Karl Eduard von Eichwald (Russian: Эдуард Иванович Эйхвальд, Eduard Ivanovich Eykhvald; 4 July 1795, in Mitau, Courland Governorate – 10 November 1876, in Saint Petersburg) was a Baltic German geologist, physician, and naturalist, who lived his whole life in the Russian Empire.

Karl Eichwald
Born4 July 1795
Jelgava (German: Mitau), present-day Latvia
Died10 November 1876 (1876-11-11) (aged 81)
NationalityBaltic German
CitizenshipRussian Empire
Known forDescribing new reptile species
Scientific career
InstitutionsKazan University, Vilnius University, St. Petersburg University
Author abbrev. (botany)Eichw.



Eichwald was a Baltic German born at Mitau in Courland Governorate. He became a doctor of medicine and professor of zoology in Kazan in 1823; four years later professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at Vilnius; in 1838 professor of zoology, mineralogy and medicine at St. Petersburg; and finally, professor of palaeontology in the institute of mines in that city.

He travelled much in the Russian Empire, and was a keen observer of its natural history and geology. He died at St. Petersburg.

Eichwald was a supporter of Darwinism.[1]



His published works include Reise auf dem Caspischen Meere und in den Caucasus, 2 vols. (Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1834-1838); Die Urwelt Russlands (St Petersburg, 1840-1845); Le Lethaea Rossica, ou Paléontologie de la Russie, 3 vols. (Stuttgart, 1852-1868), with Atlases.

In the scientific field of herpetology he described several new species of reptiles.[2]

See also



  1. ^ Corsi, Pietro. (2005). Before Darwin: Transformist Concepts in European Natural History. Journal of the History of Biology 38: 67-83.
  2. ^ The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
  3. ^ International Plant Names Index.  Eichw.