Karamanli Turkish

(Redirected from Karamanlidika)

Karamanlı Turkish (Turkish: Karamanlı Türkçesi, Greek: Καραμανλήδικα, romanizedKaramanlídika) is a dialect of the Turkish language spoken by the Karamanlides. Although the official Ottoman Turkish was written in the Arabic script, the Karamanlides used the Greek alphabet to write their form of Turkish. Karamanlı Turkish had its own literary tradition and produced numerous published works in print during the 19th century, some of them published by the British and Foreign Bible Society as well as by Evangelinos Misailidis in the Anatoli or Misailidis publishing house.[1][2]

Karamanlı Turkish
Karamanlıca - Karamanlı Türkçesi
Native toGreece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Romania, Turkey
Era19th century; possibly maintained in the diaspora[citation needed]
Turkic
Greek
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologkara1469
An inscription in Karamanlı Turkish on the entrance of the former Greek Orthodox church of Agia Eleni in Sille, near Konya.

Karamanlı writers and speakers were expelled from Turkey as part of the Greek-Turkish population exchange in 1923. Some speakers preserved their language in the diaspora. The written form stopped being used immediately after Turkey adopted the Latin alphabet.

A fragment of a manuscript written in Karamanlı was also found in the Cairo Geniza.[3]

Sample TextEdit

The following sample text displays the text written in Greek & Latin script from the folk song Konyali, traditionally sung by the Karamanlides & Cappadocian Greeks.

Χάνι για τ̇α π̇ένιμ έλλι τ̇ίρεμ παστηρμάμ, παστηρμάμ; Κονιαλήτ̇αν τ̇ασ̇κασήνα π̇άστηρμαμ, βαι, βαι! Κονιαλήμ, γιο̇ρο̇! Γιο̇ρο̇ γιαβρούμ, γιο̇ρο̇! Ασλάν γιάρημ, γιο̇ρο̇! Αλτ̇ατήλαρ σένι, βερμετ̇ίλερ π̇ένι!
Hani ya da benim ellide dirhem pastırmam, pastırmam? Konyalıdan başkasına bastırmam vay, vay! Konyalım, Yörü! Yörü yavrum, yörü! Aslan yarım, yörü! Aldattılar seni, vermediler beni!
Hey, hey, where is my 50 Dirhams of my pastirma, pastirma; I won’t let anyone prepare it (the pastirma) but my Konyali lover! Go on, my Konyali lover! Go for it baby, my beloved lion! You are deceived, they didn’t let you marry me!

OrthographyEdit

The Karamanli Turkish alphabet[4]
Greek
letter
Latin
equivalent
Pronunciation
Α a [a]
Π˙ b [b]
ΔΖ c [d͡ʒ]
ΤΖ ç [t͡ʃ]
Δ/Τ˙ d [d]
Ε e [e]
Φ f [f]
Γ g [g]
Γ/ΓΧ ğ [-/j]
Χ h [h]
Ι/Η ı [ɯ]
Ι i [i]
Κ/ξ/ΧΧ˙ k [k/c]
Λ l [l]
Μ m [m]
Ν n [n]
Ο o [o]
Ο˙/ΙΟ/Ω ö [ø]
Π p [p]
Ρ r [r]
Σ/Ξ s [s]
Σ˙ ş [ʃ]
Τ/Θ t [t]
ΟΥ u [u]
ΟΥ˙ ü [y]
Β v [v]
Γ y [j]
Ζ z [z]

MediaEdit

There was a Karamanli Turkish newspaper, Anatoli, published from 1850 to 1922,[5] made by Evangelinos Misailidis. Other publications in Karamanli were Anatol Ahteri, Angeliaforos, Angeliaforos coçuklar içun, Şafak, and Terakki. The second and third were created by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Demetrius Nicolaides also applied to make his own Karamanli publication, Asya ("Asia"), but was denied; he instead made an Ottoman Turkish newspaper called Servet. Evangelina Baltia and Ayșe Kavak, authors of "Publisher of the newspaper Konstantinoupolis for half a century," wrote that they could find no information explaining why Nicolaides' proposal was turned down.[6]

Works and translations in Karamanli TurkishEdit

Books and translationsEdit

Up to 500 works of literature are thought to have been printed in Karamanli.[2] One of the largest distributors of these works was the British and Foreign Bible Society which published numerous editions of the Old Testament and the New Testament.[2] A Karamanli author named Anastasios Karakioulaphis translated Aristotle's Physiognomica from Greek to Karamanli.[7] Other translations include Confucius' works and Xavier de Montepin's novels.[2] A great deal of books and works in the Karamanli dialect are preserved in the Centre of Asia Minor Studies in Athens, Greece.[8]

InscriptionsEdit

Karamanli inscriptions have been found in many cemeteries in Turkey, most of them in Balıklı.[2] Many of these inscriptions often talk about the humble origins of unimportant craftsmen from central Anatolia. According to historian Richard Clogg, these inscriptions offer a "glimpse of a long past world of Greek and Turkish symbiosis".[2]

SourcesEdit

  • Evangelia Balta, Karamanlı Yazınsal Mirasının Ocaklarında Madencilik, 2019, Yapı Kredi Yayınları. (in Turkish)
  • —, 19. Yüzyıl Osmanlıca ve Karamanlıca Yayınlarda Ezop’un Hayatı ve Masalları (prep.), 2019, Libra Kitap.
  • —, Karamanlıca Kitaplar Çözümlemeli Bibliyografya Cilt I: 1718-1839 (Karamanlıdıka Bibliographie Analytique Tome I: 1718-1839), 2018, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • —, Gerçi Rum İsek de, Rumca Bilmez Türkçe Sözleriz: Karamanlılar ve Karamanlıca Edebiyat Üzerine Araştırmalar, 2012, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Misailidis 1986, p. 134
  2. ^ a b c d e f Coumounduros, Mark (2021). "Karamanlides". In Speake, Graham (ed.). Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition. Routledge. p. 881. ISBN 978-1-135-94206-9.
  3. ^ Julia Krivoruchko Karamanli – a new language variety in the Genizah: T-S AS 215.255 http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/Taylor-Schechter/fotm/july-2012/index.html Archived 2016-10-27 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Karamanli Turkish language and alphabet". Omniglot. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  5. ^ Michael, Michalis N.; Börte Sagaster; Theoharis Stavrides (2018-02-28). "Introduction". In Sagaster, Börte; Theoharis Stavrides; Birgitt Hoffmann (eds.). Press and Mass Communication in the Middle East: Festschrift for Martin Strohmeier. University of Bamberg Press. pp. v-. ISBN 9783863095277. Cited: p. xi
  6. ^ Balta, Evangelia; Ayșe Kavak (2018-02-28). Sagaster, Börte; Theoharis Stavrides; Birgitt Hoffmann (eds.). Publisher of the newspaper Konstantinoupolis for half a century. Following the trail of Dimitris Nikolaidis in the Ottoman archives. Press and Mass Communication in the Middle East: Festschrift for Martin Strohmeier. University of Bamberg Press. pp. 33-. ISBN 9783863095277. // Cited: p. 42
  7. ^ Clogg, Richard (2013). A Concise History of Greece. Cambridge University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-107-03289-7.
  8. ^ "Εκδόσεις στην Καραμανλίδικη γραφή". Κέντρο Μικρασιατικών Σπουδών. Retrieved 2022-09-11.