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Karhaḍe Brahmins are a sub-caste of Maharashtrian Brahmins.[1] The Karhades originally migrated from Karad, Satara district, Maharashtra. They migrated in search of livelihood and undertook to perform priestly services in several villages in different regions across Maharashtra, Karnataka and Goa.[2][3]

Karada brahmins
Regions with significant populations
Primary populations in Maharashtra
Languages
Marathi and Konkani (Karhadi dialect)

Contents

OriginEdit

The Karhada Brahman take the name from the town of Karad in Satara district, the sacred junction of the Koina and Krishna.[4] They migrated to the region between Malvan and Sangameshwar near the Konkan coast and made it their home land.The Karhade section, though it takes its name from Karad, a place in the Deccan region, is found chiefly in the Konkan coast.[5] Karhade Brahmins are generally thought to be a branch of the Deshastha Rigvedi's who immigrated from their home in Satara district to the southern part of Ratnagiri on the Konkan Coast, where they were principally settled.[6] Even British administrator Reginald Edward Enthoven said in his book "The Tribes And Castes Of Bombay", which is part of the Ethnographic Survey of India that "Karhades claimed to be Rigvedi Deshastha".[7]

DivisionsEdit

There are three divisions of Karhade Brahmins - Karhade(from Desh), Padye[8] and Bhatt Prabhu. Padyes hail from present day state of Goa.Karhades, who had mostly lived in the Desh area considered Padyes to be inferior. "Padhye" was a further division of "Padye" - and were Khots or farmers. Both these subcastes considered the Bhat-Prabhus to be outcastes, although the Bhat Prabhus were also Karhade Brahmins.[9]

DemographicsEdit

According to 1901 census, the population of Karhade Brahmins was 32,426 out of which 16,813 were men and 15,613 were women.[10] But Unfortunately, beginning with 1941 Census no official figures for Karhade Brahmin population are available.[11] Most Karhade Brahmins live in Maharashtra and Karnataka though a significant population exists in the cities of Sagar[12] and Indore[13] in present day state of Madhya Pradesh.Ancestors of these people moved to these places during 18th century during the Maratha empire period.A southern branch of the Karhade Brahmins settled around the Kasargod region of the Malabar coast and they are called the "Karada Brahmins" and share their traditions with Kerala Brahmins and the Brahmins of South Karnataka.[14][15][16]

CultureEdit

Traditionally, the Karhade Brahmins were a community of priests who offer religious services in Hindu temple and to other communities.[17] The descriptions of the Karhades list intelligence, hard work, hospitable and well behaved among their attributes.[18] Agriculture is the primary occupation of Karhades, they also engaged in government and private sectors. They worship Krishna, Rama, Vishnu, Lakshmi, Durga and other deities and celebrate festivals like Diwali, Holi, Ganesh Chaturthi and Naga Panchami. They employ sacred specialists from their own community and also from the Chitpavan Brahmin community. Their educational standard is fairly good and many of them are employed in white-collar jobs.[19]

Karhades are followers of Smarta tradition. They are essentially Rigvedi Brahmins and follow the Ashwalayana Sutra.[20]

LanguageEdit

Marathi is the mother tongue of most of the Karhade Brahmins in Maharashtra[21], even though a minority spoke a dialect of Konkani called Karhadi Konkani in their homes.[22]

DietEdit

Traditionally, Karhade Brahmins are lacto-vegetarian. Rice is their staple food.[23][full citation needed]

