named Alp Burguchan, Alp Tarhan, Alp İl Tirgüg.[5] He probably was the one who conquered Turgesh state and resettled Karluks in Zhetysu basin, making Suyab their capital.[6]

Another ruler was Köbäk,[7] whose coins were found in modern Kyrgyzstan.[6]

Transition to KarakhanidsEdit

When the Yenisei Kyrgyz destroyed the Uyghur Khaganate in 840, Karluk yabghu declared himself khagan with title Bilge Kul Qadir Khan.[8]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Erkoç, Hayrettin İhsan (2008-10-23). Eski Türklerde Devlet Teşkilâtı (Gök Türk Dönemi) / State Organization of the Ancient Turks (The Türk Qaġanate Period) (Thesis).
  2. ^ Kli︠a︡shtornyĭ, S. G. (2004). Gosudarstva i narody Evraziĭskikh stepeĭ : drevnostʹ i srednevekovʹe. Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie. Sultanov, T. I. (Tursun Ikramovich) (2-e izd., isprav. i dop ed.). Sankt-Peterburg. ISBN 5858032559. OCLC 60357062.
  3. ^ a b Chavannes, Edouard (2007). Documents sur les Tou-Kiue (Turcs) occidentaux recueillis et commentés suivi de Notes additionnelles. Bibliothèque Paul-Émile Boulet de l'Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. OCLC 145840509.
  4. ^ "Kul-Chur's Memorial Complex". bitig.org. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  5. ^ Zuev, I︠U︡. A. (2002). Rannie ti︠u︡rki : ocherki istorii i ideologii. Daĭk-Press. Almaty. ISBN 9985441529. OCLC 52976103.CS1 maint: ignored ISBN errors (link)
  6. ^ a b Salman, Hüseyin (Spring 2014). "The Issue of Qarluq State Establishment". Marmara Türkiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi. doi:10.16985/MTAD.201417912 (inactive 2021-05-09).CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of May 2021 (link)
  7. ^ "Zeno - Oriental Coins Database - Qarluq AE coin, unique recent finding". www.zeno.ru. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  8. ^ "Karluk Yabgu State (756-940)".

Further readingEdit

  • History of civilisations of Central Asia. South Asia Books. March 1999. p. 569. ISBN 978-8120815407.
  • The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia (Vol 1). Cambridge University Press. p. 532. ISBN 978-0521243049.