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Patterson, Maureen L. P. (25 September 1954). "Caste and Political Leadership in Maharashtra: A Review and Current Appraisal" (PDF). The Economic Weekly: 1065. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
  2. ^ Abhijit Sirdesai (January 2018). Native Officialdom in Western India: Understanding the role of Maratha Hereditary-Officers. Abhijit Sirdesai Publications. p. 97. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  3. ^ Vithal Raghavendra Mitragotri (1999). A socio-cultural history of Goa from the Bhojas to the Vijayanagara. Institute Menezes Braganza. p. 265.
  4. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh; T. Madhava Menon; D. Tyagi (2002). Kerala, Volume 1. Affiliated East-West Press,Anthropological Survey of India. p. 576. ISBN 9788185938998. KARHADA BRAHMAN The Karhada Brahman take the name 'from the town of Karad in Satara, the sacred junction of the Koina and Krishna. They claim to be 'Chitpavan' (Enthoven, 1987).
  5. ^ Hirendra K. Rakshit (1975). Bio-anthropological Research in India: Proceedings of the Seminar in Physical Anthropology and Allied Disciplines. Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India. p. 68.
  6. ^ Sandhya Gokhale (2008). The Chitpavans: social ascendancy of a creative minority in Maharashtra, 1818-1918. Shubhi Publications. p. 28. ISBN 9788182901322.
  7. ^ Enthoven R E (1987). The Tribes And Castes Of Bombay. Cosmo Publications. p. 246.
  8. ^ Borayin Larios (10 April 2017). Embodying the Vedas: Traditional Vedic Schools of Contemporary Maharashtra. De Gruyter. p. 91. ISBN 978-3-11-051732-3.
  9. ^ Sandhya Gokhale (2008). The Chitpavans: social ascendancy of a creative minority in Maharashtra, 1818-1918. Shubhi Publications. p. 28. ISBN 9788182901322.
  10. ^ Sandhya Gokhale (2008). The Chitpavans: social ascendancy of a creative minority in Maharashtra, 1818-1918. Shubhi Publications. p. 29. ISBN 9788182901322.
  11. ^ M. V. Kamath (1989). B.G. Kher, the Gentleman Premier. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 7.
  12. ^ Roberts, John (1971). "The Movement of Elites in Western India under Early British Rule". The Historical Journal. 14 (2): 241–262. JSTOR 2637955.
  13. ^ Rodney W. Jones (1974). Urban Politics in India: Area, Power, and Policy in a Penetrated System. University of California Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-520-02545-5.
  14. ^ karhade bramhanancha itihas by v.v. athalye (page 37)
  15. ^ India's Communities, Volume 5. Oxford University Press. 1998. p. 1583. ISBN 9780195633542.
  16. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh; T. Madhava Menon; D. Tyagi (2002). Kerala, Volume 1. Affiliated East-West Press,Anthropological Survey of India. p. 576. ISBN 9788185938998.
  17. ^ Subodh Kapoor (2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia: Kamli-Kyouk Phyu. Genesis Publishing. p. 3892. ISBN 9788177552706.
  18. ^ Sheela Mohan Nabar (January 2005). Konkan economy and society in transition, 1818-1920: with special reference to Ratnagiri, Malvan and Vengurla. Serials Publications. p. 293. ISBN 9788186771686. Retrieved 1 January 2005.
  19. ^ India's Communities, Volume 5. Oxford University Press. 1998. p. 1584. ISBN 9780195633542. Though cultivation is the main source of income for the Karhada Brahman, they are also engaged in government and private sectors. They worship Krishna, Rama, Vishnu, Lakshmi, Durga and other deities and celebrate festivals like Diwali, Holi, Ganesh Chaturthi and Nagapanchami.They employ sacred specialists from their own community and also from the Chitpavan Brahman community. Their educational standard is fairly good and many of them are employed in white-collar jobs.
  20. ^ Karnataka State Gazetteer: Belgaum. Director of Print, Stationery and Publications at the Govt. Press. 1987. p. 199. The Karhades are the followers of Rigveda and belong to the Smartha sect
  21. ^ Vithal Raghavendra Mitragotri (1999). A socio-cultural history of Goa from the Bhojas to the Vijayanagara. Institute Menezes Braganza. p. 49. It may be mentioned that the mother tongue of Karhades is not Konkani but Marathi
  22. ^ William Frawley (2003). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: 4-Volume Set. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 134. ISBN 9780195139778.
  23. ^ India's Communities, Volume 5. Oxford University Press. 1998. p. 1804,2079. ISBN 9780195633542. (quote on page 2079): Among them the Chitpavan, Desastha, Karhade and Devdny Brahman are pure vegetarian though nowadays, they occasionally take non-vegetarian food.
  24. ^ Tucker, R., 1976. Hindu Traditionalism and Nationalist Ideologies in Nineteenth-Century Maharashtra. Modern Asian Studies, 10(3), pp.321-348.
  25. ^ Joyce Lebra (2008). Women Against the Raj: The Rani of Jhansi Regiment. p. 2. ISBN 9789812308092. Myth and history intertwine closely in the life if the Rani of Jhansi, known in childhood as Manu...She was born in the holy city of Varanasi to a Karhada brahmin , Moropant Tambe
  26. ^ Chapman 1986, p. 13.
  27. ^ Karve, D.D. (1963). The New Brahmans: Five Maharashtrian Families. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ of California Press. p. 5.
  28. ^ Natarajan, ed. by Nalini (1996). Handbook of twentieth century literatures of India (1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Greenwood Press. pp. 219, 221, 227. ISBN 9780313287787.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  29. ^ M. V. Kamath (1989). B.G. Kher, the Gentleman Premier. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 5. Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant was a Karhade Brahmin whose ancestors went north from Karhatak.
  30. ^ Patterson, Maureen L. P. (1968). "Chitpavan Brahmin Family Histories: Sources for a Study of Social Structure and Social Change in Maharashtra". In Singer, Milton; Cohn, Bernard S. (eds.). Structure and Change in Indian society. Transaction Publishers. p. 533.
  31. ^ Sharma, Jyotirmaya (2007). Terrifying vision : M.S. Golwalkar, the RSS, and India. New Delhi: Penguin, Viking. p. x. ISBN 978-0670999507.

BibliographyEdit